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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Tolga Kahraman, Gursel Ozmen, Basak Ozinan and Ergun Omer Goksoy

The present paper seeks to determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria (L.) monocytogenes in several cheese varieties.

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper seeks to determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria (L.) monocytogenes in several cheese varieties.

Design/methodology/approach

A total 280 cheese samples (105 white cheese, 70 processed cheese, 45 dil cheese and 60 kasar cheese) purchased from supermarkets in six provinces of Turkey were collected at intervals between March 2007 and February 2008.

Findings

The results showed that 1.9 percent of white cheese samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp, whereas the L. monocytogenes prevalence was 4.8 percent in this type of cheese sample. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in processed cheese and kasar cheese were found to be 1.4 percent and 1.7 percent, respectively. No Salmonella spp. was isolated from these cheese varieties. Neither Salmonella spp. nor L. monocytogenes were found in dil cheese samples examined.

Originality/value

Cheese is a ready to eat product that with a low incidence of contamination may pose great public health concerns. Microbiological evaluation of different cheese samples produced with different manufacturing methods and the possible effects of manufacturing methods on the microbiological quality of these cheese samples are the originality criteria of the study. The cheeses were also sold in a very restricted area of Turkey. The results of this study indicate that white cheese has the highest rates of contamination due to the lack of standardized procedures of manufacturing and ripening.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Christophoros P. Pappas

Differences in laws and regulations concerning the compositional requirements for cheese in EEC member states were studied. The parameters examined were authorised basic…

Abstract

Differences in laws and regulations concerning the compositional requirements for cheese in EEC member states were studied. The parameters examined were authorised basic materials, optional ingredients, food additives and materials not allowed. No substantial differences regarding the basic materials were observed. Differences exist in respect to authorised optional ingredients. With respect to authorised food additives there is a considerable variation in the number of additives allowed in each country, although the additives permitted are, in general, within the list of those approved by the EEC Council. Requirements for treating raw materials and legal provisions for different cheese types were also examined.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 90 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2001

Diogo Monjardino de Souza Monteiro and Maria Raquel Ventura Lucas

The study of consumers’ motivations, attitudes and preferences are of great importance for marketing strategy definitions when considering protected designation of origin…

Abstract

The study of consumers’ motivations, attitudes and preferences are of great importance for marketing strategy definitions when considering protected designation of origin (PDO) cheeses. Previous research, a survey on PDO cheese retailers, and in depth interviews with PDO cheese producers showed that: “price per kilo”, “cheese texture”, “unit of sale size” and “recognition as PDO” were the main attributes affecting preferences for cheeses in Greater Lisbon’s market. Conjoint analysis was used to estimate utilities for those attributes and to determine the existence of consumer groups with similar preference profiles. Results show that recognition as PDO is the most important attribute for the choice of traditional cheeses, followed by price, texture and unit of sale. Three groups of consumers were identified. The first accounts for 28 per cent of respondents who prefer creamy cheese and are not price‐sensitive. A second group is particularly price‐sensitive: it sums up to 16 per cent of respondents. Finally, representing 56 per cent, are those who value certification quality labels but are not willing to pay a premium price for it. The results found may encourage producers to adjust their marketing efforts to consider the different PDO cheese consumer segments.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 103 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

C.N. Roussis and C.H. Skiadas

Crete is the largest island of Greece and fifth of theMediterranean basin which produces traditional and high‐quality cheesesfrom sheep′s and goat′s milk. Reports a…

Abstract

Crete is the largest island of Greece and fifth of the Mediterranean basin which produces traditional and high‐quality cheeses from sheep′s and goat′s milk. Reports a qualitative and quantitative market survey to determine which factors affect purchasing behaviour with respect to cheese. Results showed that the Cretan cheeses are much preferred by consumers. Price, convenience (packaged), hygiene and dietary value (low fat) of the cheese are the main determinants of their choice. However these depend on the age, education and economic status of respondents. There was a high degree of desire for low fat and packaged cheese.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 95 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2020

Amra Čaušević and Edin Hrelja

The aim of this chapter is mainly to explore the gastronomic offer of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a special emphasis on Bosnian cheese varieties, as well as the…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is mainly to explore the gastronomic offer of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a special emphasis on Bosnian cheese varieties, as well as the potentials and opportunities for the advancement of gastronomy in tourist offer in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Several studies have shown gastronomy to be the main reason for visiting Bosnia and Herzegovina. An important part of gastronomic offer is the variety of Bosnian cheese. The most popular types of cheese in Bosnia and Herzegovina are Livno and Vlašić cheese.

