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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Penelope Ody

Finding out more about the people who shop your store in order to cater more precisely for their needs is a prime objective for any retailer as we move into the…

Abstract

Finding out more about the people who shop your store in order to cater more precisely for their needs is a prime objective for any retailer as we move into the competitive world of the 1990s. SHOPPiN — a new market research tool developed jointly by Pinpoint and Nielsen — along with Nielsen's new Homescan consumer panel aim at doing just that.

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Retail and Distribution Management, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-2363

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Steve W. Martinez

The purpose of this paper is to compare prices for fresh tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, and apples at direct-to-consumer sales outlets (e.g. farmers markets, roadside…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare prices for fresh tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, and apples at direct-to-consumer sales outlets (e.g. farmers markets, roadside stands, on-farm stores) in the USA to grocery stores and supercenters, while controlling for other attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

The author estimates a hedonic regression model to determine price differences at direct sales outlets, grocery stores, and supercenters in various regions and seasons of the year. The analysis is conducted using 2006 Nielsen Homescan data. Other product and market attributes are also considered, along with characteristics of the household sample.

Findings

Prices at direct sales outlets are lower than grocery store prices throughout the year and across the USA. Prices at direct sales outlets for some product/location/season combinations were higher than or comparable to supercenter prices.

Research limitations/implications

Future research is needed to examine how price differences may vary across the various types of direct marketing outlets.

Originality/value

Few studies have examined price differences between direct sales outlets and conventional retail stores. No studies have used nationally representative data to analyze these price differences across produce type, season, and geographic areas.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2018

Wen Zheng, Senarath Dharmasena, Oral Capps Jr and Ramkumar Janakiraman

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting consumer demand for and the effects on tax on sparkling and non-sparkling bottled water in the USA.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting consumer demand for and the effects on tax on sparkling and non-sparkling bottled water in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Using nationally representative data from 62,092 households and tobit econometric procedure, conditional and unconditional factors affecting the demand for sparkling and non-sparkling bottled water were estimated.

Findings

The own-price elasticity of demand for sparkling and non-sparkling bottled water is −0.664 and −0.229, respectively. Coffee, fruit drinks, whole milk and tea are substitutes for non-sparking bottled water. Non-sparking bottled water, coffee, fruit drinks and whole milk are substitutes for sparking bottled water. Household income, race, region and presence of children significantly affect the demand for bottled water. A 10 percent increase in price due to a tax on bottled water decreased plastic use by 50 grams per household per year. This is equivalent to saving 9.5m pounds of plastic annually.

Research limitations/implications

Data used in this analysis only captured at-home consumption of bottled water by US households. While tax on bottled water may reduce the consumption of bottled water, it may increase the consumption of competitive beverages such as carbonated soft drinks or fruit drinks. Although the use of plastic with regards to water bottles may go down as a result of the tax, the plastic consumption could go up with regards to consumers’ increased purchase of other beverages. This might contribute net increase plastic bottle consumption, undermining the effects of a bottled water tax.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to look at demand and tax aspects with regards to disaggregated bottled water products.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Rebecca Schröck

The purpose of this paper is to identify and quantify the factors determining the prices of organic and conventional cheese. For a market with a high degree of product…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and quantify the factors determining the prices of organic and conventional cheese. For a market with a high degree of product differentiation, i.e. the German cheese market, price premiums of various cheese attributes are examined. Thereby, special attention is paid to country of origin (CO) effects, geographical indications (GIs) and organic claims.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on homescan panel data of 13,000 representative German households provided by the GfK consumer research association. The data set combines actual purchase and demographic data for a five-year sample period from 2004 to 2008. Applying the hedonic technique, the cheese price is modelled as a function of a wide range of consumer, store and product characteristics. Effects are analysed in detail by distinguishing between supply- and demand-side effects and by estimating price regressions not only for the whole sample but also for different shop types.

Findings

The estimated organic price premiums range between 18 per cent in discount shops and 26 per cent in hypermarkets. The impacts of the CO and GIs are considerably smaller in magnitude and limited to special shopping venues like super- and hypermarkets.

