Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Shivakumar Sastry

A SmartSpace is an integrated, intelligent, environment that facilitates new dimensions of human interaction with computing and physical environments by leveraging…

Downloads
1141

Abstract

A SmartSpace is an integrated, intelligent, environment that facilitates new dimensions of human interaction with computing and physical environments by leveraging emerging trends in pervasive computing. The SmartSpace for automation (SSA) proposed here facilitates interactions between humans and an automation system. Current human‐computer interaction (HCI) approaches for automation are based on a state‐transition paradigm using splintered devices that are attached locally to controllers. Such approaches are unlikely to extend to future generations of automation systems because of the fundamental limitations they impose on the tasks that can be accomplished, the lack of support for holistic system‐wide decision‐making, and the lack of a systematic framework that can guide the adoption of emerging pervasive devices for HCI activities. The approach we describe for developing an SSA is based on a goal‐seeking paradigm and emphasizes the explicit representation and resolution of uncertainties.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Sarah Alturki and Heiner Stuckenschmidt

The purpose of this study is to determine whether students' self-assessment (SSA) could be used as a significant attribute to predict students' future academic achievement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine whether students' self-assessment (SSA) could be used as a significant attribute to predict students' future academic achievement.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors address how well students can assess their abilities and study the relationship between this ability and demographic properties and previous study performance. The authors present the study results by measuring the relationship between the SSA across five different topics and comparing them with the students' performance in these topics using short tests. The test has been voluntarily taken by more than 300 students planning to enroll in the School of Business Informatics and Mathematics master's programs at the University of Mannheim.

Findings

The study results reveal which attributes are mostly associated with the accuracy level of SSA in higher education. The authors conclude that SSA, it can be valuable in predicting master's students' academic achievement when taking specific measures when designing the predictive module.

Research limitations/implications

Due to time constraints, the study was restricted only to students applying to master's programs at the Faculty of Business Informatics and Mathematics at the University of Mannheim. This resulted in collecting a limited data set. Also, the scope of this study was restricted to testing the accuracy of SSA and did not test using it as an attribute for predicting students' academic achievement.

Originality/value

Predicting students' academic performance in higher education is beneficial from different perspectives. The literature reveals that a considerable amount of work is published to analyze and predict academic performance in higher education. However, most of the published work relies on attributes such as demographics, teachers' assessment, and examination scores for performing their prediction while neglecting the use of other forms of evaluation such as SSA or self-evaluation.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Keo Mony Sok, Phyra Sok, Yelena Tsarenko and Jason Thomas Widjaja

Service industries increasingly have a need for frontline employees (FLEs) who are both adept and versatile at providing excellent customer services whilst exploring…

Abstract

Purpose

Service industries increasingly have a need for frontline employees (FLEs) who are both adept and versatile at providing excellent customer services whilst exploring cross-/up-selling opportunities, known as service-sales ambidexterity (SSA). However, engaging in SSA poses various challenges. The purpose of this paper is twofold: First, the authors argue that the resilience of FLEs is a critical factor of their SSA and its effect is mediated by cognitive flexibility. Second, the authors propose a boundary condition – leadership humility – that affects this indirect relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data was drawn from two independent studies (N = 547). Study 1 was conducted via an online survey of FLEs involved in both service and sales roles in the insurance industry in North America. Data for Study 2 was collected from FLEs working in several branches of a commercial bank operating in Southeast Asia. The data was analysed using Hayes’ PROCESS Macro and SPSS.

Findings

Results from these studies reveal that resilience fosters cognitive flexibility, which, in turn, drives SSA. Additionally, leadership humility was found to moderate the indirect effect of resilience on SSA through cognitive flexibility.

Research limitations/implications

The sample for this study is cross-sectional. Further research could replicate this study using longitudinal data to extract more in-depth information on developmental changes in FLEs. Additionally, the scope of this research is limited to an analysis of employees. However, the phenomenon of SSA is essentially a multi-level subject. Future research could extend the findings of this research by testing other organisational factors that would present a more inclusive framework to explain the SSA phenomenon.

