Search results

1 – 10 of over 32000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2004

Gary A. Hoover

In recent years a great deal of time and resources have been devoted to understanding poverty in general and elderly poverty in particular. This paper uses a panel data…

Abstract

In recent years a great deal of time and resources have been devoted to understanding poverty in general and elderly poverty in particular. This paper uses a panel data set spanning the years 1980–2001 to investigate the impact of certain economic and demographic factors on overall, non-elderly, and elderly poverty. We also investigate the robustness of income-only poverty measures when the threshold income level is altered.

Details

Studies on Economic Well-Being: Essays in the Honor of John P. Formby
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-136-1

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2004

Christopher K. Johnson and Hoseong Kim

The impacts of median income and other variables on the Sen index of poverty in the United States are investigated using panel data with fixed time period and cross…

Abstract

The impacts of median income and other variables on the Sen index of poverty in the United States are investigated using panel data with fixed time period and cross sectional effects. Estimates for the Sen index and its decomposed components – the headcount ratio, poverty gap ratio, and Gini coefficient among the poor reveal that median income among state/regions and across time systematically influences the Sen index and each of its components. However, the results reveal that labor market and demographic control variables have quite different effects on the distinct components of the Sen index.

Details

Studies on Economic Well-Being: Essays in the Honor of John P. Formby
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-136-1

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Fan Gao

Poverty alleviation has been a major theme of China's modernization process since the founding of New China. This paper points out that China's poverty alleviation process…

Abstract

Purpose

Poverty alleviation has been a major theme of China's modernization process since the founding of New China. This paper points out that China's poverty alleviation process presents three stylized facts: “Miraculous” achievements of poverty alleviation have been made on a global scale; the poverty alleviation achievements mainly occurred in the high growth stage after reform and opening up; the poverty alleviation process is accompanied by the structural transformation of the urban–rural dual economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Therefore, a logically consistent analytical framework should form among the structural transformation of the dual economy, economic growth and the achievements in poverty alleviation. In logical deduction, the structural transformation of the dual economy affects rural poverty alleviation through the effects of labor reallocation, agricultural productivity improvement, demographic change and fiscal resource allocation.

Findings

The first two refer to economic growth, and the latter two are alleviation policies. The combination of economic growth and poverty alleviation policies is the main cause for poverty alleviation performance. China's empirical evidence can support the four effects by which the structural transformation of the dual economy affects poverty alleviation.

Originality/value

China's socialist system and its economic system transformation after reform and opening up provide an institutional basis for the effects to come into play. After 2020, China's poverty alleviation strategies will enter the “second-half” phase, namely, the phase of solving the problems of relative poverty in urban and rural areas by adopting conventional methods and establishing long-term mechanisms. This requires the facilitation of the reconnection between poverty alleviation strategies and the structural transformation of the dual economy in terms of development ideas and policy directions.

Details

China Political Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 October 2021

Raheem Olatunji Aminu, Wei Si, Shakirat Bolatito Ibrahim, Aisha Olushola Arowolo and Adefunke Fadilat O. Ayinde

This paper evaluates the impact of socio and demographic factors on the multidimensional poverty of smallholder arable crop farming households in Nigeria.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper evaluates the impact of socio and demographic factors on the multidimensional poverty of smallholder arable crop farming households in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were drawn from the second wave of the LSMS-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture General Household Survey Panel 2012/2013. The methods adopted in analysing the data were descriptive statistics, Alkire and Foster Method (AFM) and logit regression model.

Findings

The result shows that 84.34% of the households were headed by a male while 80.26% of the respondents were married with a mean household size of seven persons. The multidimensional poverty of arable crop farm households in Nigeria is 0.60, while the adjusted headcount ratio (MPI) is 0.27, with an average intensity of 0.45. We found that deprivation in the dimension of living standard accounted for 45.5% of the overall multidimensional poverty index (MPI). The result of the logistic regression indicates that household location, gender, household size and non-farm income are negatively correlated to poverty. The factors that increase poverty among households are the age of the household head and access to extension services.

Originality/value

The study presents an alternative means of assessing poverty among smallholder arable crop farming households in Nigeria. This study recommends that policymakers should focus more on improving the living standard of arable crop farming households to reduce poverty in rural areas. Similarly, concerted efforts should be made towards providing adequate health care and improved sanitation, supply of electricity and educational training that goes beyond primary education for farming household members.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 October 2021

Mufaro Dzingirai

Entrepreneurship has increasingly become a subject of interest for scholars and policymakers in an attempt to reduce poverty in agricultural communities across the world…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship has increasingly become a subject of interest for scholars and policymakers in an attempt to reduce poverty in agricultural communities across the world, especially in Africa. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to examine the role of entrepreneurship in reducing poverty in agricultural communities of Lower Gweru, Zimbabwe.

