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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2009

Rodrigo Werlinger, Kirstie Hawkey and Konstantin Beznosov

The purpose of this study is to determine the main challenges that IT security practitioners face in their organizations, including the interplay among human…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the main challenges that IT security practitioners face in their organizations, including the interplay among human, organizational, and technological factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The data set consisted of 36 semi‐structured interviews with IT security practitioners from 17 organizations (academic, government, and private). The interviews were analyzed using qualitative description with constant comparison and inductive analysis of the data to identify the challenges that security practitioners face.

Findings

A total of 18 challenges that can affect IT security management within organizations are indentified and described. This analysis is grounded in related work to build an integrated framework of security challenges. The framework illustrates the interplay among human, organizational, and technological factors.

Practical implications

The framework can help organizations identify potential challenges when implementing security standards, and determine if they are using their security resources effectively to address the challenges. It also provides a way to understand the interplay of the different factors, for example, how the culture of the organization and decentralization of IT security trigger security issues that make security management more difficult. Several opportunities for researchers and developers to improve the technology and processes used to support adoption of security policies and standards within organizations are provided.

Originality/value

A comprehensive list of human, organizational, and technological challenges that security experts have to face within their organizations is presented. In addition, these challenges within a framework that illustrates the interplay between factors and the consequences of this interplay for organizations are integrated.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Johannes von Bloh

Entrepreneurial Ecosystems (EES) is among the fastest growing entrepreneurship research topics. With even greater vigour, the non-scientific world of economic development…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial Ecosystems (EES) is among the fastest growing entrepreneurship research topics. With even greater vigour, the non-scientific world of economic development agencies, administrations and policymakers has adopted the construct and applies it widely “in the field”, often lacking a solid empirical foundation and pursuing sub-optimal approaches. Improving policy instruments for EES development requires a data driven approach to first understand an EES of a specific region before making any attempts to change it. The paper showcases an empirical approach to create empirically rooted EES policy implications, contributing to closing the gap for insight in regional EES data of sub-national regions.

Design/methodology/approach

Exploring a mixed method design, utilising quantitative Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data and combining it with EES stakeholder interviews, focusing on dysfunctions, redundancies, power asymmetries and cut off elements as well as in-layer division and public organisation behaviour.

Findings

One finding is, that regional economic development agencies (EDA), as a main public instrument to foster regional entrepreneurial activity, seem to bring the potential of a negative impact on Entrepreneurial Ecosystems bottom-up development and the ability to become self-sustained if they assume the role of competitors towards private organisations and businesses.

Research limitations/implications

As other work on EES, the approach used in this paper only sub-optimally covers temporal system dynamics.

Practical implications

This paper contributes to future EES support policies being rooted in an empirical foundation.

Originality/value

This paper not only progresses the empirical basis for research on regional EES but also lays the foundation for specific policy implications for a sub-national level entrepreneurial ecosystem.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Marilyn E. Barnes

Libraries need to develop information processing systems for evaluation, budgeting, planning, and operations. Electronic spreadsheets lend themselves to a variety of…

Abstract

Libraries need to develop information processing systems for evaluation, budgeting, planning, and operations. Electronic spreadsheets lend themselves to a variety of applications, but are time‐consuming to create. A model template and macros that can be used in many different types of library data analysis have been developed here. The procedures demonstrated here can build an essential set of tools for meeting fundamental goals of administrative efficiency, effective use of library resources, staff motivation, and rational policy making.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

Article
Publication date: 31 October 2022

Rui Vicente Martins, Eulália Santos, Teresa Eugénio and Ana Morais

Business politics and social and economic policies in the past decades brought us to the inevitability of change. Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays a vital role in…

Abstract

Purpose

Business politics and social and economic policies in the past decades brought us to the inevitability of change. Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays a vital role in this change as it is a tool for international business management in a global world. The relationship between FDI and sustainability in sub-Saharan countries with lower incomes has not yet been sufficiently studied, so this study aims to bring some more conclusions to the discussion. Thus, the main objective is to understand if FDI effectively influences the so-called triple bottom line (TBL) pillars of sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

With data from the World Bank regarding 20 sub-Saharan countries gathered between 2010 and 2018, this study analysed 34 indicators composing 11 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Afterwards, the authors grouped them by the TBL pillars and evaluated the influence of FDI inflows on their scores using panel data models.

