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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Muhammad Shaukat Malik and Durayya Debaj Makhdoom

This paper aims to determine the impact of corporate governance practices on the financial outcomes of Fortune Global 500 Companies, thus covering impact of geographical…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the impact of corporate governance practices on the financial outcomes of Fortune Global 500 Companies, thus covering impact of geographical differences (USA and non-USA) as well.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is a quantitative research based on a positivist paradigm using deductive reasoning and secondary data collection. Data collection has been done from secondary sources (annual reports, Edgar submissions and financial statistics from renowned financial databases such as yahoo.finance, Bloomberg, Ycharts statistics and Morningstar. Data were collected for 8 years (2005-2012).

Findings

The study found a strong positive relationship between corporate governance and firm performance. Smaller board sizes are found to generate better firm performance in Fortune Global 500 Companies. Frequency of board meetings have also been found to have inverse relationship with firm performance. The study supports board independence to improve transparency in board decision-making process. CEO compensation has been found to have inverse relationship with firm performance. The robustness of our results has been measured with the usage of three dependent variables, and we have found same results with varying significance level.

Research limitations/implications

Due to selection of globally broad sample set qualitative aspects of corporate governance could not be covered. Nevertheless, there is a need to go beyond the quantitative techniques (secondary data) of measuring corporate governance mechanisms.

Practical implications

The population set is unique combination of big players and global diversification. Hence, the corporate governance practices of these firms as understood from the results of this study can be bench-marked for emerging corporates of varying global context.

Originality/value

The research is original and unique as it significant and globally diverse population of Fortune Global 500 Companies over a period of 8 years for 11 variables of interest. Results are helpful in bench marking for the rest of market players.

Details

Corporate Governance, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Muhammad Habib Rana and Muhammad Shaukat Malik

The purpose of this paper is to present a concise overview of available research work on Islamic principles related to human resource management (HRM).

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a concise overview of available research work on Islamic principles related to human resource management (HRM).

Design/methodology/approach

With the purpose in view, an effort was made to collect books, journal articles and research papers. The selected works cover the period from 2003 to 2014. The reason behind selection of this period is the fact that during this time, an increased emphasis on religion, particularly Islam, has been felt the world over. The ideas and inferences out of those works have been compiled in a concise and ordered form. Compilation of ideas has been thematically arranged on the basis of different areas of HRM which led to the findings of the study.

Findings

Business organizations in Islamic countries or those being managed by the Muslims generally claim to follow Islamic management principles. However, practical adherence to these principles varies in various shades depending on national and organizational culture. The reviewed literature covers the theory of HRM and identifies the Islamic principles related to it. Mostly, the researchers have elaborated the Islamic guidelines related to HRM; however, a few have also ventured to find out practical application of Islamic principles and their efficacy.

Research limitations/implications

Books and articles included in this review do not present wholesome picture. Although random selection from various authors and journals neutralizes the limitation to some extent, a more comprehensive review may improve the findings.

Originality/value

Religion has proven to be a driving force in the display of human commitment and devotion in various forms of competitions including war. Identification of the role of religion in business can open new vistas in HRM. The glimpses of the role of Islam in business, especially HRM, included in this review can have far reaching impact.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Muhammad Habib Rana and Muhammad Shaukat Malik

The purpose of this paper is to establish the impact of human resource (HR) practices on organizational performance and moderating effect of Islamic principles on the impact in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish the impact of human resource (HR) practices on organizational performance and moderating effect of Islamic principles on the impact in Pakistani business organizations. It aims at finding efficacy of HR practices as well as the role of Islamic teachings in business.

Design/methodology/approach

Five broad categories of HR practices: selection, training, compensation, performance appraisal and employee participation, have been taken as independent variables and their impact has been assessed on organizational performance: dependent variable, keeping the application of the Islamic principles as moderating variable. Data were collected from employees of mobile telecommunication service providers operating in Pakistan through a questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale and then analyzed in SPSS.

