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Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2003

Fumitaka Kurauchi, Yasunori Iida and Hirofumi Shimada

Road network performance when a large disaster happens depends on how the road traffic is regulated. To evaluate the performance of the road network, one should consider…

Abstract

Road network performance when a large disaster happens depends on how the road traffic is regulated. To evaluate the performance of the road network, one should consider the traffic regulation in an emergent condition. Authors have proposed the idea of area traffic regulation when a large disaster occurs (Iida, et al., 2000). In the former paper, a bi-level optimisation model to calculate the optimal regulation ratio is proposed. This paper proposes an efficient and fast method to calculate regulation ratios for two-stage road traffic regulation. The simplified model adopts linear programming method instead of bi-level optimisation method, which is quicker and simpler. The simpler algorithm contributes to conduct various kinds of case studies, and helps finding a reliability of the road network considering traffic regulations after a disaster.

Details

The Network Reliability of Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044109-2

Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2003

Keiichi Ogawa and Takamasa Akiyama

Traffic accident on inter-city expressways might cause large-scale traffic congestion. It might increase travel times of many drivers and it produces a large social loss…

Abstract

Traffic accident on inter-city expressways might cause large-scale traffic congestion. It might increase travel times of many drivers and it produces a large social loss. This study aims to estimate the social loss of travel time of drivers caused by traffic accidents on inter-city expressway using traffic simulation model, and to evaluate the effects of outflow recommendations when an accident occurs on the expressway. The traffic simulation model on Tomei Expressway is constructed to estimate the dynamic traffic congestion. Travel time losses of drivers are estimated by the simulation results with hypothetical traffic accidents. It is understood that the total losses of travel times are depending on the positions of accident spots and the occurrence times of accidents, because it might influence to congestion at the bottlenecks of flow capacity. Moreover, the effect of traffic control in emergency situation is discussed. The influences of outflow recommendations for drivers are estimated using the traffic simulation model.

Details

The Network Reliability of Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044109-2

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-617-4

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport Systems and Traffic Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-61-583246-0

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2021

Joshua Aston, Jun Wen, Edmund Goh and Oswin Maurer

This cutting-edge short commentary is intended to raise awareness of sex trafficking in the tourism and hospitality industry. The purpose of this paper is to also advocate…

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Abstract

Purpose

This cutting-edge short commentary is intended to raise awareness of sex trafficking in the tourism and hospitality industry. The purpose of this paper is to also advocate for further research to identify and hopefully prevent sex trafficking in related settings.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a descriptive overview of the current knowledge base on sex trafficking in tourism and hospitality. Based on gaps in the literature, future research agendas and directions are suggested.

Findings

Academic research on sex trafficking in tourism and hospitality remains limited. More scholarly attention is needed to this matter. The tourism industry is directly and indirectly associated with sex trafficking (e.g. hotel accommodations and direct consumption of sexual services, such as through sex tourism). Despite legislative efforts by international government agencies to eradicate sex trafficking, the problem remains pervasive. Broader practice- and research-based intervention efforts are needed.

Originality/value

This short commentary advocates for tourism and hospitality researchers to make practical and theoretical industry contributions that may help prevent sex trafficking.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 May 2022

Ismail Abiodun Sulaimon, Hafiz Alaka, Razak Olu-Ajayi, Mubashir Ahmad, Saheed Ajayi and Abdul Hye

Road traffic emissions are generally believed to contribute immensely to air pollution, but the effect of road traffic data sets on air quality (AQ) predictions has not…

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Abstract

Purpose

Road traffic emissions are generally believed to contribute immensely to air pollution, but the effect of road traffic data sets on air quality (AQ) predictions has not been fully investigated. This paper aims to investigate the effects traffic data set have on the performance of machine learning (ML) predictive models in AQ prediction.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this, the authors have set up an experiment with the control data set having only the AQ data set and meteorological (Met) data set, while the experimental data set is made up of the AQ data set, Met data set and traffic data set. Several ML models (such as extra trees regressor, eXtreme gradient boosting regressor, random forest regressor, K-neighbors regressor and two others) were trained, tested and compared on these individual combinations of data sets to predict the volume of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and O3 in the atmosphere at various times of the day.

