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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2021

Neha Jain, Ashish Payal and Aarti Jain

The purpose of this study is to calculate the effect of different packet sizes 256, 512, 1,024 and 2,048 bytes on a large-scale hybrid network and analysis and identifies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to calculate the effect of different packet sizes 256, 512, 1,024 and 2,048 bytes on a large-scale hybrid network and analysis and identifies which routing protocol is best for application throughput, application delay and network link parameters for different packet sizes. As the routing protocol is used to select the optimal path to transfer data packets from source to destination. It is always important to consider the performance of the routing protocol before the final network configuration. From the literature, it has been observed that RIP (Routing Information Protocol) and OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) are the most popular routing protocols, and it has always been a challenge to select between these routing protocols, especially for hybrid networks. The efficiency of routing protocol mainly depends on resulting throughput and delay. Also, it has been observed that data packet size also plays an essential role in determining the efficiency of routing protocol.

Design/methodology/approach

To analyse the effect of different packet sizes using two routing protocols, routing information protocol (RIP) and open shortest path first (OSPF) on the hybrid network, require detailed planning. Designing the network for simulate and then finally analysing the results requires proper study. Each stage needs to be understood well for work accomplishment. Thus, the network’s simulation and evaluation require implementing the proposed work step by step, saving time and cost. Here, the proposed work methodology is defined in six steps or stages.

Findings

The simulation results show that both routing protocols – RIP and OSPF are equally good in terms of network throughput for all different packet sizes. However, OSPF performs better in terms of network delay than RIP routing protocol in different packet size scenarios.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, a fixed network of 125 objects and only RIP and OSPF routing protocol have been used for analysis. Therefore, in the future, a comparison of different network sizes can be considered by increasing or decreasing the number of objects in the proposed network. Furthermore, the other routing protocols can be used for performance evaluation on the same proposed network.

Originality/value

The analysis can be conducted by simulation of the network, enabling us to develop a network environment without restricting the selection of parameters as it minimizes cost, network deployment overhead, human resources, etc. The results are analysed, calculated and compared for each packet size on different routing protocol networks individually and the conclusion is made.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2009

Bruce Thompson, Martha Kyrillidou and Colleen Cook

Survey researchers sometimes develop large pools of items about which they seek participants' views. As a general proposition, library participants cannot reasonably be…

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1372

Abstract

Purpose

Survey researchers sometimes develop large pools of items about which they seek participants' views. As a general proposition, library participants cannot reasonably be expected to respond to 100+ items on a given service quality assessment protocol. This paper seeks to describe the use of matrix sampling to reduce that burden on the participant.

Design/methodology/approach

Matrix sampling is a survey method that can be used to collect data on all survey items without requiring every participant to react to every survey question. Here the features of data are investigated from one such survey, the LibQUAL+® Lite protocol, and the participation rates, completion times, and result comparisons across the two administration protocols – the traditional LibQUAL+® protocol and the LibQUAL+® Lite protocol – at each of the four institutions are explored.

Findings

Greater completion rates were realized with the LibQUAL+® Lite protocol.

Originality/value

The data from the Lite protocol might be the most accurate representation of the views of all the library users in a given community.

Details

Performance Measurement and Metrics, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-8047

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

Tim Heymann

The use of clinical protocols allows health care providers to offerappropriate diagnostic treatment and care services to patients, variancereports to purchasers and…

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1057

Abstract

The use of clinical protocols allows health care providers to offer appropriate diagnostic treatment and care services to patients, variance reports to purchasers and quality training to clinical staff. Such protocols provide a locally agreed standard to which clinicians and the organization can work and against which they can be audited. By embedding protocols into patients’ records and reporting by exception, the use of protocols may help to tackle a raft of other issues successfully such as the reduction in junior doctors’ hours, and the facilitation of shared care. It may also bolster the medico‐legal robustness of the health care delivered. If the protocols are sufficiently detailed, costing, coding and other resource usage information can flow directly from the clinical records. Such benefits may be maximized by using protocols within the framework of an electronic patient record system.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 7 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Gnaneshwari G.R., M.S. Hema and S.C. Lingareddy

Pervasive computing environment allows the users to access the services anywhere and anytime. Due to the dynamicity, mobility, security, heterogeneity, and openness have…