Findings

HR practices, including selection, training, compensation, performance appraisal and employee participation, have been found to be significantly and positively related to organizational performance. Moderation by the application of Islamic principles was observed to be positive. Its magnitude generally displayed decreasing trend with an increase in level of application.

Research limitations/implications

Measurement of Islamic work ethics and organizational performance has been unidirectional, gauged only on the basis of employees’ judgment. Inclusion of organizational and market data in future studies will add to the value of the outcome. Understudy business organizations grudgingly provided required information, in spite of personal connections and liaison, because of their organizational policies, commitments and limited concern with the research. Lists of employees were not shared with the researchers, which left only the option of convenient sampling. More reliable sampling techniques are recommended for future research on the subject. Moreover, the sampling frame was limited to the province of Punjab because of shortage of resources. Future research on the subject is suggested to have a broader base, including organizations interested to participate in the exercise of research.

Practical implications

Outcome of the study will provide useful guidelines to the business organizations by clarifying whether business is a religion-neutral affair or not. It is also expected to provide a line of thought for self-assessment and improvement. The concept of maximization of profit for a business organization can be evolved to a win–win arrangement by the maximization of benefit for all stakeholders. This is a logical and certain outcome once a business organization takes care of its employees, society, environment and, definitely, its shareholders.

Originality/value

A few studies exist on human resource management in Islamic as well as Pakistani context; however, the role of the religion and its contribution toward organizational performance has not been amply crystallized. This is just an endeavor in hitherto less frequented direction.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Muhammad Shaukat Malik and Maria Kanwal

The purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically impacts of organizational knowledge-sharing practices (KSP) on employees’ job satisfaction (JS), interpersonal adaptability…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically impacts of organizational knowledge-sharing practices (KSP) on employees’ job satisfaction (JS), interpersonal adaptability (IA) and learning commitment (LC). Indirect effects of KSP on JS are also confirmed through mediating factors (LC and IA).

Design/methodology/approach

Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Knowledge workers from service sector organizations were taken as population of study. Therefore, three types of institutes (banks, insurance and telecom companies) from services sector of Pakistan were selected for sampling purpose. A sample size of 435 employees, comprising 145 employees from each type of institute, was selected. Linear regression analysis and mediation analyses were performed for statistical analysis.

Findings

Organizational support for knowledge sharing fosters learning commitment (LC), and interpersonal adaptability (IA) among workforce that ultimately grounds employees’ job satisfaction. Therefore, in our findings, the mediating role of IA is greater than the mediating effect of LC.

Research limitations/implications

This study presents a firm reasoning to decision makers for implementation of KSP in the organizations. Findings of study offer several subjects for discussion in the field of KS by academics and research. Present research is limited to test the composite effect of KSP for some selected employee outcomes only.

Originality/value

This research attempts to provide empirical evidence about impacts of KSP on employee outcomes. Research work on such issues was lacking in Pakistani context. Therefore, this paper supplies ample of theoretical base for future research as well as management decision makers to maximize the benefits of implementing KSP at their organizations.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2013

Salman Yousaf and Muhammad Shaukat Malik

The purpose of this paper is to understand the connection between the degree of religiosity and the product involvement level in determining the various constructs of consumer…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the connection between the degree of religiosity and the product involvement level in determining the various constructs of consumer behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of a small survey, clothes were selected as a high involvement product, and snacks were selected as a low involvement product. A modified version of Sproles and Kendal's Customer Style Inventory scale was used to profile the behaviour of consumers, using confirmatory factor analysis approach. Worthington et al.'s Religious Commitment Inventory scale was used to measure the religiosity levels. Data were collected from students of five universities located in different regions of Pakistan.

