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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2018

Wen Zheng, Senarath Dharmasena, Oral Capps Jr and Ramkumar Janakiraman

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting consumer demand for and the effects on tax on sparkling and non-sparkling bottled water in the USA.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting consumer demand for and the effects on tax on sparkling and non-sparkling bottled water in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Using nationally representative data from 62,092 households and tobit econometric procedure, conditional and unconditional factors affecting the demand for sparkling and non-sparkling bottled water were estimated.

Findings

The own-price elasticity of demand for sparkling and non-sparkling bottled water is −0.664 and −0.229, respectively. Coffee, fruit drinks, whole milk and tea are substitutes for non-sparking bottled water. Non-sparking bottled water, coffee, fruit drinks and whole milk are substitutes for sparking bottled water. Household income, race, region and presence of children significantly affect the demand for bottled water. A 10 percent increase in price due to a tax on bottled water decreased plastic use by 50 grams per household per year. This is equivalent to saving 9.5m pounds of plastic annually.

Research limitations/implications

Data used in this analysis only captured at-home consumption of bottled water by US households. While tax on bottled water may reduce the consumption of bottled water, it may increase the consumption of competitive beverages such as carbonated soft drinks or fruit drinks. Although the use of plastic with regards to water bottles may go down as a result of the tax, the plastic consumption could go up with regards to consumers’ increased purchase of other beverages. This might contribute net increase plastic bottle consumption, undermining the effects of a bottled water tax.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to look at demand and tax aspects with regards to disaggregated bottled water products.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2016

Yu Shi

This paper investigates how state governments used budget balancing strategies to cope with budget shortfalls in the fiscal years between 2009 and 2013. Using data from…

Abstract

This paper investigates how state governments used budget balancing strategies to cope with budget shortfalls in the fiscal years between 2009 and 2013. Using data from the Fiscal Survey reports and Comprehensive Annual Financial Statements (CAFRs) covering all fifty states, the paper summarizes and analyzes several types of strategies such as state savings, federal aid, revenue enhancement and expenditure cutting in response to budget shortfalls during and after the Great Recession of 2008. In addition, findings from the three case studies in New York, Texas and Washington show distinct patterns in these states’ choices of balancing strategies to cope with budget shortfalls. New York adopted a more balanced approach between revenue increasing and expenditure cutting strategies, whereas Washington and Texas implemented more severe expenditure cutting strategies to address budget shortfalls.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2020

Jeffrey Gauthier and Jeffrey A. Kappen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the rhetorical strategies used by organizations in support of propriety judgments concerning their products.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the rhetorical strategies used by organizations in support of propriety judgments concerning their products.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken entails discourse and rhetorical analysis of texts produced by leading firms in the bottled water industry, and by the industry’s trade association, surrounding issues of sustainability.

Findings

The analysis reveals rhetorical strategies invoked by firms to legitimate their economic, environmental and social performance.

Research limitations/implications

This paper’s primary contribution is to research that informs the discursive aspects of legitimacy. As well, this study contributes to our nascent understanding of the microfoundations of sustainability.

Originality/value

Our knowledge of how organizations use different discursive strategies in support of legitimacy is relatively underdeveloped. By examining rhetorical strategies used in support of propriety judgments concerning organizations’ environmental, social and economic legitimacy, this study begins to fill gaps in our understanding.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Case study
Publication date: 31 March 2015

Anand Kumar Jaiswal, Harit Palan and Ingita Jain

Launched in 2005, Aava natural mineral water is one of the key brands in the natural mineral water market in India. It had sales of over Rs. 15 crore (150 million) in 2012…

Abstract

Launched in 2005, Aava natural mineral water is one of the key brands in the natural mineral water market in India. It had sales of over Rs. 15 crore (150 million) in 2012 and it is the second largest brand and a volume leader in the natural mineral water category. The case discusses the dilemma faced by its Managing Director and his team in light of the emerging competition. The company needs to take important decisions related to customer segment selection, product mix and introduction of new product offerings.

Details

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

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Case study
Publication date: 14 November 2013

Varsha Jain, Subhadip Roy and Ashok Ranchhod

The present field-based case study is related to topics in marketing area, more specifically brand management, strategic marketing and business strategy.

Abstract

Subject area

The present field-based case study is related to topics in marketing area, more specifically brand management, strategic marketing and business strategy.

Study level/applicability

This case is primarily meant for second-year students in a postgraduate program in business management (MBA). The case could also be discussed in an executive development program on marketing/business strategy.