Design/methodology/approach

Exploratory research design informed the data collection and analysis in this study. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 owners of agribusinesses from various socio-economic backgrounds. The collected data from the field were analyzed using thematic analysis.

Findings

The results revealed that entrepreneurship plays a catalytic role in poverty reduction in agricultural communities through food security, skill transfer, employment creation, income generation and a decrease in food costs.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused on four agricultural communities in Lower Gweru which can limit the generalizability of the results to other contexts. Furthermore, this inquiry is a cross-sectional study that did not capture the longitudinal factors that can affect entrepreneurship and poverty reduction in agricultural communities.

Practical implications

The research outcomes have some practical implications for the Zimbabwean government and microfinance institutions in designing policies and programs to reduce poverty in marginalized agricultural communities. The findings are also useful for non-governmental organizations in designing, monitoring and evaluating poverty reduction programs in agricultural communities.

Originality/value

This study advances, contextualizes and enriches the body of knowledge concerning agricultural entrepreneurship and poverty reduction in the under-researched setting of agricultural communities. Notably, this study captures the African flavor in the agricultural entrepreneurship and poverty reduction discourse by focusing on the unique Zimbabwean context.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Olumide Olaoye, Cleopatra Oluseye Ibukun, Mustafa Razzak and Naftaly Mose

The paper analyses the prevalence of extreme and multidimensional poverty in line with the sustainable development agenda. In addition, the paper examines the drivers of…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper analyses the prevalence of extreme and multidimensional poverty in line with the sustainable development agenda. In addition, the paper examines the drivers of extreme poverty while accounting for the potential spillover effect of poverty in the region.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts the pooled OLS with Discroll-Kraay robust standard errors to control for cross-sectional dependence. In addition, given the strong potential for endogeneity of poverty index, the authors also employ the generalized method of moments (GMM), which accounts for simultaneity and endogeneity problems, and the spatial error and lag models to control for all forms of spatial and temporal dependence since the factors that affect poverty disperse across borders.

Findings

The study finds that in addition to the traditional drivers of poverty (unemployment, low per capita GDP growth and public debt), poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa is a symptom of a deeper structural problem (lack of access to water and sanitation, high level of corruption and low level of financial development, and frequent economic busts). Likewise, the results from the spatial econometric specification show, consistently across all the specifications, that there is a substantial spillover effect of poverty across the region.

Originality/value

The main novelty of the paper is that the authors investigate the “economic shrinkage hypothesis,” and examined the potential negative spillover effect of poverty in the region.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 November 2004

Amélia Bastos, Graça Leão Fernandes and José Passos

This paper is a study on child poverty from two perspectives: child income poverty (derived from family income) and child deprivation (evaluated by non‐monetary…

Downloads
2771

Abstract

This paper is a study on child poverty from two perspectives: child income poverty (derived from family income) and child deprivation (evaluated by non‐monetary indicators). On the one hand, empirical evidence supports the thesis that income‐based poverty measures and deprivation measures do not overlap. On the other hand, the relationship between poverty and the child's living conditions is not linear. Uses micro‐econometric techniques to analyse child income poverty and present deprivation indicators, and thereby an index of child deprivation, to study child poverty. The measurements used are centred on the child. The results obtained support the thesis that the study of child poverty differs whether the focus is on the child or on the family.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 31 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Chakrangi Lenagala and Rati Ram

By using the World Bank's new poverty data that are based on the most recent International Comparison Program report, this research aims to revisit the response of poverty

Downloads
1944

Abstract

Purpose

By using the World Bank's new poverty data that are based on the most recent International Comparison Program report, this research aims to revisit the response of poverty rate to increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita.

Design/methodology/approach

The response is summarized in terms of elasticity of poverty with respect to real GDP per capita, which is the ratio of annual percentage fall in poverty rate to annual percentage increase in real GDP per capita. The main calculations are done for the entire group of less‐developed countries (LDCs), poverty‐dense South Asia region, and India, which probably has the highest poverty rate. The periods studied are 1981‐1990, 1990‐1999, and 1999‐2005. The calculations are done for four different poverty measures.