Findings

The result obtained showed that various ML algorithms react differently to the traffic data set despite generally contributing to the performance improvement of all the ML algorithms considered in this study by at least 20% and an error reduction of at least 18.97%.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited in terms of the study area, and the result cannot be generalized outside of the UK as some of the inherent conditions may not be similar elsewhere. Additionally, only the ML algorithms commonly used in literature are considered in this research, therefore, leaving out a few other ML algorithms.

Practical implications

This study reinforces the belief that the traffic data set has a significant effect on improving the performance of air pollution ML prediction models. Hence, there is an indication that ML algorithms behave differently when trained with a form of traffic data set in the development of an AQ prediction model. This implies that developers and researchers in AQ prediction need to identify the ML algorithms that behave in their best interest before implementation.

Originality/value

The result of this study will enable researchers to focus more on algorithms of benefit when using traffic data sets in AQ prediction.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Kadriye Bakirci

During the last ten years, the International Labour Organisation (ILO), and some other international organizations, have increasingly addressed human trafficking from a…

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Abstract

Purpose

During the last ten years, the International Labour Organisation (ILO), and some other international organizations, have increasingly addressed human trafficking from a “forced labour” perspective. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the terminology in relation to human trafficking and forced labour, to highlight the links between them, and to provide a critique of the ILO approach. It also aims to make the case for the implementation of a specific international instrument to address the link between trafficking and forced labour.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper compares the definitions of human trafficking and forced labour, the link between them in the United Nations, European and ILO instruments.

Findings

Although human trafficking is a criminal activity, the ILO identifies it as a form of forced labour. The paper concludes that, no matter what role the trafficking victims have in participating in the criminal activities, they should be viewed as victims and witnesses. They should not be viewed as “workers” or “labourers”. Any minor under the age of 18 years, in accordance with the European and international instruments, has no legal capacity to give consent to being exploited.

Originality/value

This paper argues that the international and European instruments do not specifically address the link between trafficking and forced labour. There is a need for a specific international instrument prescribing the link between trafficking and forced labour. In the absence of such an international instrument, there is a piece meal approach by international bodies and countries toward the regulation of trafficking and forced labour.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Rachel Egan

This article reviews the research literature on factors that contribute to the growing problem of people trafficking. It separates the findings into ‘push’, ‘pull’…

Abstract

This article reviews the research literature on factors that contribute to the growing problem of people trafficking. It separates the findings into ‘push’, ‘pull’, ‘demand’ and ‘supply’ issues and explores the social and economic circumstances that result in the exploitation of the victims of trafficking

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2018

F Xiong, P S Gong, Z Q Peng and J F Fan

Under the background of the rapid development of e-commerce and information network, the demand for urban distribution is also changing; especially customers' demand for…

Abstract

Under the background of the rapid development of e-commerce and information network, the demand for urban distribution is also changing; especially customers' demand for fast delivery of products is increasing. Based on this, the optimization of urban traffic distribution path was studied under the fast response demand. In this paper, the importance and theoretical basis of the design of urban traffic planning under rapid response demand were expounded; then, the urban traffic distribution path planning was designed, and the layout principle of urban traffic roads, the division of road levels and the planning and design of motor vehicle roads were analyzed; through the planning project of the traffic distribution path in a city, analysis of the planning on roadways, three-dimensional traffic paths was achieved.

Details

Open House International, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2007

Sarah Stephen‐Smith

The physical and psychological effects of human trafficking1 can be severe and long‐term (Zimmerman et al, 2006). Yet with appropriate support at all stages of the…

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Abstract

The physical and psychological effects of human trafficking1 can be severe and long‐term (Zimmerman et al, 2006). Yet with appropriate support at all stages of the trafficking process women can be rehabilitated and re‐integrated within society (Zimmerman et al, 2003). This article highlights the unique needs of trafficked women and explores the work of the POPPY Project (the sole UK government‐funded dedicated service for women trafficked into prostitution) in helping trafficked women integrate into UK society successfully.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

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