Findings

Consumer behaviour varies with the level of involvement and the degree of religiosity. In the case of high involvement product category, the highly religious group was found to be less recreational, fashion conscious and impulsive in their shopping orientations. It was also determined that the higher religious group was more socially influenced in making purchase decisions, more conscious about their lifestyle and less confused by information over choice, as compared to the less religious group. In the case of the low involvement product category, it was determined that religiosity negatively influenced the brand consciousness of consumers. The results indicated that higher religious consumers were less impulsive and did not give much consideration to advertisements in making purchase decisions; but it was opposite for the less religious consumers. Highly religious consumers in the low involvement product category were also found to be more socially influenced and not as confused by excessive information in making their purchase decisions. Overall, it was established that in order to better understand the intricacies of the behaviour of consumers, their purchasing habits should be studied in the context of varying levels of religiosity and product involvement.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused on youth only, so results derived might not be generalized to the other segments of the population.

Originality/value

The current study aims to understand how religiosity and involvement level complement each other in determining the behaviour of consumers and whether the level of religiosity equally determines the behaviour of consumers in the low involvement product category and high involvement product category or not. No previous study has been conducted to explore this dimension of consumer behaviour, and this paper categorically strives to fill this gap.

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Muhammad Asif Naveed, Amara Malik and Khalid Mahmood

This study investigated the impact of conspiracy beliefs on fear of Covid-19 and health protective behavior of university students in Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the impact of conspiracy beliefs on fear of Covid-19 and health protective behavior of university students in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey using an online questionnaire was conducted at three universities in Punjab (e.g. two public sectors and one private sector) with permission from concerned authorities for data collection. A total of 374 responses were received that were analyzed by applying both descriptive and inferential statistics.

Findings

The results indicated the prevalence of conspiracy beliefs and fear of Covid-19 among university students of two public sector universities and one private sector university. Furthermore, the conspiracy beliefs of university students predicted their fear of Covid-19. However, conspiracy beliefs did not predict the health protective behavior of university students.

Research limitations/implications

These results had serious implications for public health in Pakistan demonstrating the critical need for health education and promotion as individual preparedness along with system preparedness is essential to combat Covid-19 pandemic and infodemic. These results are useful for policymakers, healthcare professionals, university administration and library staff for making evidence-based decisions toward health education and promotion related to the Covid-19 pandemic.

Originality/value

It is hoped that the present study would make an invaluable contribution to existing research on promotional health in general and the role of conspiracy beliefs in putting public health at risk in particular as limited studies have been published so far.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2018

Muhammad Usman and Malik Imran Ahmad

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of social capital on the adoption of best crop management practices and testified the mediatory role of learning in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of social capital on the adoption of best crop management practices and testified the mediatory role of learning in the relationship between social capital and the adoption of best crop management practices. Then the authors examined the role of education as the moderator of the interrelations between social capital, learning and the adoption of crop management practices.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a survey of 317 small farmers from three districts of Southern Punjab, the authors used structural equation modeling and bootstrapping to test these relationships.

Findings

The study confirms that bonding social capital and bridging social capital are positively related to the adoption of best crop management practices. Moreover, the authors empirically demonstrate that exploitative and explorative learning act as the parallel mediators between social capital and the adoption of best crop management practices.

Practical implications

By focusing on building social capital and maintaining meaningful interactions with the social networks, the small farmers can improve their existing methods and practices of managing the existing varieties of crops.

Originality/value

The extant literature has highlighted, but usually not explored, the imperative interrelations between social capital, learning and the adoption of best crop management practices. The authors provide empirical evidence about these relationships.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Muhammad Shakeel Sadiq Jajja, Vijay R. Kannan, Shaukat Ali Brah and Syed Zahoor Hassan

The purpose of this paper is to use resource dependence theory to hypothesize that a buyer’s innovation strategy enhances supplier innovation focus and a buyer-supplier…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use resource dependence theory to hypothesize that a buyer’s innovation strategy enhances supplier innovation focus and a buyer-supplier relationship that supports product innovation. These in turn positively impact buyer product innovation outcomes and business performance. Moreover, it is argued that the buyer-supplier relationship positively moderates the impact of supplier innovation focus on product innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling and hierarchical linear regression are used to test hypotheses.

