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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2017

Romina Gambacorta

During the last two decades the share of foreign-born residents in Italy has grown considerably, from just over 1 percent to about 8 percent. This chapter seeks to clarify…

Abstract

During the last two decades the share of foreign-born residents in Italy has grown considerably, from just over 1 percent to about 8 percent. This chapter seeks to clarify the status of immigrants in Italy by examining the evolution of their economic situation and, in particular, the presence of economic hardship. Poverty is measured by considering not only the usual income-based indicators but also others that take into account households’ real and financial wealth. The picture that emerges is one of a higher incidence of economic hardship among immigrant households that strongly affects the dynamics of poverty nationwide. The economic gap with respect to natives appears to increase in the years considered, but the condition of poverty is not more persistent for immigrants than for Italians.

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Research on Economic Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-521-4

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2010

María Emma Santos, María Ana Lugo, Luis Felipe López-Calva, Guillermo Cruces and Diego Battistón

Latin America has a longstanding tradition in multidimensional poverty measurement through the unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) approach. However, the method has been…

Abstract

Latin America has a longstanding tradition in multidimensional poverty measurement through the unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) approach. However, the method has been criticized on several grounds, including the selection of indicators, the implicit weighting scheme and the aggregation methodology, among others. The estimates by the UBN approach have traditionally been complemented (or replaced) with income poverty estimates. Under the premise that poverty is inherently multidimensional, in this chapter we propose three methodological refinements to the UBN approach. Using the proposed methodology we provide a set of comparable poverty estimates for six Latin American countries between 1992 and 2006.

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Studies in Applied Welfare Analysis: Papers from the Third ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-146-7

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Nasreddine Kaidi and Sami Mensi

The purpose of this paper is to test the impact of financial development (FD) indicators, namely banking and stock market (SM) indicators, on the household final…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the impact of financial development (FD) indicators, namely banking and stock market (SM) indicators, on the household final consumption expenditure as a poverty index.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors study an international sample of 138 countries over the period 1980-2014. A series of estimation methods are used on different measures of bank-based and stock-based FD. Subgroups of countries, namely low, middle, upper-middle and high-income countries are also investigated.

Findings

In the study, the authors concluded that FD fails to reach the poorest segments of each society in the international sample. For the selected subgroups of countries, the authors concluded that the impact of the bank and the SM indicators, on the poorest population segments, changes depending on, the estimated FD variables, the selected group of countries and the adopted estimation technique.

Practical implications

The present study recommends appropriate economic and financial reforms, with focus on the roles of banks and SM roles to reduce poverty and stimulate channels that allow the poorest population to exploit from financial services.

Originality/value

This paper is the first of its kind to empirically examine, separately, the impact of banks development and SM development, on an international panel and subgroups of countries, using modern econometric techniques.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2015

Van Q. Tran, Sabina Alkire and Stephan Klasen

There has been a rapid expansion in the literature on the measurement of multidimensional poverty in recent years. This paper focuses on the longitudinal aspects of…

Abstract

There has been a rapid expansion in the literature on the measurement of multidimensional poverty in recent years. This paper focuses on the longitudinal aspects of multidimensional poverty and its link to dynamic income poverty measurement. Using panel household survey data in Vietnam from 2007, 2008, and 2010, the paper analyses the prevalence and dynamics of both multidimensional and monetary poverty from the same dataset. The results show that the monetary poor (or non-poor) are not always multidimensionally poor (or non-poor) – indeed the overlap between the two measures is much less than 50 percent. Additionally, monetary poverty shows faster progress as well as a higher level of fluctuation than multidimensional poverty. We suggest that rapid economic growth as experienced by Vietnam has had a larger and more immediate impact on monetary than on multidimensional poverty.

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Measurement of Poverty, Deprivation, and Economic Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-386-0

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2015

Kathleen S. Short

This paper examines several measures of poverty and hardship for the United States to illustrate how a single measure of poverty may identify different groups of people as…

Abstract

This paper examines several measures of poverty and hardship for the United States to illustrate how a single measure of poverty may identify different groups of people as “in need.” Individuals and families may encounter difficulty meeting needs on many dimensions and there are a variety of measures designed to identify those who experience poverty or difficulty making ends meet. In general, there is agreement that all of the approaches capture different pieces of the puzzle while no single indicator can yield a complete picture. To understand this multidimensional aspect of poverty, several measures are examined in this paper: the official U.S. poverty measure, a relative poverty measure, a new supplemental measure that follows recommendations of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS), an index of material hardship, a measure of household debt, and responses to a question about inability to meet expenses. This study uses the 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and updates a similar analysis that used the 1996 panel of SIPP (Short, 2005). The SIPP is a longitudinal survey that allows us to examine all of these various indicators for the same people over the period from 2009 to 2010. The study uses regression analysis to assess the relationship among several indicators of economic hardship. Results suggest that an understanding of relationships between various indicators can allow only one indicator of poverty alone to be interpreted more appropriately and used more wisely to target the needs of the disadvantaged.

