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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Shivakumar Sastry

A SmartSpace is an integrated, intelligent, environment that facilitates new dimensions of human interaction with computing and physical environments by leveraging…

1145

Abstract

A SmartSpace is an integrated, intelligent, environment that facilitates new dimensions of human interaction with computing and physical environments by leveraging emerging trends in pervasive computing. The SmartSpace for automation (SSA) proposed here facilitates interactions between humans and an automation system. Current human‐computer interaction (HCI) approaches for automation are based on a state‐transition paradigm using splintered devices that are attached locally to controllers. Such approaches are unlikely to extend to future generations of automation systems because of the fundamental limitations they impose on the tasks that can be accomplished, the lack of support for holistic system‐wide decision‐making, and the lack of a systematic framework that can guide the adoption of emerging pervasive devices for HCI activities. The approach we describe for developing an SSA is based on a goal‐seeking paradigm and emphasizes the explicit representation and resolution of uncertainties.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 November 2022

Birger Fredriksen

This article examines why Universal Primary Education (UPE) has shifted from being a developing country challenge more broadly in the last half of the 20th century to…

Abstract

Purpose

This article examines why Universal Primary Education (UPE) has shifted from being a developing country challenge more broadly in the last half of the 20th century to become largely a sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) challenge today. It discusses a number of national and education sector system-wide challenges that have constrained the implementation of UPE in SSA more so than in other developing regions.

Design/methodology/approach

This article reviews the literature and policy documents on a wide range of developing country issues, and discusses why most SSA countries have faced unparalleled challenges in achieving UPE.

Findings

SSA governments should take the opportunity offered by their post-pandemic “build back better” efforts to fundamentally reset education policies to address the key causes of this major development failure. The overarching objective must be to develop education systems that are more inclusive, equitable and responsive to national development needs by better serving the large population groups, parts of society and economic sectors that currently derive little benefit from public education spending. This article highlights the urgency and challenges associated with achieving this objective.

Originality/value

Although the main responsibility lies with SSA governments, this paper stresses that the global community will be affected in many ways by how effectively this crisis is addressed. Therefore, this effort merits sustained global support including through more catalytic use of aid.

Details

Journal of International Cooperation in Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2755-029X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 November 2022

Xiaoqin Ding and Zhihong Luo

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, tremendous changes have taken place in the US economy – the economic growth in the whole year of 2020 was negative, and though it enjoyed a…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, tremendous changes have taken place in the US economy – the economic growth in the whole year of 2020 was negative, and though it enjoyed a significant rebound for the first half of 2021, the growth rate began to decline rapidly by the third quarter, and inflation suddenly rises rapidly, which after came the all-time highs of the “misery index” consisted of the inflation rate and unemployment rate. All signs indicate that the US economy will likely enter a “stagflation” crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes the institutional and social contradictions in the United States during the neoliberal era from the perspectives of domestic social structure of accumulation (SSA) and international SSA based on the SSA theory.

Findings

The current risk of stagflation in the US economy is a concentrated outbreak of the long-term accumulated contradictions in neoliberal SSA under the impact of the epidemic, which is the product of the irreconcilable contradictions inherent in the capitalist mode of production.

Originality/value

Based on this analysis, the paper points out that with the deepening of the crisis, the neoliberal SSA is likely to end and a new SSA will be established gradually.

Details

China Political Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 October 2022

Daaki Sadat Ssekibaala, Muhammad Irwan Ariffin and Jarita Duasa

This study investigates the relationship between economic growth, international trade, and environmental degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), focusing on the validity…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the relationship between economic growth, international trade, and environmental degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), focusing on the validity of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis (EKC), the pollution havens hypothesis (PHH), and the factor endowment hypothesis (FEH).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses annual data for 41 SSA countries between 1990 and 2017 and employs the bias-corrected least square dummy variable (LSDVC) estimation techniques. Environmental degradation is indicated by carbon dioxide (CO2), delicate particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions, and deforestation.

Findings

The results confirm the validity of the EKC hypothesis for PM2.5 emissions and deforestation but not for CO2 emissions. The results also indicate that international trade reduces deforestation and that both the PHH and FEH are valid for CO2 emission but not for PM2.5 emissions and deforestation.

Practical implications

In this paper, the authors are able to illustrate that both economic growth and international trade can harm the environment if unchecked. Therefore, the conclusion of this study offers policy options through which SSA countries can achieve desired economic growth goals without affecting environmental quality. The study can be a benchmark for environmental policy in the region.