Case overview

The present case is based on Aava natural mineral water, the brainchild of Mr Behram Mehta, Chairman of Shelpee Enterprises. The case explores at the various marketing strategies adopted by Aava in India. The case traces the brand's foray into the Indian bottled water market as a regional players and its growth as a pan Indian brand. However, in early 2012, the majority of Aava's sales were coming through institutional sales. The brand was facing a challenge of trying to find a foothold in the retail market. The balance between becoming a mass and a premium brand was also looming large. The major question that Aava needed to answer is whether it should restrict itself to the B2B market or whether it should try to penetrate the retail market. Given the latter is more beneficial for the company, the issues of product, pricing and brand communication needed to be revisited since these are not similar for B2B and B2C brands.

Expected learning outcomes

The various learning outcomes of the case include: understanding the differences between B2B and B2C marketing and the need for different strategies for both, apply marketing research findings to introduce a product in a market, evaluate and execute marketing communication strategies based on human behaviour for more effectiveness, evaluate alternatives leading to the right choice of branding/marketing strategy, understand the role of 4Ps of marketing for successful business and industry analysis.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 3 no. 6
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1901

The Sanitary Committee of a certain County Council, strong with the strength of recent creation, have lately been animated by a desire to distinguish themselves in some…

Abstract

The Sanitary Committee of a certain County Council, strong with the strength of recent creation, have lately been animated by a desire to distinguish themselves in some way, and, proceeding along the lines of least resistance, they appear to have selected the Public Analyst as the most suitable object for attack. The charge against this unfortunate official was not that he is incompetent, or that he had been in any way negligent of his duties as prescribed by Act of Parliament, but simply and solely that he has the temerity to reside in London, which city is distant by a certain number of miles from the much favoured district controlled by the County Council aforesaid. The committee were favoured in their deliberations by the assistance of no less an authority than the “Principal” of a local “Technical School”;—and who could be more capable than he to express an opinion upon so simple a matter? This eminent exponent of scientific truths, after due and proper consideration, is reported to have delivered himself of the opinion that “scientifically it would be desirable that the analyst should reside in the district, as the delay occasioned by the sending of samples of water to London is liable to produce a misleading effect upon an analysis.” Apparently appalled by the contemplation of such possibilities, and strengthened by another expression of opinion to the effect that there were as “good men” in the district as in London, the committee resolved to recommend the County Council to determine the existing arrangement with the Public Analyst, and to appoint a “local analyst for all purposes.” Thus, the only objection which could be urged to the employment of a Public Analyst resident in London was the ridiculous one that the composition of a sample of water was likely to seriously alter during the period of its transit to London, and this contention becomes still more absurd when it is remembered that the examination of water samples is no part of the official duty of a Public Analyst. The employment of local scientific talent may be very proper when the object to be attained is simply the more or less imperfect instruction of the rising generation in the rudiments of what passes in this country for “technical education”; but the work of the Public Analyst is serious and responsible, and cannot be lightly undertaken by every person who may be acquainted with some of the uses of a test‐tube. The worthy members of this committee may find to their cost, as other committees have found before them, that persons possessing the requisite knowledge and experience are not necessarily indigenous to their district. Supposing that the County Council adopts the recommendation, the aspirations of the committee may even then be strangled in their infancy, as the Local Government Board will want to know all about the matter, and the committee will have to give serious and valid reasons in support of their case.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 3 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1933

The Dominion of New Zealand is not, at present, an exporter of canned fruits. The canned fruits which are made are made for home consumption. So far as the export trade of…

Abstract

The Dominion of New Zealand is not, at present, an exporter of canned fruits. The canned fruits which are made are made for home consumption. So far as the export trade of fruit is concerned the New Zealand growers have mainly concerned themselves with raw apples and to a smaller extent with pears. Everyone knows that the Dominion extends over a small range of low southern latitude; that it has a sunny and equable climate; a rainfall well distributed over the year; a variety of excellent soils. It will, in a word, grow almost anything, a fact that has not altogether proved to be an unmixed blessing. Up to 1876 its hundred thousand square miles of area was divided into nine provinces; after that date by the Provinces Act, 1876, the country was divided for administrative purposes into counties with powers of local self‐government. The central government, at Wellington, is responsible for the Acts referred to in this article, these Acts being applicable to the whole of the Dominion. Such legislative measures as have been passed in relation to the fruit industry have for their main object the development of fruit orchards, chiefly those of apples at present. In the year 1930–1, 3,539 tons of fruit were used in the making of jams, jellies, canned or bottled fruits and “other products.” The value of the fruit canned or bottled was £45,763, as against £165,655 for jams and jellies, and £119,104 for “other products” in the same period. This works out roughly to about 14 per cent. The Orchard Tax Act† (No. 25, 1927) provides for special taxation for the development of the fruit‐growing industry and the protection of orchards from fireblight.‡ Under Section 3 of the Act any fruit grower with 120 or more trees in his orchard shall pay one shilling for every acre or part of an acre. The minimum yearly tax under this section shall be five shillings. The term “fruit” includes apples, pears, quinces, oranges, lemons, peaches, nectarines, apricots, plums and cherries, and any other kind of fruit which may subsequently be declared by the Governor‐General in the Gazette. This is a good list of fruits and illustrates as well as anything of the kind can the great possibilities of New Zealand as a fruit‐growing country. Lemons are an important crop in North Island. Much of the lemons consumed in New Zealand are home grown, but it is desired to make the Dominion self‐supporting in this respect. The Poorman Orange, according to the New Zealand Journal of Agriculture, is becoming popular as a substitute for imported grape fruit. Oranges it seems have been cultivated with success since about 1875, as well as citron, lime and lemon in the neighbourhood of Auckland. Thompson (Naturalisation of Animals and Plants in New Zealand, 1922) quotes a remark by an officer of the brig “Hawes” in December, 1928, that he saw a few orange trees that had been introduced with success. The same author remarks that apples, pears, and, according to Major Cruise (1820), peaches had been introduced by the missionaries. It was about this time that missionary enterprise, which would appear to have been somewhat badly needed, made its appearance.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Case study
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Amonrat Thoumrungroje and Olimpia C. Racela