Originality/value

The German cheese market is currently evolving from a staple product market to a highly differentiated market where increasing attention is paid to quality indicators such as organic claims or GIs. The data are remarkable, both in sample size and information content. Furthermore, the estimation of shop type-specific price premiums offers new and detailed insights in consumer valuation and producer costs of a wide range of cheese attributes.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Christopher J. Shanahan, Roger D. Gibb, Johnson W. McRorie, Jose M. Brum and Mary E. Ritchey

Numerous randomized clinical studies have shown that psyllium fiber lowers serum cholesterol in patients with hyperlipidemia and is thus recognized by the US Food and Drug…

Abstract

Purpose

Numerous randomized clinical studies have shown that psyllium fiber lowers serum cholesterol in patients with hyperlipidemia and is thus recognized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a dietary fiber that may help reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by lowering cholesterol. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential economic implications for health-care cost savings and quality of life productivity gains if the cholesterol-lowering effect of psyllium, consumed daily as a fiber supplement, could be applied to a broad at-risk population.

Design/methodology/approach

A cost-benefit analysis tool was used to examine evidence that the use of psyllium as a cholesterol-lowering agent can reduce overall CHD-attributed medical care service costs in the USA among those at high risk of experiencing disease-related events.

Findings

Results of the analysis showed that the potential net annual avoided medical care service costs and annual quality of life productivity gains among US adults 45 and older with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels = 130 mg/dL could be up to an average of $870m per year from 2013 to 2020 if everyone in the target population used seven grams of soluble fiber from psyllium daily, corresponding to a net benefit-cost ratio of $1.19 savings in annual medical service cost and annual productivity gains per $1 spent on a psyllium regimen.

Originality/value

Thus, the use of psyllium fiber as a daily supplement could be recommended as a means to help control the risk for potentially costly cardiovascular-related medical events and to maximize the economic potential for an improved quality of life in adults 45 and older with LDL cholesterol levels =130 mg/dL.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Hristina Dzhogleva Nikolova, J. Jeffrey Inman, Jim Maurer, Andrew Greiner and Gala Amoroso

In the age of “big data,” one of the most important capabilities that differentiates the winners from the losers in the intensely competitive grocery market is how…

Abstract

In the age of “big data,” one of the most important capabilities that differentiates the winners from the losers in the intensely competitive grocery market is how successfully a firm can harness its vast amounts of shopper data to become more shopper-centric. Grocery retailers struggle with how to manage the tremendous amount of data available to them and best leverage their frequent shopper data to derive insights. These data also present an opportunity for academic research on decision-making and evaluation of strategic initiatives. This chapter discusses three case studies that illustrate the various capabilities of frequent shopper data in generating shopper insights. Specifically, using frequent shopper data for millions of shoppers, the three case studies demonstrate how frequent shopper data can be used as an important information asset for understanding differences and similarities among different shopper groups (Case Study 1), as a means to assess the effectiveness of store redesigns/environment changes (Case Study 2), and as a key tool for evaluating program success (Case Study 3). The chapter concludes with a discussion of how successful collaboration between practitioners and academics can be a boon to both business success and academic research.

Details

Shopper Marketing and the Role of In-Store Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-001-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Barry Davies and Stephen Worrall

Using basket analysis, a methodology is presented to investigate the healthiness of particular household diets. The analysis was applied to “Homescanpanel data relating…

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Abstract

Using basket analysis, a methodology is presented to investigate the healthiness of particular household diets. The analysis was applied to “Homescanpanel data relating to 11,000 households. This breakdown was then cross‐related to geodemographic classifications using “MOSAIC” groups. The degree or extent of unhealthiness was determined on the basis of percentage swing away from recommended dietary patterns in terms of indicator foods belonging to five groups (dairy, meat, vegetables, fruit and bread and cereals). The consumption of fats was also monitored. It was found that 8 per cent of households had diets that were labelled “unhealthy”, based on standard recommendations for healthy eating. A further 20 per cent of households had “relatively unhealthy” diets. The majority of these households were shown to belong to the “suburban semis” group in the MOSAIC classification.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 100 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

Carolyn Dimitri and Rachael L. Dettmann

The organic trade literature in the USA makes strong claims about the relationship between income, ethnicity, and other factors and the likelihood of purchasing organic…

