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In mature global business-to-business (B2B) product markets, management of external sales channels, governed by contractual relationships, is a key determinant of business…
In mature global business-to-business (B2B) product markets, management of external sales channels, governed by contractual relationships, is a key determinant of business performance. However, existing sales channel management literature lacks focus on contractual governance and reseller management success. The purpose of the study is to systematically review different governance theories in relation to sales channel management and to show which factors are the most influential in making or keeping external sales channels effective.
A case study on a large B2B information and communication technology (ICT) company is used to reflect on the way the different theoretical governance perspectives explain sales channel management success. Interviews and mini-questionnaires were used to collect data.
Expressions of interdependence and equality alongside persevered personal relationships are important in managing daily business activities and in avoiding bad will at the reseller’s grass-root level. Future-oriented planning, long-term-oriented support and jointly set incentive systems are important for reseller management. Degree of professional management sets resellers apart through shifts in power balance.
A multi-theory governance perspective offers a holistic view over reseller management and provides a comprehensive view over different sales channel management issues and their relative importance.
The findings highlight the importance of long-term orientation and cooperation in setting up a reseller management system to gain and nurture distributors’ trust and commitment towards the manufacturer.
The study is the first to comprehensively use governance perspective in studying reseller management.
If child custody decisions are based on erroneous beliefs, family courts may not be acting in the best interests of children. This study examined family court…
If child custody decisions are based on erroneous beliefs, family courts may not be acting in the best interests of children. This study examined family court professionals' beliefs about family violence. Respondents (N = 410) of diverse professions, including child custody mediators, evaluators, and therapists, family law attorneys and judges, victim advocates and university students, completed a 10‐item multiple‐choice quiz. Results revealed low rates of correct responding, with respondents correctly answering approximately three out of 10 items on average, based on current research in the field. Overall, response rates were highly consistent with the discredited patriarchal paradigm. Shelter workers and victim advocates had the lowest average score, and men were found to have slightly higher scores than women. More troubling, students' scores were not significantly lower than those of family court professionals. Implications are discussed with respect to decision‐making in the context of child custody disputes.
The London bombings on 7 July 2005 highlighted the prevailing terrorist threat to the UK. The present study addressed the psychological response of a community (n=294…
The London bombings on 7 July 2005 highlighted the prevailing terrorist threat to the UK. The present study addressed the psychological response of a community (n=294) indirectly exposed to the attacks to discern the broader impact and effects of terrorism. Qualitative content analysis was used to develop a profile of emotions and responses to the attacks. This was supplemented by the use of linguistic analysis demonstrating the enormous heterogeneity and complexity of responses to terrorism. In light of previous work on the wider impact of terrorism, the present study highlighted a relatively restrained impact of terrorism. Notwithstanding this observation, responses were marked by negative emotions, with increased use of references to others than for self. Responses also highlighted the use of psychological distancing more among white than Asian respondents, and the importance of religion, both as a supportive factor and perceived cause of the attacks, with references more prevalent among Asian respondents. Although the ubiquitous nature of negative emotions also slightly heightened reports of perceived risk, the ability of respondents to use methods of social orientation helped their ability to recover, and may be crucial in helping harness unified community‐based responses to terrorism.
Cross‐cultural studies show that most, but not all, human societies engage in warfare. Some non‐warring societies cluster as peace systems. The existence of peace systems…
Cross‐cultural studies show that most, but not all, human societies engage in warfare. Some non‐warring societies cluster as peace systems. The existence of peace systems, and non‐warring societies more generally, shows that warfare is not an inevitable feature of human social life. This article considers three peace systems in some detail: Brazil's Upper Xingu River basin tribes, Aboriginal Australians, and the European Union. A primary goal is to explore features that contribute to peace in each of the three non‐warring systems. What do these peace systems suggest about how to prevent war? Provisionally, key elements would seem to be the promotion of interdependence among the units of the peace system, creation of cross‐cutting links among them, the existence of conflict resolution procedures, and belief systems (including attitudes and values) that are anti‐war and pro‐peace.
In this practice report, the author describes the setting up of Chiswick Women's Aid, the first refuge1 for the care and treatment of battered women and their children. A…
In this practice report, the author describes the setting up of Chiswick Women's Aid, the first refuge1 for the care and treatment of battered women and their children. A key differentiation is made between ‘battered women’ and ‘violence‐prone women’ and the author summarises past objection and opposition to her work and theories.It is then contended that the issue of family violence must be seen in the personal and psychological realm, rather than in the political domain, and this is discussed in relation to a statistical survey of answers provided in questionnaires self‐completed by 100 female residents of Chiswick Women's Aid, London during 1975. This study shows evidence of a link between violence in childhood and the recreation of violent relationships in adult life and thus suggests that violence appears to be intergenerational.
The strain energy method for the analysis of pin‐jointed redundant frameworks is expressed in matrix form suitable for solution on electronic computers. This is…
The strain energy method for the analysis of pin‐jointed redundant frameworks is expressed in matrix form suitable for solution on electronic computers. This is illustrated by its application to a zero‐length launcher framework having sixty‐three members, nine of which are redundant, using the Ferranti Pegasus computer. It is concluded that a framework must be reasonably complex before the use of this method is justified but that problems of greater complexity than would normally be attempted can readily be solved.