Practical implications

The findings offer managers a new perspective of achieving the alignment between the service and sales goals of their operations.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the growing stream of literature on FLE’s resilience and SSA in particular and shows the role resilience plays in FLEs’ dealing with and navigating a constantly changing workplace where SSA has become a norm rather than an exception.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2007

P. Geetha Rani

The paper critically examines the program on Education for All (EFA) in India, namely Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) in a financing and development framework. In doing so…

Abstract

The paper critically examines the program on Education for All (EFA) in India, namely Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) in a financing and development framework. In doing so, the paper identifies a number of policy and implementation gaps in the program. A fine-tuning of the existing matching shares by discriminating the matching shares in terms of need for, ability to provide matching shares and to strengthen the absorptive capacity could go a long way in attaining the horizontal equity in terms of every child completing elementary schooling in India. This would also ensure the other desirable principles of intergovernmental transfers such as predictability, transparency, and incentive mechanism besides improving utilization.

Further, it clearly emerges that only after ensuring the basic minimum levels in terms of physical and human infrastructure, and ensuring equal access to all the child population of age group of 6–14, quality is given priority. Thus, the challenge is both improving the qualitative and quantitative targets of UEE with enhanced resource allocation to education. Hence, Center is to ensure release of funding for SSA through special efforts as the program requires enormous funding and serious commitment of both central and state governments.

On the developmental aspects, the scheme not only widens social inequity but also perpetuates the declining quality of public provision by encouraging alternate schools and para teachers, besides the financing norms. These low-cost options will result in serious ramifications on equity, quality, balance, and sustainability of the basic education structure.

Details

Education for All
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1441-6

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

Oyakhilome Ibhagui

The threshold regression framework is used to examine the effect of foreign direct investment on growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The growth literature is awash with…

Abstract

Purpose

The threshold regression framework is used to examine the effect of foreign direct investment on growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The growth literature is awash with divergent evidence on the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth. Although the FDI–growth nexus has been studied in diverse ways, very few studies have examined the relationship within the framework of threshold analysis. Furthermore, even where this framework has been adopted, none of the previous studies has comprehensively examined the FDI–growth nexus in the broader SSA. In this paper, within the standard panel and threshold regression framework, the problem of determining the growth impact of FDI is revisited.

Design/methodology/approach

Six variables are used as thresholds – inflation, initial income, population growth, trade openness, financial market development and human capital, and the analysis is based on a large panel data set that comprises 45 SSA countries for the years 1985–2013.

Findings

The results of this study show that the direct impact of FDI on growth is largely ambiguous and inconsistent. However, under the threshold analysis, it is evident that FDI accelerates economic growth when SSA countries have achieved certain threshold levels of inflation, population growth and financial markets development. This evidence is largely invariant qualitatively and is robust to different empirical specifications. FDI enhances growth in SSA when inflation and private sector credit are below their threshold levels while human capital and population growth are above their threshold levels.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, the paper streamlines the threshold analysis of FDI–growth nexus to focus on countries in SSA – previous studies on FDI-growth nexus in SSA are country-specific and time series–based (see Tshepo, 2014; Raheem and Oyınlola, 2013 and Bende-Nabende, 2002). This paper provides a panel analysis and considers a broader set of up to 45 SSA countries. Such a broad set of SSA countries had never been considered in the literature. Second, the paper expands on available threshold variables to include two new important macroeconomic variables, population growth and inflation which, though are important absorptive capacities but, until now, had not been used as thresholds in the FDI–growth literature. The rationale for including these variables as thresholds stems from the evidence of an empirical relationship between population growth and economic growth, see Darrat and Al-Yousif (1999), and between inflation and economic growth, see Kremer et al. (2013).

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Sakthivel V.P., Suman M. and Sathya P.D.