Livno cheese belongs to the group of the most popular autochthonous cheese in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Livno cheese is produced in the town of Livno and its surrounding areas, such as Kupres, Glamoč and Tomislavgrad. Originally, it was made of sheep's milk but nowadays, it is mostly made from a mixture of sheep's and cow's milk. Vlašić cheese is a white cheese which matures in brine. Traditional Vlašić cheese is made with raw sheep milk. It is produced in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the Vlašić Mountain.

The goal is to discover how Livno and Vlašić cheeses can be included in the gastronomic offer of Bosnia and Herzegovina and to discover how to use gastronomy for the purposes of tourism development in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Details

Gastronomy for Tourism Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-755-4

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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Magnar Forbord

In every industry there are resources. Some are moving, others more fixed; some are technical, others social. People working with the resources, for example, as buyers or…

Abstract

In every industry there are resources. Some are moving, others more fixed; some are technical, others social. People working with the resources, for example, as buyers or sellers, or users or producers, may not make much notice of them. A product sells. A facility functions. The business relationship in which we make our money has “always” been there. However, some times this picture of order is disturbed. A user having purchased a product for decades may “suddenly” say to the producer that s/he does not appreciate the product. And a producer having received an order of a product that s/he thought was well known, may find it impossible to sell it. Such disturbances may be ignored. Or they can be used as a platform for development. In this study we investigate the latter option, theoretically and through real world data. Concerning theory we draw on the industrial network approach. We see industrial actors as part of (industrial) networks. In their activities actors use and produce resources. Moreover, the actors interact − bilaterally and multilaterally. This leads to development of resources and networks. Through “thick” descriptions of two cases we illustrate and try to understand the interactive character of resource development and how actors do business on features of resources. The cases are about a certain type of resource, a product − goat milk. The main message to industrial actors is that they should pay attention to that products can be co-created. Successful co-creation of products, moreover, may require development also of business relationships and their connections (“networking”).

Details

Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2021

Moawiya A. Haddad, Sharaf S. Omar and Salvatore Parisi

The purpose of this study comes from the need of defining improved durability values and the realization of a good traceability management for selected vegan cheeses has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study comes from the need of defining improved durability values and the realization of a good traceability management for selected vegan cheeses has suggested the comparison between a processed cheese and its analogous version without animal-origin raw materials. The durability should be studied at a well-defined temperature, probably agreed among the food producer and the food processor. In addition, the traceability system should consider many components and related suppliers.

Design/methodology/approach

A supply chain risk assessment analysis has been carried out with relation to two different products: an analogue cheese and a vegan cheese-like preparation. Raw materials and ingredients have been evaluated (production method and origin; geographical identification), with the aim of identifying simplified food.

Findings

An assessment of food supply networks has been carried out. In the first situation (analogue cheeses), the ingredient “cheeses” shows an important complexity: five suppliers with a related six-interconnection hub. On the other side, vegan cheeses are obtained from 11 ingredients (a challenging hub); four of them may be produced from 2–5 components of different origin (five total hubs). Tested processed cheeses are represented by means of a linear food supply network with two hubs (cheeses and “arrival” show degrees 6 and 9, respectively). Networks concerning vegan cheeses include five different hubs: four complex raw materials (degree: 2, 3, 4 and 5) and the “arrival” step (degree: 12).

Originality/value

The information load of vegan cheeses (two hubs, degrees >> average degree) appears high if compared with processed cheeses (two hubs), although the complexity of networks appears similar. Vegan cheeses may seem technologically simpler than processed cheeses and be sometimes questioned because of important traceability issues. Adequate traceability countermeasures in terms of preventive monitoring actions should be recommended when speaking of vegan cheeses. Anyway, a centralized manager would be always required.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Hayriye Sekban and Zekai Tarakci

The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical, textural and sensory properties of some starter cultures fruit-added Golot cheese.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical, textural and sensory properties of some starter cultures fruit-added Golot cheese.

Design/methodology/approach

Six types of Golot cheeses were produced in this study. While the control sample contained no starter cultures, five different starter culture combinations (GS1: Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, L. lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus bulgaricus; GS2: S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus; GS3: S. thermophilus; GS4: S. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus; and GS5: S. thermophilus, L. lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis) were applied to the other cheese samples using an immersion technique. Then, all cheeses were vacuum-packed and ripened at 4 ± 1°C for three months and their chemical, biochemical, sensory and textural analyses were performed on the 2nd, 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th days of ripening.