Findings

Five major points are noted. First, the elasticities generally show a declining tendency over the period, indicating that poverty‐reducing impact of income growth has been weakening. Second, the elasticities show huge differences across the poverty lines, and generally decline with higher poverty lines. Third, while global elasticities for $1.00 poverty line bear some resemblance to those reported or used by many scholars, elasticities for $2.00 and 2.50 poverty rates are dramatically lower, and reinforce the view that many influential estimates show the effect of income growth on poverty to be much higher than the data indicate. Fourth, elasticities for poverty‐dense South Asia are again seen to be much lower than those for the entire LDC group. Fifth, for India, where $2.00 and 2.50 poverty rates are higher than even in Sub‐Saharan Africa, the elasticities are extremely low and have been declining despite an acceleration in income growth. The overall implication seems to be that income growth has generally been less pro‐poor during the globalization era of the 1990s and the 2000s than during the 1980s. In particular, income growth in India seems to have had an extremely small impact on poverty, and that impact, notably for $1.00 and 1.25 poverty lines, has been declining.

Originality/value

First, although there is a vast literature on growth elasticities of poverty, this seems to be the first study that uses World Bank's new poverty data to judge the impact of income growth on poverty. Second, this is the only study that directly estimates and compares elasticities for the four poverty lines of $1.00, 1.25, 2.00, and 2.50, and shows large differences in the elasticities for different poverty lines. Third, this is probably the only work that compares elasticities for the 1980s, 1990s, and the 2000s. Fourth, although some indication of very low elasticities for South Asia and India does exist in a recent study, $2.50 elasticities reported in the present work for India, and even South Asia, should constitute an eye‐opener for scholars, policy‐makers, and international organizations in regard to the potential role of income growth in poverty reduction. Fifth, the observed decline in most elasticities during the 1990s and 2000s, as compared with the 1980s, despite higher income levels and growth rates, may shed light on the likely role of globalization in reducing poverty.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 37 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Rami B.H. Kacem

The analysis of poverty is fundamentally focused on examining the well-being condition of the poor. We usually neglect the information provided by the rich. Nevertheless…

Abstract

Purpose

The analysis of poverty is fundamentally focused on examining the well-being condition of the poor. We usually neglect the information provided by the rich. Nevertheless, perhaps the non-considered information indicating the determinants of non-poverty is also useful for fighting against poverty. The purpose of this paper is to analyze poverty under a new angle i.e. focusing on the information provided by the non-poor instead of the poor. For that a richness index is calculated in order to estimate econometric models regressing both indices i.e. poverty and richness indices on same selected characteristics. Thus, the comparison of the determinants of poverty and non-poverty for Tunisian case have allowed the classification of the selected explanatory variables with significant effect into four categories: the variables having significant effect on both sides (permanent effect), the variables having significant effect on the poor but not on the non-poor (transitory effect), the variables having significant effect on the non-poor but not on the poor (insurance effect) and the variables without any effect on both cases (neutral effect). This procedure is thus important given that it provides additional information and new way to enhance the targeting efficiency of the poor and fighting against poverty.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Tunisian data, an original procedure is proposed for calculating a richness index, defined based on the common formula of calculating the poverty index. Next econometric models are estimated regressing both the indices i.e. poverty and richness index on same selected characteristics.

Findings

The comparison of the determinants of poverty and non-poverty have allowed the classification of the selected explanatory variables with significant effect into four categories: the variables having significant effect on both sides (permanent effect), the variables having significant effect on the poor but not on the non-poor (transitory effect), the variables having significant effect on the non-poor but not on the poor (insurance effect) and the variables without any effect on both cases (neutral effect).

Originality/value

The analysis and the classification of the determinants of poverty according to the determinants of non-poverty is never made before in the litterature. This procedure is important given that it provides additional information and a new way to enhance the efficiency of targeting the poor and fighting against poverty.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2015

Yina Zhang and Jie Chen

Using the latest census data (2010), this paper investigates housing poverty conditions in Shanghai, the largest city in China. The data shows that a large fraction of…

Abstract

Using the latest census data (2010), this paper investigates housing poverty conditions in Shanghai, the largest city in China. The data shows that a large fraction of Shanghai households are still living in excessively over-crowded housing. Meanwhile, the incidence ratio of housing poverty among migrants is more than five times than among natives. In particular, 45% of rural migrant households were living in housing poverty. Poverty decomposition analysis shows that approximately 70% of total housing poverty in Shanghai is attributable to rural migrants. Our finding is supported by estimating the multidimensional poverty index (MPI). The findings in this paper have significant implications to general housing policy making in urban China.

Details

Open House International, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 32000