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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2015

Van Q. Tran, Sabina Alkire and Stephan Klasen

There has been a rapid expansion in the literature on the measurement of multidimensional poverty in recent years. This paper focuses on the longitudinal aspects of…

Abstract

There has been a rapid expansion in the literature on the measurement of multidimensional poverty in recent years. This paper focuses on the longitudinal aspects of multidimensional poverty and its link to dynamic income poverty measurement. Using panel household survey data in Vietnam from 2007, 2008, and 2010, the paper analyses the prevalence and dynamics of both multidimensional and monetary poverty from the same dataset. The results show that the monetary poor (or non-poor) are not always multidimensionally poor (or non-poor) – indeed the overlap between the two measures is much less than 50 percent. Additionally, monetary poverty shows faster progress as well as a higher level of fluctuation than multidimensional poverty. We suggest that rapid economic growth as experienced by Vietnam has had a larger and more immediate impact on monetary than on multidimensional poverty.

Details

Measurement of Poverty, Deprivation, and Economic Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-386-0

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Mustafa Hassan Elsafi, Elsadig Musa Ahmed and Santhi Ramanathan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of microfinance programs sponsored by Sudanese microfinance institutions (SMFIs) on monetary poverty reduction in Sudan…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of microfinance programs sponsored by Sudanese microfinance institutions (SMFIs) on monetary poverty reduction in Sudan where poverty is widely spread.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted the control group approach, where income and expenditure are taken as welfare indicators. The updated World Bank’s international poverty line of 1.90 per person per day was adopted to separate the poor from non-poor. The data were collected by the means of a questionnaire distributed to a random sample of beneficiaries in the institution under study. The study adapted the Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) model to evaluate the role of microfinance programs in poverty reduction. Furthermore, to gain more insight into the impact of the program, a preliminary analysis was conducted using the independent-samples t-test to examine the difference in the welfare indicators for the sample of the control group and treatment group as well as that of the small loan group and micro-loan group.

Findings

The findings show that the microfinance program provided by SMFIs has reduced the monetary poverty among the participants. The results also reveal that beneficiaries who had received a larger volume of loan were noted lesser poverty than those who had received very small loan size. Moreover, the results demonstrate that poverty indices based on expenditure as a welfare indicator are far lower than those based on income for both groups.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the available literature by filling the gaps through including income and expenditure as monetary variables, which included separately in previous studies adopted the FGT model in the area of microfinance, in addition to exploring the role of loan size in the effect of microfinance on poverty reduction.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2017

Sabina Alkire and Yangyang Shen

Most poverty research has explored monetary poverty. This chapter presents and analyzes the global multidimensional poverty index (MPI) estimations for China. Using China…

Abstract

Most poverty research has explored monetary poverty. This chapter presents and analyzes the global multidimensional poverty index (MPI) estimations for China. Using China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we find China’s global MPI was 0.035 in 2010 and decreased significantly to 0.017 in 2014. The dimensional composition of MPI suggests that nutrition, education, safe drinking water, and cooking fuel contribute most to overall non-monetary poverty in China. Such analysis is also applied to subgroups, including geographic areas (rural/urban, east/central/west, provinces), as well as social characteristics such as gender of the household heads, age, education level, marital status, household size, migration status, ethnicity, and religion. We find the level and composition of poverty differs significantly across certain subgroups. We also find high levels of mismatch between monetary and multidimensional poverty at the household level, which highlights the importance of using both complementary measures to track progress in eradicating poverty.

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Research on Economic Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-521-4

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Johannes Tabi Atemnkeng and Daniel Mbu Tambi

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight to policy-makers into a framework for action, which is needed to effectively reduce poverty in its monetary and non-monetary

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight to policy-makers into a framework for action, which is needed to effectively reduce poverty in its monetary and non-monetary dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

Specifically, an exact decomposition analysis is conducted that is based on the Shapley value method, and investigated the growth and redistribution effects as well as changes due to mobility and sector-specific effects of the variation in both income/expenditure and non-income poverty dimensions.