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7022

Abstract

Purpose

The organic trade literature in the USA makes strong claims about the relationship between income, ethnicity, and other factors and the likelihood of purchasing organic food products. However, previous economic research focusing on the socio‐economic characteristics of organic food consumers yields mixed findings. One explanation for the literature's inconsistent findings is that most studies rely on one specific product or one region of the country, or base their analysis on data collected from in‐store surveys. Another shortcoming in the existing literature is the failure to account for how access to organic food influences the likelihood of buying organic food. This paper's goal is to identify what is known, as well as what is not known, about consumers of organic food.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper extends the literature through the combination of a novel approach and unique dataset of US consumers, and addresses the relationship between demographic traits and the likelihood of buying organic food. The dataset consists of primary data recording all purchases of food as well as household demographic data, such as income, education, gender, and ethnicity, over a one‐year period for 44,000 households. The study uses different discrete choice models and multiple product categories to explore the likelihood of buying organic food from many angles, in order to assess the robustness of the statistical relationship between income, education, ethnicity, and other factors on the likelihood of buying organic food, as well as the frequency of buying organic food.

Findings

The results indicate that education has a strong effect on the likelihood of buying organic products, and that the impact of marital status, income, and access to organic are consistent across models. The findings also suggest that further research on the links between ethnicity and consumption of organic food is necessary.

Research limitations/implications

One possible drawback to this dataset is that older, urban households are overrepresented, in comparison to the entire USA.

Practical implications

These findings will appeal to those interested in consumer behavior in addition to those interested in organic food consumption, from both the research and trade perspectives. The research indicates that access to organic food is an important determinant of the likelihood of a household buying organic food, the industry in the USA can expand sales by increasing consumer access to organic food.

Originality/value

This paper's unique contribution is the exploration of the robustness of the impact of different factors on the likelihood of buying organic food. The inclusion of access to organic food is also new to the literature, and as expected, households with greater access to organic food are more likely to purchase organic food.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Janet Hoek, Zane Kearns and Kathryn Wilkinson

Although managers can use panel data to monitor their brands’ performance in fast‐moving‐consumer‐goods categories, the regularities researchers have documented apply to…

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3689

Abstract

Although managers can use panel data to monitor their brands’ performance in fast‐moving‐consumer‐goods categories, the regularities researchers have documented apply to stationary and unpartitioned marketplaces. However, the introduction of a new brand may alter the structure of a marketplace and thus the behaviour patterns consumers display. This paper discusses the regularities typically observed in stable markets and considers these in the context of a market that had just experienced a new brand launch. It is concluded that the new brand behaved as an established brand very quickly and that the generalisations used to benchmark existing brands provided accurate predictions of the new brand’s performance.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2011

Gayaneh Kyureghian, Oral Capps and Rodolfo M. Nayga

The objective of this research is to examine, validate, and recommend techniques for handling the problem of missingness in observational data. We use a rich observational…

Abstract

The objective of this research is to examine, validate, and recommend techniques for handling the problem of missingness in observational data. We use a rich observational data set, the Nielsen HomeScan data set, which allows us to effectively combine elements from simulated data sets: large numbers of observations, large number of data sets and variables, allowing elements of “design” that typically come with simulated data, and its observational nature. We created random 20% and 50% uniform missingness in our data sets and employed several widely used methods of single imputation, such as mean, regression, and stochastic regression imputations, and multiple imputation methods to fill in the data gaps. We compared these methods by measuring the error of predicting the missing values and the parameter estimates from the subsequent regression analysis using the imputed values. We also compared coverage or the percentages of intervals that covered the true parameter in both cases. Based on our results, the method of single regression or conditional mean imputation provided the best predictions of the missing price values with 28.34 and 28.59 mean absolute percent errors in 20% and 50% missingness settings, respectively. The imputation from conditional distribution method had the best rate of coverage. The parameter estimates based on data sets imputed by conditional mean method were consistently unbiased and had the smallest standard deviations. The multiple imputation methods had the best coverage of both the parameter estimates and predictions of the dependent variable.

Details

Missing Data Methods: Cross-sectional Methods and Applications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-525-9

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