Findings

The results support all hypotheses and suggest that company (buyer) age and variables related to buyer engagement with international markets directly influence performance. The results also indicate that the buyer-supplier relationship does not moderate the relationship between innovation strategy and innovation performance.

Research limitations/implications

This study demonstrates that how a firm builds the conditions to effectively leverage the complementary resources and capabilities of suppliers directly influence innovation outcomes and business performance.

Practical implications

An important factor in firms achieving their product innovation goals is the selection and management of suppliers that are strategically aligned with regard to innovation. While managers need to develop internal innovation capabilities, partnering with like-minded organizations, and creating conditions for effective cooperation are key drivers of innovation outcomes.

Originality/value

In contrast to prior research that has examined operational issues, this study shows how the strategic alignment of buyers and suppliers with regard to innovation is an antecedent of product innovation outcomes. Moreover, it adds to a limited literature on supply chain management practices in emerging markets.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2024

Sami Ullah, Tooba Ahmad, Mohit Kukreti, Abdul Sami and Muhammad Rehan Shaukat

Consumers and businesses are becoming increasingly conscious of sustainable business practices and are often willing to pay a premium for responsibly sourced and manufactured…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumers and businesses are becoming increasingly conscious of sustainable business practices and are often willing to pay a premium for responsibly sourced and manufactured products. Many countries and organizations have implemented regulations and standards for sustainability and companies face penalties or are barred from exporting for not meeting the requirements. Rooted in the resource-based view theory, this study aims to test a moderated mediation model to improve the sustainability performance of exporting firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Textile firms generating more than 25% of export revenues were targeted for this research. The data collected from 245 middle management-level employees were tested for reliability and validity. The structural equation modelling in AMOS 26 was used to test hypotheses.

Findings

Organizational readiness for green innovation (ORGI) has a direct positive effect on sustainability performance. The mediation analysis implies that ORGI translates into sustainability performance through improvement in green innovation performance. The moderating effect of knowledge integration highlights the importance of being prepared internally and actively seeking and incorporating external knowledge to improve green innovation performance.

Originality/value

The findings offer a solid foundation for informed decision-making, policy development and strategies to improve sustainability performance while aligning with the global nature of the textile industry and its inherent challenges. The proposed model and practical implications guide policymakers and managers of exporting firms to foster a culture of green innovation to leverage the effect of their readiness for green innovation on sustainability performance.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 September 2017

Wahid Ullah, Takaaki Nihei, Muhammad Nafees, Rahman Zaman and Muhammad Ali

This study aims to investigate risks associated with climate change vulnerability and in response the adaptation methods used by farming communities to reduce its negative impacts…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate risks associated with climate change vulnerability and in response the adaptation methods used by farming communities to reduce its negative impacts on agriculture in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used household survey method of data collection in Charsadda district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, involving 116 randomly selected respondents.

Findings

Prevalent crops diseases, water scarcity, soil fertility loss and poor socio-economic conditions were main contributing factors of climate change vulnerability. The results further showed that changing crops type and cultivation pattern, improved seed varieties, planting shaded trees and the provision of excessive fertilizers are the measures adapted to improve agricultural productivity, which may reduce the climate change vulnerability at a household level.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of this study was the exclusion of women from the survey due to religious and cultural barriers of in Pashtun society, wherein women and men do not mingle.

Practical implications

Reducing climate change vulnerability and developing more effective adaptation techniques require assistance from the government. This help can be in the form of providing basic resources, such as access to good quality agricultural inputs, access to information and extension services on climate change adaptation and modern technologies. Consultation with other key stakeholder is also required to create awareness and to build the capacity of the locals toward reducing climate change vulnerability and facilitating timely and effective adaptation.

Originality/value

This original research work provides evidence about farm-level vulnerability, adaptation strategies and risk perceptions on dealing with climate-change-induced natural disasters in Pakistan. This paper enriches existing knowledge of climate change vulnerability and adaptation in this resource-limited country so that effective measures can be taken to reduce vulnerability of farming communities, and enhance their adaptive capability.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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