Findings

Growth in mean consumption and household assets accounted for the bulk of the improvement in poverty reduction and the results complement the evidence obtained from the “sectoral decomposition” of poverty in Cameroon which may indeed have a strong bearing on the sectoral shares of poverty. The temptation is resisted, however, not to deny that redistribution also has an important role to play, yet there must be severe limits to what can be achieved by growth neutral redistribution. The redistribution effect had an ameliorating tendency in household asset deprivation among farming households.

Originality/value

This paper is a well-written piece using quite rigorous and interesting methodological approach. To obtain a measure of non-income dimensions of well-being, the authors constructed composite indices on household assets reflecting household access to a range of physical assets and services including human capital by polychoric principal component analysis method.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

John Ele‐Ojo Ataguba, Hyacinth Eme Ichoku and William M. Fonta

The purpose of this paper is to compare the assessment of poverty/deprivation using different conceptions of this phenomenon including the traditional money‐metric measure…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the assessment of poverty/deprivation using different conceptions of this phenomenon including the traditional money‐metric measure and different forms of multidimensional constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were drawn from a household survey conducted in Nsukka, Nigeria. Interviewer‐administered questionnaires were used in data collection from about 410 households across urban and rural localities. The counting and FGT methodologies were used to assess impoverishment, while regression analyses were used to assess the determinants of deprivation across different constructs.

Findings

Between 70 per cent and 78 per cent of the study population were identified as poor/deprived. However, more than 11 per cent of those living on less than USD1.25/day were classified as non‐poor using different measures of multidimensional poverty. Similarly, more than 62 per cent of individuals who live on more than 1.25USD/day (i.e. non‐poor) are classified as poor using different measures of multidimensional deprivation. There is some level of correlation between measures, some inevitably stronger than others. The major determinants of deprivation across the various constructs of deprivation include large family size, low level of education, poor employment, rural location, and poor health.

Originality/value

This paper uses novel datasets that incorporate variables relating to the capability approach in understanding deprivation. Specifically, it analyses the so‐called missing dimensions of poverty. It also applies a new methodology for the assessment of impoverishment and deprivation. It highlights the importance of the capability approach in explaining poverty.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Fabio Berti, Antonella D’Agostino, Achille Lemmi and Laura Neri

Italy has become a migrant receiving country and it has to face with the problem of social inclusion of immigrants. The purpose of this paper is to measure the gap on…

Abstract

Purpose

Italy has become a migrant receiving country and it has to face with the problem of social inclusion of immigrants. The purpose of this paper is to measure the gap on poverty and deprivation between immigrants and natives since manifest conditions of both of them are an important signal, although not exclusively, of social exclusion.

Design/methodology/approach

Poverty analysis typically relies on a single monetary variable such as income and it is characterized by a simple dichotomization of the population into poor and non-poor. In this paper the authors stress the importance of using a multidimensional and fuzzy approach in order to study disparities between immigrants and natives. The authors cover several of the multifaceted aspects of resources necessary to maintain adequate living standards in a developed country. With the fuzzy methodology, the authors also overcome any limitation of the conventional approach based on the simple dichotomization of the phenomenon.

Findings

The empirical analysis is based on data from two official surveys. The authors find that between Italian and immigrant households there are significant differences in poverty and deprivation levels, with a strong disadvantage for the latter. The authors argue that any serious attempt to reduce poverty and deprivation must now include comprehensive reforms in the nation's immigration policies if they are to be taken seriously.

Originality/value

The paper makes an original contribution to the understanding of inequality between immigrants and natives, by studying a complex phenomena such as poverty and deprivation in a multidimensional perspective using a fuzzy approach.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2011

Paul Ningaye

The purpose of this paper is to reconcile the multidimensional nature of poverty with a population's cultural conditioning for the purpose of policy evaluation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reconcile the multidimensional nature of poverty with a population's cultural conditioning for the purpose of policy evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling is the strategy used to compare nested models.