Economic load dispatch (ELD) is one of the crucial optimization problems in power system planning and operation. The ELD problem with valve point loading (VPL) and…

Downloads
57

Abstract

Purpose

Economic load dispatch (ELD) is one of the crucial optimization problems in power system planning and operation. The ELD problem with valve point loading (VPL) and multi-fuel options (MFO) is defined as a non-smooth and non-convex optimization problem with equality and inequality constraints, which obliges an efficient heuristic strategy to be addressed. The purpose of this study is to present a new and powerful heuristic optimization technique (HOT) named as squirrel search algorithm (SSA) to solve non-convex ELD problems of large-scale power plants.

Design/methodology/approach

The suggested SSA approach is aimed to minimize the total fuel cost consumption of power plant considering their generation values as decision variables while satisfying the problem constraints. It confers a solution to the ELD issue by anchoring with foraging behavior of squirrels based on the dynamic jumping and gliding strategies. Furthermore, a heuristic approach and selection rules are used in SSA to handle the constraints appropriately.

Findings

Empirical results authenticate the superior performance of SSA technique by validating on four different large-scale systems. Comparing SSA with other HOTs, numerical results depict its proficiencies with high-qualitative solution and by its excellent computational efficiency to solve the ELD problems with non-smooth fuel cost function addressing the VPL and MFO. Moreover, the non-parametric tests prove the robustness and efficacy of the suggested SSA and demonstrate that it can be used as a competent optimizer for solving the real-world large-scale non-convex ELD problems.

Practical implications

This study has compared various HOTs to determine optimal generation scheduling for large-scale ELD problems. Consequently, its comparative analysis will be beneficial to power engineers for accurate generation planning.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this manuscript is the first research work of using SSA approach for solving ELD problems. Consequently, the solution to this problem configures the key contribution of this paper.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 May 2020

Kofi Bondzie Afful and William Opoku

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) stock exchanges are imperfect and inefficient. Therefore, orthodox finance theories are unable to completely explain their market returns. Such…

Abstract

Purpose

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) stock exchanges are imperfect and inefficient. Therefore, orthodox finance theories are unable to completely explain their market returns. Such models mainly identify anomalies when applied to the sub-region. Consequently, this paper develops an original theoretical model to better explain market returns on the sub-continent.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops an alternate analytical framework that combines adaptive expectations, Keynesian LM model and modified uncovered interest parity (UIP) formulations to address empirical anomalies identified by previous literature when analyzing SSA's inefficient stock markets. Using panel data, the study first computes the fixed as well as random effects regressions and, later, a Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) dynamic panel regression for further empirical analysis.

Findings

Both the fixed and random effects regression results indicate that the relative output-money supply disparity and foreign inflation-money supply growth rate spread have positive effects on market returns in SSA. On the other hand, foreign interest rates have an inverse effect. Although the GMM dynamic panel regression has similar results, it additionally finds that market returns in SSA are autoregressive. This suggests that past returns are persistent.

Research limitations/implications

A key implication is that multipliers and transmission mechanisms in SSA may take longer to adjust, thereby limiting short-run market returns. Also, policymakers must encourage a critical mass of firms to list in order to enhance efficiency. Additionally, policy variables significantly influence returns. One limitation is the high market segmentation in SSA. This heightens heterogeneity, emphasizing fixed effects.

Practical implications

Also, the findings of this study may not apply to all emerging economies as SSA economies are highly heterogeneous.

Social implications

The segmented nature of SSA stock markets may have implications for income inequality and the distribution of resources within the economy. Also, it indicates that there are limits to how firms use capital markets on the sub-continent.