Originality/value

The authors provide an in-depth discussion of the growth-trade-environmental degradation nexus in SSA. The EKC, PHH, and FEH’s validity confirm that economic growth remains a threat to the local natural environment in SSA. Hence, the need for a trade-off between economic growth needs and environmental degradation and understanding where to compromise to achieve SSA's economic development priorities.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1859-0020

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2007

P. Geetha Rani

The paper critically examines the program on Education for All (EFA) in India, namely Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) in a financing and development framework. In doing so…

Abstract

The paper critically examines the program on Education for All (EFA) in India, namely Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) in a financing and development framework. In doing so, the paper identifies a number of policy and implementation gaps in the program. A fine-tuning of the existing matching shares by discriminating the matching shares in terms of need for, ability to provide matching shares and to strengthen the absorptive capacity could go a long way in attaining the horizontal equity in terms of every child completing elementary schooling in India. This would also ensure the other desirable principles of intergovernmental transfers such as predictability, transparency, and incentive mechanism besides improving utilization.

Further, it clearly emerges that only after ensuring the basic minimum levels in terms of physical and human infrastructure, and ensuring equal access to all the child population of age group of 6–14, quality is given priority. Thus, the challenge is both improving the qualitative and quantitative targets of UEE with enhanced resource allocation to education. Hence, Center is to ensure release of funding for SSA through special efforts as the program requires enormous funding and serious commitment of both central and state governments.

On the developmental aspects, the scheme not only widens social inequity but also perpetuates the declining quality of public provision by encouraging alternate schools and para teachers, besides the financing norms. These low-cost options will result in serious ramifications on equity, quality, balance, and sustainability of the basic education structure.

Details

Education for All
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1441-6

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2022

HsiuJu Rebecca Yen, Paul Jen-Hwa Hu, Yi-Chun Liao and Jiun-Yu Wu

Ambidextrous frontline service employees (FSEs), capable of delivering quality services and carrying out sales responsibilities too, are crucial to service firms. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Ambidextrous frontline service employees (FSEs), capable of delivering quality services and carrying out sales responsibilities too, are crucial to service firms. This study seeks to extend ambidexterity research by examining how a manager's goal orientation could influence FSEs' ambidextrous conversion. The authors draw on achievement goal theory and conceptualize a link between a manager's achievement goal orientation and employees' service–sales ambidexterity (SSA). The authors then apply conservation of resources theory to complement this high-level conceptualization, hypothesize mediating roles of important resources that can facilitate employees' SSA, and the authors test them empirically.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a questionnaire survey design. The empirical test relies on multilevel path analyses of dyadic data from 341 FSEs and 39 managers of a major logistics service company in Taiwan.

Findings

Managers with a prominent learning goal orientation can facilitate and foster FSEs' SSA through developmental inducements and change-related self-efficacy, two important resources for their ambidextrous conversion. Managers with a strong performance-avoid goal orientation instead might hinder employees' SSA conversion, due to a negative impact on developmental inducements. Furthermore, SSA enhances FSEs' service delivery value and sales performance.

Originality/value

By analyzing and empirically testing the influence pathways of essential resources perceived by FSEs, which channel the effects of a manager's goal orientation to employees' SSA conversion, this study offers insights about how managers can support and foster FSEs' service–sales ambidextrous conversion.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2022

Javed Hussain, Amin Karimu, Samuel Salia and Robyn Owen

Energy and environment has gained traction within the field of entrepreneurship literature, but a comprehensive empirical study that examines the relationship between the…

Abstract

Purpose

Energy and environment has gained traction within the field of entrepreneurship literature, but a comprehensive empirical study that examines the relationship between the cost of energy and small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) innovation is an omission. Therefore, this novel study aims to examine the relationship between the cost of energy and SMEs innovation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by first examining the differential impact of the various generation sources on the price of electric energy. This research has enabled us to investigate and understand the transmission mechanism of increasing/decreasing electricity price on innovation decisions and activities of SMEs in SSA.

Design/methodology/approach

Using quantitative approach, with the data from the World Bank Enterprise and Innovation Follow-up Surveys, the study utilises a Tobit model to test whether the generation mix (renewable and non-renewable generation sources) increases or decreases electricity prices and examine the impact of the cost of electric energy on SMEs innovation in SSA.

Findings

The findings of this study shows that the cost of electricity affects negatively on SMEs innovation decision and activities of SMEs in SSA. The impact of renewables on the price of electricity has a larger magnitude relative to that of non-renewables. This finding has implications for policy makers promoting renewable energy without a policy design to tackle the unintended price effect of promoting renewable energy.

