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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Timothy I.C. Cubitt and Philip Birch

There is a paucity of data available relating to the misconduct of police officers in larger policing agencies, typically resulting in case study approaches and limited…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a paucity of data available relating to the misconduct of police officers in larger policing agencies, typically resulting in case study approaches and limited insight into the factors associated with serious misconduct. This paper seeks to contribute to the emerging knowledge base on police misconduct through analysis of 28,429 complaints among 3,830 officers in the New York Police Department, between 2000 and 2019.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilized a data set consisting of officer and complainant demographics, and officer complaint records. Machine learning analytics were employed, specifically random forest, to consider which variables were most associated with serious misconduct among officers that committed misconduct. Partial dependence plots were employed among variables identified as important to consider the points at which misconduct was most, and least likely to occur.

Findings

Prior instances of serious misconduct were particularly associated with further instances of serious misconduct, while remedial action did not appear to have an impact in preventing further misconduct. Inexperience, both in rank and age, was associated with misconduct. Specific prior complaints, such as minor use of force, did not appear to be particularly associated with instances of serious misconduct. The characteristics of the complainant held more importance than the characteristics of the officer.

Originality/value

The ability to analyze a data set of this size is unusual and important to progressing the knowledge area regarding police misconduct. This study contributes to the growing use of machine learning in understanding the police misconduct environment, and more accurately tailoring misconduct prevention policy and practice.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Jennifer Dirmeyer and Alexander Cartwright

Several recent incidents of highly publicized police misconduct in the United States have intensified interest in controlling police behavior. Administrative control of…

Abstract

Several recent incidents of highly publicized police misconduct in the United States have intensified interest in controlling police behavior. Administrative control of police use of force is difficult because police officers are often the primary and most credible witnesses to police misconduct, effectively giving them enforcement power over rules they are subject to; police cooperation as both rule followers and rule enforcers is necessary for effectively constraining police misconduct. The authors develop a framework for examining how organizational and institutional variables can affect individual decision making. Using this framework, the authors identify three avenues for reducing police misconduct – increasing the information generated by non-police sources, increasing the incentive for officers to cooperate with external enforcement efforts, and changing the expectations of officers regarding the attitudes and behaviors of their peers – and present a case study of Oakland California Police Department to illustrate the implications.

Details

Austrian Economics: The Next Generation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-577-7

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Boris Groysberg, Eric Lin and George Serafeim

Using data from a top-five global executive placement firm, the authors explore how an organization's financial misconduct may affect pay for former employees not

Abstract

Using data from a top-five global executive placement firm, the authors explore how an organization's financial misconduct may affect pay for former employees not implicated in wrongdoing. Drawing on stigma theory, they hypothesize that although such alumni did not participate in the financial misconduct and they had left the organization years before the misconduct, these alumni experience a compensation penalty. The stigma effect increases in relation to the job function proximity to the misconduct, recency of the misconduct, and an employee's seniority. Collectively, results suggest that the stigma of financial misconduct could reach alumni employees and need not be confined to executives and directors that oversaw the organization during the misconduct.

Details

Employee Inter- and Intra-Firm Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-550-5

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2021

Christopher M. Donner, Jon Maskály, Wesley G. Jennings and Cynthia Guzman

The purpose of this paper is to review the extant published literature using traditional criminological theories in an effort to explain police misconduct.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the extant published literature using traditional criminological theories in an effort to explain police misconduct.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reflects a narrative meta-review of through a search of several academic databases (e.g. Criminal Justice Abstracts, Criminology: A SAGE Full Text Collection, EBSCO Host and PsychInfo). Twenty-nine studies, across six theoretical perspectives, were identified and reviewed.

Findings

The extant research generally suggests that traditional criminological theory is useful in explaining misconduct.

Practical implications

The findings call on agencies to continually strengthen their recruiting and hiring processes to select recruits with suitable characteristics, and to improve their early warning systems to detect officers with patterns of problematic behavior. Also, the findings call for multiple avenues of future scholarship, namely, in theory development/integration and in refining the measurement of police misconduct.

Originality/value

This paper will be useful for researchers who wish to further explore the etiology of misconduct, and for police administrators who wish to reduce the prevalence of such behavior.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2020

Saibal Ghosh

While several facets of financial misconduct have been explored, one aspect which has largely bypassed the attention of researchers is the factors affecting such misconduct

Abstract

Purpose

While several facets of financial misconduct have been explored, one aspect which has largely bypassed the attention of researchers is the factors affecting such misconduct behavior in banks. To investigate this in detail, this paper aims to use disaggregated data on Indian banks for an extended period to understand the factors driving such behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the longitudinal nature of the data, the author uses fixed effects regression methodology which enables us to control for unobserved characteristics that might affect the dependent variable.

Findings

The analysis indicates that both bank- and board-specific factors are important in driving financial misconduct, although their importance differs across ownership. In particular, while size and capital are relevant for public banks, liquidity is more of a concern for private banks as compared with their public counterparts. In addition, the relevance of bank boards is important only in case of private banks. These results hold after controlling for the structure of the banking industry and the macroeconomic environment.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is one of the earliest studies for India to carefully examine the interface between financial misconduct and bank behavior in a systematic manner.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2020

Kelly Amy Hine, Louise E. Porter and Janet Ransley

This paper explores the applicability of environmental theories to understanding patterns of police misconduct. In turn, it aims to offer a method for identifying…

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407

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the applicability of environmental theories to understanding patterns of police misconduct. In turn, it aims to offer a method for identifying prevention techniques that can be practically applied by policing agencies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study empirically examined 84 substantiated matters of police misconduct in Queensland, Australia. The matters were content-analysed for elements of the first level of the crime triangle. These elements were then analysed to identify their relationships with the situational precipitators that initiated the misconduct; proactive misconduct and situational misconduct.