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Measurement of Poverty, Deprivation, and Economic Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-386-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2004

Amélia Bastos, Graça Leão Fernandes and José Passos

This paper is a study on child poverty from two perspectives: child income poverty (derived from family income) and child deprivation (evaluated by non‐monetary indicators

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Abstract

This paper is a study on child poverty from two perspectives: child income poverty (derived from family income) and child deprivation (evaluated by non‐monetary indicators). On the one hand, empirical evidence supports the thesis that income‐based poverty measures and deprivation measures do not overlap. On the other hand, the relationship between poverty and the child's living conditions is not linear. Uses micro‐econometric techniques to analyse child income poverty and present deprivation indicators, and thereby an index of child deprivation, to study child poverty. The measurements used are centred on the child. The results obtained support the thesis that the study of child poverty differs whether the focus is on the child or on the family.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 31 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2007

Jesús Pérez-Mayo

This paper compares two alternative methods for measuring multidimensional poverty. This question has become extremely important in recent years, both in the scientific…

Abstract

This paper compares two alternative methods for measuring multidimensional poverty. This question has become extremely important in recent years, both in the scientific literature and in social policy. We propose to use latent class analysis to evaluate poverty in Spain. We make use of the “fuzzy set” approach, and compare the results achieved from these two methodologies.

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Inequality and Poverty
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1374-7

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Abstract

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Energy Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-780-1

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Jabrane Amaghouss and Aoamar Ibourk

In recent years, there is growing recognition of the importance of geography and space in the analysis of economic convergence by focusing on the dynamics of monetary…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, there is growing recognition of the importance of geography and space in the analysis of economic convergence by focusing on the dynamics of monetary indicators. The analysis of spatial convergence based on socio-economic indicators are rare. These variables present a complement to understand the spatial dynamics of territorial units. The purpose of this paper is, first, to analyzes and describes trends in multidimensional poverty in Morocco and second it explores the convergence hypothesis.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are driven from HCP (2017). It concerns 75 provinces over the period 2004 and 2014. In addition to the availability of data, this period corresponds to significant changes in public policy. The nature of the observations necessitates the use of the spatial analysis techniques.

Findings

The results show that poverty is a geographical phenomenon with low speed of convergence. The paper propose some solutions to help policymakers implement an effective targeting policy aimed at reducing spatial inequalities in terms of multidimensional poverty in Morocco.

Originality/value

The analysis of spatial convergence based on socio-economic indicators are rare. This paper will focus on the convergence of the poverty index for a developing country.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Mustafa Hassan Elsafi, Elsadig Musa Ahmed and Santhi Ramanathan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of microfinance programs sponsored by Sudanese microfinance institutions (SMFIs) on monetary poverty reduction in Sudan…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of microfinance programs sponsored by Sudanese microfinance institutions (SMFIs) on monetary poverty reduction in Sudan where poverty is widely spread.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted the control group approach, where income and expenditure are taken as welfare indicators. The updated World Bank’s international poverty line of 1.90 per person per day was adopted to separate the poor from non-poor. The data were collected by the means of a questionnaire distributed to a random sample of beneficiaries in the institution under study. The study adapted the Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) model to evaluate the role of microfinance programs in poverty reduction. Furthermore, to gain more insight into the impact of the program, a preliminary analysis was conducted using the independent-samples t-test to examine the difference in the welfare indicators for the sample of the control group and treatment group as well as that of the small loan group and micro-loan group.

Findings

The findings show that the microfinance program provided by SMFIs has reduced the monetary poverty among the participants. The results also reveal that beneficiaries who had received a larger volume of loan were noted lesser poverty than those who had received very small loan size. Moreover, the results demonstrate that poverty indices based on expenditure as a welfare indicator are far lower than those based on income for both groups.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the available literature by filling the gaps through including income and expenditure as monetary variables, which included separately in previous studies adopted the FGT model in the area of microfinance, in addition to exploring the role of loan size in the effect of microfinance on poverty reduction.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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