Corporate diversification, product portfolio analysis, industry structure, international business expansion, beverage industry.

Abstract

Subject area

Corporate diversification, product portfolio analysis, industry structure, international business expansion, beverage industry.

Study level/applicability

The case is suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate MBA strategic management, international business strategy, and marketing strategy courses.

Case overview

Thai Beverage Public Company Limited (ThaiBev) was Thailand's largest beverage company and was among Asia's major alcoholic beverage companies. The case situation takes place during the latter part of August 2010, two years after the public announcement of ThaiBev's ambitious intentions to become a comprehensive and integrated beverage company and after having recently re-launched its acquired Wrangyer energy brand, a move signaling ThaiBev's strong commitment to its non-alcoholic beverages. The case describes the beverage industries at the global, regional, and country level and discusses ThaiBev's range of businesses. Marut Buranasetkul, Senior Vice President of Corporate Service and Deputy Managing Director of Thai Beverage Marketing, the sales and marketing arm of ThaiBev, must decide on the direction for ThaiBev to pursue to bring ThaiBev's non-alcoholic beverages to account for at least 10 percent of the company's total revenue. This case presents a number of important strategic topics, particularly in discussing industry structure and competition, as well as diversification issues encountered by a firm that was attempting to create a greater balance between the revenue contributions from its market leading dominant businesses and that of its younger and newer business lines.

Expected learning outcomes

Students will: understand the challenges faced by large conglomerates wanting to change their market position; learn to apply different frameworks such as Porter's Five Force Model, portfolio analysis, SWOT and to assess the competitive environment; learn to evaluate a company's current product portfolio and to recommend strategies to improve its allocation of resources; and learn to identify key success factors necessary to compete in a highly competitive industry.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Rahmi Eneng, Kris Lulofs and Chay Asdak

The purpose of this study is to describe and explain the relative water scarcity condition as one of the main problems encountered in Indonesia. It is caused by fierce…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to describe and explain the relative water scarcity condition as one of the main problems encountered in Indonesia. It is caused by fierce competition between water users, water over consumption and high water price. The water conflict and increasing phenomena of relative water scarcity result in unequal access to water between the rich and the poor. This research is intended to contribute to a balanced water governance system that secures equal and fair access to water resources for all users.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed method approach was used involving interviews with the owners of the established bottled water companies, the community leaders, guard for sluice gate, local NGOs and several government agencies.

Findings

Research results indicate that water policies and implementation are lacking coherency. It is also shown that the complex government structure with responsibilities divided over multiple agencies is responsible for this. The circular economy for water governance system used to find alternative solutions for reducing social conflicts so that the water will be made available to those who have no water access.

Research limitations/implications

This research used only one location with a representative number of interviewees; hence, the findings are not possibly generalizable.

Originality/value

The combination of water legal framework and circular economy concept was used to reduce water scarcity

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Daniel S. Fogel and Janet Elizabeth Palmer

Water is a unique resource that does not receive enough attention among companies given its essential contribution to human life. Its uniqueness among all resources…

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Abstract

Purpose

Water is a unique resource that does not receive enough attention among companies given its essential contribution to human life. Its uniqueness among all resources results from its environmental, socio-political and economic characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to explore water's uniqueness to companies, especially how one company, Coca-Cola, is currently managing this resource and to describe a few serious challenges that companies will face.

Design/methodology/approach

Coca-Cola has become a leader among these corporations, and we can learn from this company about suggested actions that others might want to use.

Findings

The major actions that companies must take relate to impact assessment and reporting, increased stewardship as a corporate responsibility, observing principles of sustainability and the increased recognition of water in all environmental policies and regulatory actions, partnerships with government and non-government organizations, and technology and design, i.e. allocating financial and human capital to develop new technologies.

Originality/value

Several corporations, in recognizing water's uniqueness as a resource, have taken actions for its management.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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