Abstract

Purpose

Pervasive computing environment allows the users to access the services anywhere and anytime. Due to the dynamicity, mobility, security, heterogeneity, and openness have become a major challenging task in the Pervasive computing environment. To solve the security issues and to increase the communication reliability, an authentication-based access control approach is developed in this research to ensure the level of security in the Pervasive computing environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper aims to propose authentication-based access control approach performs the authentication mechanism using the hashing, encryption, and decryption function. The proposed approach effectively achieves the conditional traceability of user credentials to enhance security. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication-based access control approach is estimated using the experimental analysis, and performance improvement is proved using the evaluation metrics. It inherent the tradeoff between authentication and access control in the Pervasive computing environment. Here, the service provider requires authorization and authentication for the provision of service, whereas the end-users require unlinkability and untraceability for data transactions.

Findings

The proposed authentication-based access control obtained 0.76, 22.836 GB, and 3.35 sec for detection rate, memory, and time by considering password attack, and 22.772GB and 4.51 sec for memory and time by considering without attack scenario.

Originality/value

The communication between the user and the service provider is progressed using the user public key in such a way that the private key of the user can be generated through the encryption function.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Umakant L. Tupe, Sachin D. Babar, Sonali P. Kadam and Parikshit N. Mahalle

Internet of Things (IoT) is an up-and-coming conception that intends to link multiple devices with each other. The aim of this study is to provide a significant analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

Internet of Things (IoT) is an up-and-coming conception that intends to link multiple devices with each other. The aim of this study is to provide a significant analysis of Green IoT. The IoT devices sense, gather and send out significant data from their ambiance. This exchange of huge data among billions of devices demands enormous energy. Green IoT visualizes the concept of minimizing the energy consumption of IoT devices and keeping the environment safe.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper attempts to analyze diverse techniques associated with energy-efficient protocols in green IoT pertaining to machine-to-machine (M2M) communication. Here, it reviews 73 research papers and states a significant analysis. Initially, the analysis focuses on different contributions related to green energy constraints, especially energy efficiency, and different hierarchical routing protocols. Moreover, the contributions of different optimization algorithms in different state-of-the-art works are also observed and reviewed. Later the performance measures computed in entire contributions along with the energy constraints are also checked to validate the effectiveness of entire contributions. As the number of contributions to energy-efficient protocols in IoT is low, the research gap will focus on the development of intelligent energy-efficient protocols to build up green IoT.

Findings

The analysis was mainly focused on the green energy constraints and the different robust protocols and also gives information on a few powerful optimization algorithms. The parameters considered by the previous research works for improving the performance were also analyzed in this paper to get an idea for future works. Finally, the paper gives some brief description of the research gaps and challenges for future consideration that helps during the development of an energy-efficient green IoT pertaining to M2M communication.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work that reviews 65 research papers and states the significant analysis of green IoT.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Marianthi Leon and Richard Laing

This paper proposes and tests, through a series of structured multi-disciplinary design activities, a “Concept Design Stages Protocol” (CDS Protocol) to structure project…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes and tests, through a series of structured multi-disciplinary design activities, a “Concept Design Stages Protocol” (CDS Protocol) to structure project initiation, to attain smoother collaboration and greater consensus among multi-disciplinary project teams.

Design/methodology/approach

A collaborative approach from the outset is imperative for project success, especially when considering multi-disciplinary teams in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. However, involving different disciplines hinders communication paths and affects informed decision-making.

Findings

Based on these findings, the research demonstrates that the CDS Protocol provides a solid foundation to aid in the optimal implementation of collaborative design, and with particular regard to multi-disciplinary working.

Originality/value

The research demonstrates the potential for significant improvement in the optimisation of the conceptual design stages, with positive implications for time, communication and whole-team engagement.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2021

Ravi Kumar D.N.S. and Barani S.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new data dissemination model in order to improve the performance of transmission in VANET. It proposes a protocol named…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new data dissemination model in order to improve the performance of transmission in VANET. It proposes a protocol named Epidemic and Transmission-Segment-based Geographic Routing (ETSGR) and outlining the issues due to high mobility of nodes and uncertain physical topologies in the network. The proposed ETSGR is mainly used to analyze the vehicle state, direction, distance, traffic density and link quality of the network.