The purpose of this paper is to use a combination of resource-based theory and dynamic capabilities theory to explore the phenomenon of startup survival in an emerging…
The purpose of this paper is to use a combination of resource-based theory and dynamic capabilities theory to explore the phenomenon of startup survival in an emerging entrepreneurial ecosystem.
The study has a phenomenological research design, with an exploratory scope and qualitative approach. It uses in-depth interviews to identify the perceptions of ecosystem agents about the phenomenon of survival.
This paper argues that startup survival should be studied as a construct that is reflected by four conditions: break-even point, accelerated growth, cash stock and continuous operation. Furthermore, it is formed by the interaction of five mainly interacting resources: human capital, social capital, entrepreneurial capital, organizational capital and the incubation process.
The study offers a holistic model of survival that could be applicable to incipient entrepreneurial ecosystems such as the Peruvian one. This model presents survival as a reflexive-formative construct and not as a dichotomic variable (enterprise operating/enterprise closed) as has been commonly considered in the literature.
En este documento se utiliza una combinación de la teoría basada en los recursos y la teoría de las capacidades dinámicas para explorar el fenómeno de la sobrevivencia de startups en un ecosistema emprendedor incipiente.
El estudio tiene un diseño de investigación fenomenológica, con un alcance exploratorio y un enfoque cualitativo. Utiliza entrevistas en profundidad para identificar las percepciones de los agentes del ecosistema sobre el fenómeno de la sobrevivencia.
En este documento se argumenta que la sobrevivencia de los startups debe estudiarse como un constructo que se refleja en cuatro condiciones: el punto de equilibrio, el crecimiento acelerado, el stock de efectivo y la operación continua. Además, se forma por la interacción de cinco categorías de recursos organizacionales: el capital humano, el capital social, el capital emprendedor, el capital organizacional y el proceso de incubación.
El documento ofrece un modelo holístico de sobrevivencia que podría ser aplicable en ecosistemas emprendedores incipientes como el peruano. Este modelo presenta a la sobrevivencia como un constructo reflexivo-formativo y no como una variable dicotómica (empresa en actividad / empresa cerrada) como se ha considerado comúnmente en la literatura.
The objective of this paper is to draw attention to and present statistics on the multiple aspects of violence between parents that should be addressed in research and…
The objective of this paper is to draw attention to and present statistics on the multiple aspects of violence between parents that should be addressed in research and treatment of such cases. In addition to whether the child had witnessed violence between parents, information is needed on the severity and chronicity of the violence witnessed, and whether only one or both parents were violent. Data on these aspects of inter‐parental violence obtained from a sample of 1,313 university students is presented. Thirteen per cent of the students recalled one or more instances of physical violence between their parents when they were age 10 or 13, including six per cent who reported a severe assault. When violence occurred, in about half the cases it was chronic rather than a single isolated instance. In two thirds of the cases the violence was mutual. Both research on witnessing violence between parents and treatment are likely to be enhanced if they take into account the severity, chronicity and mutuality of the violence witnessed by children.
This study aims to use pre‐treatment assessment scores to predict the drop out of 103 incarcerated male violent perpetrators undertaking a long‐term aggression programme…
This study aims to use pre‐treatment assessment scores to predict the drop out of 103 incarcerated male violent perpetrators undertaking a long‐term aggression programme, namely the Cognitive Self Change Programme (CSCP), in six English prisons. A hierarchy of best predictors of attrition in this sample is developed. Results found eight out of the 46 assessment variables analysed had a significant association with treatment drop out. Further to this, discriminant function analysis predicted group membership with 80% accuracy, successfully distinguishing perpetrators who dropped out of the programme from those who completed it. The findings support the use of identifying risk factors pre‐treatment to predict drop out and offer a practical way to identify group members who are likely to drop out of the CSCP in addition to identifying markers for programme improvement. The need for further research to increase our understanding of the underlying causal explanations that link specific assessment items to treatment dropout is discussed.
This study examined sex differences in the prevalence of mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms among Ghanaian university students. Three…
This study examined sex differences in the prevalence of mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms among Ghanaian university students. Three hundred and fifty‐eight university students in heterosexual relationships were asked if they had experienced IPV, coercion, and symptoms of depression or post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as attitudes on the use of violence. Analyses were conducted separately for female and male respondents to explore sex differences in mutual violence and correlates of partner violence and mental health symptoms. Bivariate analyses found that both males and females reported strong correlations between IPV perpetration and IPV victimisation. Multivariate analyses found that among female respondents, their coercive behaviours, attitudes that accept violence and alcohol use were related to perpetrating against their male partner. Among male respondents, attitudes that accept violence and symptoms of conduct disorder were related to abusing their female partner. Additionally, results were that both females and males reported increased mental health symptoms if she/he reported childhood abuse and if her/his partner had attitudes that accepted the use of violence to achieve goals. Taken together, these findings suggest that the majority of couples experience mutual violence and that both females and males can have violent attitudes that accept the use of violence to control their intimate partners, which may also contribute to mental health symptomology.