Findings

The results show a positive and significant correlation between the TBL pillars, with the highest correlation being between the environmental and economic pillars. On the other hand, FDI has no significant influence on the TBL pillars.

Practical implications

This study could improve foreign investment legislation/regulation in sub-Saharan African countries, potentially impacting the sustainability these investments should generate.

Social implications

This study contributes to understanding how FDI implies sustainability. The results suggest that governments, non-governmental organisations and other competent entities need to adjust their actions in these countries so that foreign companies sustainably exploit the resources.

Originality/value

This study brings to the current arena an emerging theme: FDI and sustainability in African countries, particularly in sub-Saharan countries. This subject in developing countries is still under-researched.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Ermita Yusida, Vika Annisa Qurrata, Vidya Purnamasari and Wen-Chi Huang

Internet technology and social media especially from mobile social commerce are known to have lavish impacts on the economic development. The purpose of this study was to…

Abstract

Internet technology and social media especially from mobile social commerce are known to have lavish impacts on the economic development. The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of the online market on the level of social welfare of online market traders which is proxies by the level of income. Bulan Terang Utama (BTU) area was used as an object in this study due to the fact that it is a subsidized housing area with a level of middle-income community income. The method used in this study was a quantitative method using the analysis of three-stage least square (3SLS). The results of the 3SLS estimation indicate that there was a significant increase in online seller income with the presence of the BTU online market. This situation happened by the fact that many buyers switch to sellers after they join the BTU Online Market. They began as a buyer and then offered their merchandise through the online market and became a permanent seller in this group. When many residents in these areas are using online markets as their primary place for selling, there will be need for strong connectivity (internet network) in each region to develop current economic activities. Furthermore, the government rule in enhancing technology literacy is also very important especially for the middle to lower regions.

Details

Recent Developments in Asian Economics International Symposia in Economic Theory and Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-359-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2014

Esfandiar Maasoumi, Melinda Pitts and Ke Wu

We examine the cardinal gap between wage distributions of the incumbents and newly hired workers based on entropic distances which are well-defined welfare theoretic…

Abstract

We examine the cardinal gap between wage distributions of the incumbents and newly hired workers based on entropic distances which are well-defined welfare theoretic measures. Decomposition of several effects is achieved by identifying several counterfactual distributions of different groups. These go beyond the usual Oaxaca–Blinder decompositions at the (linear) conditional means. Much like quantiles, these entropic distances are well-defined inferential objects and functions whose statistical properties have recently been developed. Going beyond these strong rankings and distances, we consider weak uniform ranking of these wage outcomes based on statistical tests for stochastic dominance. The empirical analysis is focused on employees with at least 35 hours of work in the 1996–2012 monthly Current Population Survey (CPS). Among others, we find incumbent workers enjoy a better distribution of wages, but the attribution of the gap to wage inequality and human capital characteristics varies between quantiles. For instance, highly paid new workers are mainly due to human capital components, and in some years, even better wage structure.