Originality/value

This is the first study to introduce cost of energy into an innovation model and to empirically examine the role of cost of energy for innovation activities of SMEs in SSA. Further, it examines the sources of generation on electricity price in SSA. The study contributes towards the empirical literature, and the findings also have implication for policy makers regarding the unintended consequences of promoting the transition to low-carbon electricity generation sources on SMEs via the cost of doing business implication.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Sarah Alturki and Heiner Stuckenschmidt

The purpose of this study is to determine whether students' self-assessment (SSA) could be used as a significant attribute to predict students' future academic achievement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine whether students' self-assessment (SSA) could be used as a significant attribute to predict students' future academic achievement.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors address how well students can assess their abilities and study the relationship between this ability and demographic properties and previous study performance. The authors present the study results by measuring the relationship between the SSA across five different topics and comparing them with the students' performance in these topics using short tests. The test has been voluntarily taken by more than 300 students planning to enroll in the School of Business Informatics and Mathematics master's programs at the University of Mannheim.

Findings

The study results reveal which attributes are mostly associated with the accuracy level of SSA in higher education. The authors conclude that SSA, it can be valuable in predicting master's students' academic achievement when taking specific measures when designing the predictive module.

Research limitations/implications

Due to time constraints, the study was restricted only to students applying to master's programs at the Faculty of Business Informatics and Mathematics at the University of Mannheim. This resulted in collecting a limited data set. Also, the scope of this study was restricted to testing the accuracy of SSA and did not test using it as an attribute for predicting students' academic achievement.

Originality/value

Predicting students' academic performance in higher education is beneficial from different perspectives. The literature reveals that a considerable amount of work is published to analyze and predict academic performance in higher education. However, most of the published work relies on attributes such as demographics, teachers' assessment, and examination scores for performing their prediction while neglecting the use of other forms of evaluation such as SSA or self-evaluation.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Keo Mony Sok, Phyra Sok, Yelena Tsarenko and Jason Thomas Widjaja

Service industries increasingly have a need for frontline employees (FLEs) who are both adept and versatile at providing excellent customer services whilst exploring…

Abstract

Purpose

Service industries increasingly have a need for frontline employees (FLEs) who are both adept and versatile at providing excellent customer services whilst exploring cross-/up-selling opportunities, known as service-sales ambidexterity (SSA). However, engaging in SSA poses various challenges. The purpose of this paper is twofold: First, the authors argue that the resilience of FLEs is a critical factor of their SSA and its effect is mediated by cognitive flexibility. Second, the authors propose a boundary condition – leadership humility – that affects this indirect relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data was drawn from two independent studies (N = 547). Study 1 was conducted via an online survey of FLEs involved in both service and sales roles in the insurance industry in North America. Data for Study 2 was collected from FLEs working in several branches of a commercial bank operating in Southeast Asia. The data was analysed using Hayes’ PROCESS Macro and SPSS.

Findings

Results from these studies reveal that resilience fosters cognitive flexibility, which, in turn, drives SSA. Additionally, leadership humility was found to moderate the indirect effect of resilience on SSA through cognitive flexibility.

Research limitations/implications

The sample for this study is cross-sectional. Further research could replicate this study using longitudinal data to extract more in-depth information on developmental changes in FLEs. Additionally, the scope of this research is limited to an analysis of employees. However, the phenomenon of SSA is essentially a multi-level subject. Future research could extend the findings of this research by testing other organisational factors that would present a more inclusive framework to explain the SSA phenomenon.

Practical implications

The findings offer managers a new perspective of achieving the alignment between the service and sales goals of their operations.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the growing stream of literature on FLE’s resilience and SSA in particular and shows the role resilience plays in FLEs’ dealing with and navigating a constantly changing workplace where SSA has become a norm rather than an exception.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Tigineh Mersha

Reveals that the available literature on TQM implementation emphasizes the experiences of firms in industrialized nations, and studies dealing with the challenges of…

2662

Abstract

Reveals that the available literature on TQM implementation emphasizes the experiences of firms in industrialized nations, and studies dealing with the challenges of implementing TQM in less developed countries (LDCs) are limited. Examines the factors that influence the successful implementation of TQM in LDCs with a particular focus on the countries of Sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA). Using force‐field analysis, identifies the primary environmental factors expected to drive or restrain TQM implementation in SSA and proposes some approaches for enhancing its success. Suggests that advance knowledge of the factors that are likely to promote or obstruct TQM implementation would enable managers in SSA countries to develop more effective strategies that will enhance the chances of implementation success. Asserts that adopting the TQM approach can help to improve the quality of goods and services in SSA countries, increase their export capabilities and facilitate the achievement of their development goals. Cautions that in SSA countries it is not enough that top managers in individual firms commit to the TQM process, noting that, in contrast to industrialized nations, SSA governments play a much more prominent role in economic activity, including direct ownership of major enterprises. Hence, argues that the unwavering support of African governments is crucial if TQM is to be successfully introduced and sustained in private and public organizations in SSA.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000