Findings

The results show that the observed differences in the dimensions of poverty significantly, but not exclusively, result from differences in cultural valuation systems between groups. Culture influences poverty in two ways: differences in perceptions and differences in the poverty determinants.

Practical implications

In consideration of these results, we propose a participatory, decentralized and cautious approach in developing credible poverty‐alleviation strategies which respond to the needs expressed by the relevant populations.

Originality/value

In this research, the authors adopt a quantitative approach which applies some statistical tests to analyze the effects of cultural values on poverty.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Asmaa Ezzat and Hanan Nazier

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender differences in time poverty in two Middle East North African (MENA) countries, particularly Egypt and Tunisia, as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender differences in time poverty in two Middle East North African (MENA) countries, particularly Egypt and Tunisia, as well as examining its determinants across gender.

Design/methodology/approach

To this end, the authors make use of data provided by the Labor Market Panel Survey (LMPS) in Egypt (2012) and in Tunisia (2014) to estimate probit regressions to identify various determinants that explain time poverty.

Findings

The empirical findings show that the probability of time poverty, in both countries, is lower for women compared to men. In addition, the determinants of time poverty (individual, household and community variables) and their marginal effects differ across gender.

Originality/value

Research on the gender inequalities in time poverty and its determinants has been very limited. Additionally, the relationships between individuals’ time use and the conditions under which this might represent time poverty have not been fully studied in the literature. Moreover, most of the available studies have focused on developed countries; while studies tackling this issue in developing countries are very few. For the MENA region, in particular, this topic is totally missing in the available literature.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2012

Kingsley Banya

This chapter critically examines the causes and effects of continuous poverty in two sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, despite various poverty alleviation strategies…

Abstract

This chapter critically examines the causes and effects of continuous poverty in two sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, despite various poverty alleviation strategies adopted by each country. It reveals the theoretical framework and the accompanying set of programmatic and policy tools for poverty alleviation in SSA.

Details

Living on the Boundaries: Urban Marginality in National and International Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-032-2

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Rami B.H. Kacem

The analysis of poverty is fundamentally focused on examining the well-being condition of the poor. We usually neglect the information provided by the rich. Nevertheless…

Abstract

Purpose

The analysis of poverty is fundamentally focused on examining the well-being condition of the poor. We usually neglect the information provided by the rich. Nevertheless, perhaps the non-considered information indicating the determinants of non-poverty is also useful for fighting against poverty. The purpose of this paper is to analyze poverty under a new angle i.e. focusing on the information provided by the non-poor instead of the poor. For that a richness index is calculated in order to estimate econometric models regressing both indices i.e. poverty and richness indices on same selected characteristics. Thus, the comparison of the determinants of poverty and non-poverty for Tunisian case have allowed the classification of the selected explanatory variables with significant effect into four categories: the variables having significant effect on both sides (permanent effect), the variables having significant effect on the poor but not on the non-poor (transitory effect), the variables having significant effect on the non-poor but not on the poor (insurance effect) and the variables without any effect on both cases (neutral effect). This procedure is thus important given that it provides additional information and new way to enhance the targeting efficiency of the poor and fighting against poverty.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Tunisian data, an original procedure is proposed for calculating a richness index, defined based on the common formula of calculating the poverty index. Next econometric models are estimated regressing both the indices i.e. poverty and richness index on same selected characteristics.

Findings

The comparison of the determinants of poverty and non-poverty have allowed the classification of the selected explanatory variables with significant effect into four categories: the variables having significant effect on both sides (permanent effect), the variables having significant effect on the poor but not on the non-poor (transitory effect), the variables having significant effect on the non-poor but not on the poor (insurance effect) and the variables without any effect on both cases (neutral effect).

Originality/value

The analysis and the classification of the determinants of poverty according to the determinants of non-poverty is never made before in the litterature. This procedure is important given that it provides additional information and a new way to enhance the efficiency of targeting the poor and fighting against poverty.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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