Findings

The two types of initiating misconduct had differing relationships with the crime triangle elements. Therefore, specific prevention techniques can be tailored by policing agencies to address and prevent each type of misconduct more successfully. The paper discusses these findings in terms of preventative measures according to the second preventative level of the crime triangle and situational crime prevention techniques.

Originality/value

This paper provides an alternative approach to understanding and preventing police misconduct by exploring the applicability of environmental theories. It finds that environmental theories offer a feasible approach for policing agencies to understand and tailor prevention of police misconduct in their jurisdictions.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2020

Timothy Cubitt, Ken Wooden, Erin Kruger and Michael Kennedy

Misconduct and deviance amongst police officers are substantial issues in policing around the world. This study aims to propose a prediction model for serious police…

Abstract

Purpose

Misconduct and deviance amongst police officers are substantial issues in policing around the world. This study aims to propose a prediction model for serious police misconduct by variation of the theory of planned behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Using two data sets, one quantitative and one qualitative, provided by an Australian policing agency, a random forest analysis and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Results were used to inform and extend the framework of the theory of planned behaviour. The traditional and extended theory of planned behaviour models were then tested for predictive utility.

Findings

Each model demonstrated noteworthy predictive power, however, the extended model performed particularly well. Prior instances of minor misconduct amongst officers appeared important in this rate of prediction, suggesting that remediation of problematic behaviour was a substantial issue amongst misconduct prone officers.

Practical implications

It is an important implication for policing agencies that prior misconduct was predictive of further misconduct. A robust complaint investigation and remediation process are pivotal to anticipating, remediating and limiting police misconduct, however, early intervention models should not be viewed as the panacea for police misconduct.

Originality/value

This research constitutes the first behavioural model for police misconduct produced in Australia. This research seeks to contribute to the field of behavioural prediction amongst deviant police officers, and offer an alternative methodology for understanding these behaviours.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Christopher Harris

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors which contribute to, or mitigate against, both the likelihood and timing of the onset of police misconduct.

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2708

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors which contribute to, or mitigate against, both the likelihood and timing of the onset of police misconduct.

Design/methodology/approach

Research hypotheses were tested examining the first personnel complaint filed against officers, using both all complaints and only substantiated complaints, from data collected on a large cohort of officers followed over a substantial portion of their careers.

Findings

Black officers and those exhibiting poor academy performance were at an increased likelihood of onset when compared to white and Hispanic officers and those who did better in the academy, while having a college degree lowered this likelihood. Officers whose first complaints were filed by citizens, and officers working certain patrol zones had quicker onset times. Those officers whose first complaint was related to service, as well as officers with prior military service, had longer onset times.

Research limitations/implications

This study relies on personnel complaints to measure onset, was conducted in a very large police department, and does not include arrest data on officers over time.

Practical implications

Onset occurs early in officers’ careers. Some factors are consistent across complaint types, while others depend on whether all complaints or only substantiated complaints are used to measure onset, which suggests that future research should consider carefully which measure they employ.

Originality/value

This study employs a longitudinal data set which follows a cohort of officers from the start of their careers, and is thus ideal for exploring the onset of misconduct.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Kim Michelle Lersch and Tom Mieczkowski

The use of citizen complaints as a valid and reliable measure of actual police behavior has often been criticized. It is the purpose of this study to validate the use of…

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1100

Abstract

The use of citizen complaints as a valid and reliable measure of actual police behavior has often been criticized. It is the purpose of this study to validate the use of externally generated citizen allegations of misconduct as an indicator of police malpractice by comparing the occurrence of internally generated complaints. Using both the internal and external complaints of misconduct that have been filed with the internal affairs office of a large police agency in the Southeast as a database, this manuscript will explore for possible similarities in the identity of the accused officers, officer characteristics, and types of complaints.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Gary Davies and Isabel Olmedo-Cifuentes

This paper aims to identify a typology of corporate misconduct affecting trust; to test the relative ability of individual misconducts to reduce trust and; to explain…

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1951

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify a typology of corporate misconduct affecting trust; to test the relative ability of individual misconducts to reduce trust and; to explain differences in how individuals respond to corporate crises.

Design/methodology/approach

The main research design uses conjoint analysis. Respondents (n = 404) rated eight combinations of six types of misconduct, identified from prior work on trust as likely to reduce trust. Initial levels of trust were established by varying both country of origin and product type.

Findings

The importance ranking for the six types was consistent across most conditions, with “bending the law” and “not telling the truth” as the most salient and “acting unfairly” and “acting irresponsibly” as the least salient in damaging trust. The characteristics of the respondent influenced the effect size.

Practical implications

As loss of trust represents loss of reputation, understanding how and when the framing of misconduct damages trust is important in managing reputation risk. The impact of any report of misconduct can be moderated if attributed by a company, the media or the individual, to a type that is less damaging to trust.

Originality/value

This study adds to our understanding as to why individuals respond differently to corporate misconduct, and contributes to prior work on reputation damage. The typology of corporate misconduct developed and tested here offers a different framework for researchers and practitioners with which to explore loss of trust and to develop existing crisis communication theory.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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