Details

Essays in Honor of Peter C. B. Phillips
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-183-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2021

Osnat Peled and Jacques Silber

This chapter proposes a definition of pro-middle class growth derived from the approach of Lasso de la Vega, Urrutia, and Diez (2010) to intermediate polarization. The…

Abstract

This chapter proposes a definition of pro-middle class growth derived from the approach of Lasso de la Vega, Urrutia, and Diez (2010) to intermediate polarization. The authors show that a sufficient condition for growth to be pro-middle class is for the growth rate of what we define as the “intermediate median income” of the whole population to be higher than that of the weighted average of the growth rates of the rich and smaller than the weighted average growth rate of the poor, the “rich” and the “poor” being respectively those with an income higher and lower than the median income. An empirical illustration based on Israeli data for the period 1995–2018 indicates that in absolute terms growth was not pro-middle class for any income type. In contrast, growth was pro-middle class in relative terms for all market incomes (individual income from salaried work, individual wage per hour worked, household economic income, total household income and total equivalized income). But growth was not pro-middle class for net income and net equivalized income, even in relative terms. These conclusions appear to be related to the combined effect of developments in labor force participation, welfare policy changes and major modifications in income tax rates. The intermediate polarization measures indicate that in general there was no pro-middle class growth except in the case of specific market income types.

Details

Research on Economic Inequality: Poverty, Inequality and Shocks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-558-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2015

Andrew E. Clark, Conchita D’Ambrosio and Simone Ghislandi

We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on the role of time. We use panel data on 49,000 individuals living in Germany from…

Abstract

We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on the role of time. We use panel data on 49,000 individuals living in Germany from 1992 to 2012 to uncover three empirical relationships. First, life satisfaction falls with both the incidence and intensity of contemporaneous poverty. Second, poverty scars: those who have been poor in the past report lower life satisfaction today, even when out of poverty. Last, the order of poverty spells matters: for a given number of years in poverty, satisfaction is lower when the years are linked together. As such, poverty persistence reduces well-being. These effects differ by population subgroups.

Details

Measurement of Poverty, Deprivation, and Economic Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-386-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Kim Abildgren

Empirical studies on household-level inflation inequality have so far only focused on periods with positive inflation rates. However, the major concern on the policy…

Abstract

Empirical studies on household-level inflation inequality have so far only focused on periods with positive inflation rates. However, the major concern on the policy agenda since the most recent financial crisis has been deflation rather than inflation. This naturally raises the question regarding the effect of deflation on the distribution of real income when households spend their budget on different consumption bundles. This chapter compiles annual household-level inflation rates in Denmark from 1930 to 1935 based on microdata from the Expenditure and Saving Survey of 1931 and price data from the official Retail Price Index. The results indicate that lower-income households faced a larger decline in prices on their consumption of goods and services during the deflation years 1930–1932 than higher-income households did. The deflation thus contributed to narrowing the difference in real incomes between the top and bottom parts of the income distribution during the recession. In the years 1933–1935 with positive inflation rates, the lower-income households experienced higher inflation rates than higher-income households. Over the period 1930–1935 seen as a whole, the price development contributed slightly to reducing real income inequality. The low degree of medium-term persistence of differences in household-specific inflation rates is consistent with previous findings in various time periods from the 1960s to the 2000s without any persistent deflation events. The chapter at hand is the first empirical study of the direct distributional effects of price developments at the household level in a period with persistent deflation.

Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2022

Liying Xia, Jianbo Zhang and Xuelin Ma

With the rising of “religious fever” in China rural area, the authors inquire the reason why it happened. First, the authors explore the group characteristics which could…

Abstract

With the rising of “religious fever” in China rural area, the authors inquire the reason why it happened. First, the authors explore the group characteristics which could affect both happiness and the religion belief of Chinese rural elderly. The authors analyze the micro-data of “thousand village surveys” data of Shanghai University of Finance and Economics by using Order Logit and Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method. These results show that when the elderly people have the following features related to health such as: feeling psychological loneliness, not obtaining the good management of chronic disease in the village, and not being participated in new rural cooperative medical system are more likely to believe in religious in the rural areas. And the authors also find these Chinese rural elderlies who believe in religion are less happy than atheism elderly actually (by PSM). Believing in religion is not the solution and maybe the way these elderly resorts to when they encounter health problem.

Details

Quantitative Analysis of Social and Financial Market Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-921-8

Keywords

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