Design/methodology/approach

This research work based on ETSGR protocol mainly uses epidemic algorithm in order to find the vehicle state based on susceptible, infected and recovered (SIR) model. Furthermore, the vehicle position and finding the head node in the network is utilized using the transmission segment protocol based on geographic routing and analyses each node to form the segments and find the destination to transmit the data in timely manner.

Findings

The paper provides the enhancement of the performance based on some metrics such as end-to-end delay that obtained 0.62%, data throughput as 32.3%, packet delivery ratio as 67% and one-hop communication as 13%. The proposed ETSGR protocol analyzes the state of the vehicle correctly and each node segmented to transmit the data with the timely manner and obtaining reliable performance even with high mobility of nodes in the network.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed ETSGR protocol may have some limitation when considering the timing which should improve even in increasing many number of vehicles and different road segments.

Practical implications

This paper includes some suggestions for the practical deployment of the approach in which a real-time traffic analysis can be evaluated for taking prior actions during an emergency situation and proper dissemination of data in timely manner can help utilize the guidance of proper planning of roads.

Originality/value

This research fulfills an enhanced protocol to improve the performance of data dissemination.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Transforming Information Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-928-1

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2020

M. Angulakshmi, M. Deepa, M. Vanitha, R. Mangayarkarasi and I. Nagarajan

In this study, we discuss three DTN routing protocols, these are epidemic, PRoPHET and spray and wait routing protocols. A special simulator will be used; that is…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, we discuss three DTN routing protocols, these are epidemic, PRoPHET and spray and wait routing protocols. A special simulator will be used; that is opportunistic network environment (ONE) to create a network environment. Spray and wait has highest delivery rate and low latency in most of the cases. Hence, spray and wait have better performance than others. This analysis of the performance of DTN protocols helps the researcher to learn better of these protocols in the different environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) is a network designed to operate effectively over extreme distances, such as those encountered in space communications or on an interplanetary scale. In such an environment, nodes are occasional communication and are available among hubs, and determinations of the next node communications are not confirmed. In such network environment, the packet can be transferred by searching current efficient route available for a particular node. Due to the uncertainty of packet transfer route, DTN is affected by a variety of factors such as packet size, communication cost, node activity, etc.

Findings

Spray and wait have highest delivery rate and low latency in most of the cases. Hence, spray and wait have better performance than others.

Originality/value

The primary goal of the paper is to extend these works in an attempt to offer a better understanding of the behavior of different DTN routing protocols with delivery probability, latency and overhead ratio that depend on various amounts of network parameters such as buffer size, number of nodes, movement ratio, time to live, movement range, transmission range and message generation rate. In this study, we discuss three DTN routing protocols: these are epidemic, PRoPHET and spray and wait routing protocols. A special simulator will be used; that is opportunistic network environment (ONE) to create a network environment. Spray and wait have highest delivery rate and low latency in most of the cases. Hence, spray and wait have better performance than others. This analysis of the performance of DTN protocols helps the researcher to learn better of these protocols in the different environment.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2020

Oleksii Konashevych

The purpose of this paper is to present a concept of the protocol for public registries based on blockchain. New database protocol aims to use the benefits of blockchain…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a concept of the protocol for public registries based on blockchain. New database protocol aims to use the benefits of blockchain technologies and ensure their interoperability.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is framed with design science research (DSR). The primary method is exaptation, i.e. adoption of solutions from other fields. The research is looking into existing technologies which are applied here as elements of the protocol: Name-Value Storage (NVS), Berkley DB, RAID protocol, among others. The choice of NVS as a reference technology for creating a database over blockchain is based on the analysis and comparison with two other similar technologies Bigchain and Amazon QLDB.

Findings

The proposed mechanism allows creating a standard database over a bundle of distributed ledgers. It ensures a blockchain agnostic approach and uses the benefits of various blockchain technologies in one ecosystem. In this scheme, blockchains play the role of journal storages (immutable log), whereas the overlaid database is the indexed storage. The distinctive feature of such a system is that in blockchain, users can perform peer-to-peer transactions directly in the ledger using blockchain native mechanism of user access management with public-key cryptography (blockchain does not require to administrate its database).

Originality/value

This paper presents a new method of creating a public peer-to-peer database across a bundle of distributed ledgers.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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