Originality/value

This paper abstracts from the strict ideal market conditions prescribed by modern finance theories and develops an original modified UIP model. It finds that SSA stock markets may be more sensitive to policy variables, instead of determinants postulated by orthodox finance concepts. The study offers opportunities for further critical examination of returns in imperfect frontier markets.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Tigineh Mersha

Reveals that the available literature on TQM implementation emphasizes the experiences of firms in industrialized nations, and studies dealing with the challenges of…

Downloads
2614

Abstract

Reveals that the available literature on TQM implementation emphasizes the experiences of firms in industrialized nations, and studies dealing with the challenges of implementing TQM in less developed countries (LDCs) are limited. Examines the factors that influence the successful implementation of TQM in LDCs with a particular focus on the countries of Sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA). Using force‐field analysis, identifies the primary environmental factors expected to drive or restrain TQM implementation in SSA and proposes some approaches for enhancing its success. Suggests that advance knowledge of the factors that are likely to promote or obstruct TQM implementation would enable managers in SSA countries to develop more effective strategies that will enhance the chances of implementation success. Asserts that adopting the TQM approach can help to improve the quality of goods and services in SSA countries, increase their export capabilities and facilitate the achievement of their development goals. Cautions that in SSA countries it is not enough that top managers in individual firms commit to the TQM process, noting that, in contrast to industrialized nations, SSA governments play a much more prominent role in economic activity, including direct ownership of major enterprises. Hence, argues that the unwavering support of African governments is crucial if TQM is to be successfully introduced and sustained in private and public organizations in SSA.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

John M. Luiz

The economic growth performance of Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) over the past few decades has confounded economists. The paper examines the nature and causes of the region's…

Downloads
3325

Abstract

Purpose

The economic growth performance of Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) over the past few decades has confounded economists. The paper examines the nature and causes of the region's marginalisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Analyses areas of marginalisation including: technologically, economically, socially, politically, and even intellectually. The aim here is to document all these facets in a comparative manner and to examine prospects for their reversal.

Findings

The poverty of SSA has many dimensions and causes, both internal and external. Certainly part of its underdevelopment is attributable to bad luck, initial conditions, and an unfavourable international economic environment. However, the region has to accept much of the responsibility for its plight because its present state is also largely an outcome of poor policy choice and bad governance. Thus, whilst we cannot account for every facet of the question of “why some nations are rich and others poor” we are nonetheless left with some very real certainties.

Practical implications

The most important implication is that the principal therapy for poverty in SSA comes from within by addressing the internal obstacles to growth. However, the international community has an important role to play in addressing the uneven global trading system which is hampering development prospects and this needs to happen in the current trading round.

Originality/value

The paper provides a comprehensive account of the sources of Africa's underdevelopment in a comparative manner. It will be of interest to all social scientists and policymakers interested in development issues.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 33 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Ruth Dede Adikorley, Kristin Thoney-Barletta, Jeff Joines and Lori Rothenberg

The purpose of this study is to examine why Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not currently a major player in producing apparel for the US market and determine if SSA is likely…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine why Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not currently a major player in producing apparel for the US market and determine if SSA is likely to become one because of several opportunities that the region offers, including relatively low labor wages, an ample labor force and duty-free access to the USA through the 10-year renewal of AGOA.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth interviews were conducted with eight high-level executives in apparel sourcing and trade agencies to obtain their views on the opportunities and challenges of sourcing in SSA in relation to other major apparel sourcing regions. A descriptive analysis of the qualitative data was used to answer three research questions.

Findings

The findings reveal that SSA is a competitive region to source from, because of low labor wages and the duty-free benefits through AGOA. However, several challenges hinder a significant increase in sourcing from SSA. The executives recommended that for SSA to be a significant force in the global apparel market, vertical supply chains should be developed, where raw materials like fabric are sourced from within the country/region and SSA governments should become more involved in business environment improvements.

Originality/value

At present, there is limited academic literature on sourcing and supplier selection in Africa, particularly in textile and apparel sourcing in SSA. Based on interviews from high-level executives engaged in the sourcing decision-making process, this study reveals the benefits, challenges and opportunities for sourcing apparel from SSA countries.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000