Findings

Results indicated that generally starter cultures have positive effects on the chemical, biochemical and sensory properties of Golot cheese. Considering the final values, the addition of starter cultures enhanced the ripening index of Golot cheeses (8.4%–9.2%), except the GS3 (7.4%), compared to the control (8.1%). At the end of the ripening period, meltability values of GS4 (16.5 mm) cultured cheeses were higher than those of other cultured cheeses (13.0–15.5 mm) and control cheese (14.5 mm). While lipolysis values were low in fresh cheese, it increased during ripening. Overall, GS3 (2.46 acid degree value [ADV]) and GS4 (2.40 ADV) had the highest lipolysis rate, while GS1 (2.14 ADV) had the lowest (p = 0.07). Electrophoretograms indicated that the highest fragmentation of α- and ß-casein occurred in GS5 (48.43%) and GS1 (44.24%), respectively. Also, GS5 was the most appreciated and preferred cheese in terms of sensory. Regarding texture, hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, springiness and gumminess values were determined to be statistically important in terms of ripening time and cheese variety (p < 0.01).

Originality/value

Consequently, all starters had a positive impact on Golot cheese samples and among all S. thermophilus and L. helveticus starter were determined to be the most applicable one considering ripening, texture, sensory and melting properties.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2019

José Luis Cruz Maceín, Maite Iriondo DeHond and Eugenio Miguel

The artisanal cheese industry in the Community of Madrid (CM) in Spain has recently experienced an increased development despite its traditionally limited cheese and milk…

Abstract

Purpose

The artisanal cheese industry in the Community of Madrid (CM) in Spain has recently experienced an increased development despite its traditionally limited cheese and milk production. The purpose of this paper is to explain this phenomenon by identifying the determinants of consumer attitudes towards cheese consumption in relation to the offer provided by recent artisan cheese producers.

Design/methodology/approach

A phone survey (n = 1,111 consumers) consisting of 17 questions was carried out to analyse cheese consumption culture in the CM. Principal component analysis was used to identify the factors that determine cheese-purchasing variance.

Findings

The first component was explained by hedonic (38 per cent of variance), followed by health aspects (24 per cent of variance) and price (15 per cent of variance). Price was identified as the most important criterion when purchasing cheese (67 per cent of consumers), followed by fat (57 per cent) and salt content (56 per cent). Results indicate a low cheese consumption culture in Madrid, as 48 per cent of consumers did not know exactly what kind of cheese they normally consumed. The type of milk used in cheese production was used to identify consumer profiles for market segmentation. Sheep and goat cheese consumers valued local production food quality and may be the driving force behind the expansion of artisanal cheese industry in Madrid.

Research limitations/implications

Madrid Region is one of the most important markets in Spain and Europe; however, local cheeses are not a traditional product in the market.

Practical implications

This paper offers a very interesting approach about how consumers’ culture can support a new local agricultural industry.

Social implications

Rural entrepreneurs can innovate focussing on new consumers demands. Local and handcrafted products are an opportunity in rural and periurban areas.

Originality/value

This paper shows consumer preferences and attitudes towards the novel artisan cheese sector that has expanded in the CM.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Thamiris Evangelista Silva, Priscila Alonso dos Santos, Thamara Evangelista Silva, Kamilla Soares Silva, André Luiz Borges Machado and Lismaíra Gonçalves Caixeta Garcia

The purpose of this study is to characterize and compare the results of the inspection mark of handmade and industrially processed Minas frescal cheese. It is one of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to characterize and compare the results of the inspection mark of handmade and industrially processed Minas frescal cheese. It is one of the most commonly made and consumed cheeses in Brazil, and its production processes range from handmade cheeses produced in small household production sites to cheeses manufactured in large dairy factories subject to federal inspection.

Design/methodology/approach

The samples were stored for 10 days at 4°C in a biochemical oxygen demand chamber. Cheeses were analyzed using physicochemical analyzes, yield and syneresis indices and microbiological analyses.

Findings

The cheese A met the criterion of regulatory classification for very high humidity (65.32 g/100 g), while cheese B did not meet the criterion (54.38 g/100 g). Cheeses A (19.01 g/100 g) and B (24 g/100 g) showed average fat contents that did not comply with current legislation. The most probable number per g of thermotolerant coliforms was outside the acceptable range (>24 × 102 MPN/g), and Salmonella spp. were present in the tested samples. The highest yield was observed for handmade cheese (an average of 5.35 L of milk to produce 1 kg of cheese), which had the highest syneresis during the storage period (p = 0.004), reaching 14.26% on the 10th day of storage.

Originality/value

Municipal and state inspection certificates do not ensure the microbiological quality of Minas frescal cheese, indicating flaws in the good manufacturing practices and/or in the milk pasteurisation stage.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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