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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2010

Wookyung Lee and Haruki Imaoka

The purpose of this paper is to classify body shapes using angular defects instead of sizes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to classify body shapes using angular defects instead of sizes.

Design/methodology/approach

A large amount of dimensional data from a national anthropometry survey was analysed, and a basic pattern and its polyhedron were also used to create a three‐dimensional body shape from three body sizes. Using this method, the sizes were converted into nine angular defects.

Findings

The authors could define the factors explaining body shape characteristics and classify the body shapes into four groups. The four groups could be characterised by two pattern making difficulties of the upper and lower parts of the body as well as by two proportions, of waist girth to bust girth and bust girth to back length. Furthermore, depending on the age, the authors could understand body shape by the angle made.

Originality/value

Using a polyhedron model, the angles could be calculated using an enormous existing data set of sizes. An angular defect serves as an index to indicate the degree of difficulty for developing a flat pattern. If an angular defect of the bust is large, it is difficult to make a paper pattern of a bust dart. On the other hand, if an angular defect of the waist is large, it is easy to make a paper pattern of a waist dart. Thus, each body shape could be simultaneously characterized by two difficulty indices and two proportions of sizes.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2012

Robin Visser and Huub Ruël

This chapter presents a study on the work of commercial diplomats as international business promoters at foreign posts. Research has largely overlooked the actual roles…

Abstract

This chapter presents a study on the work of commercial diplomats as international business promoters at foreign posts. Research has largely overlooked the actual roles and activities of commercial diplomats in explaining the effectiveness of commercial diplomacy and international business support. In this study, it is assumed that commercial diplomats’ behavior is influenced by informal institutions. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 23 commercial diplomats at foreign posts from different countries were conducted and analyzed. The results show three different types of role behavior and differences in proactivity per type. Informal institutions such as background, skills, and experience, cultural differences, and the working environment suggest to explain the differences in levels of proactive international business support behavior of commercial diplomats. Further research is needed to assert these findings.

Details

Commercial Diplomacy and International Business: A Conceptual and Empirical Exploration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-674-4

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

Angel E. Muñoz Zavala, Arturo Hernández Aguirre, Enrique R. Villa Diharce and Salvador Botello Rionda

The purpose of this paper is to present a new constrained optimization algorithm based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new constrained optimization algorithm based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm approach.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces a hybrid approach based on a modified ring neighborhood with two new perturbation operators designed to keep diversity. A constraint handling technique based on feasibility and sum of constraints violation is adopted. Also, a special technique to handle equality constraints is proposed.

Findings

The paper shows that it is possible to improve PSO and keeping the advantages of its social interaction through a simple idea: perturbing the PSO memory.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed algorithm shows a competitive performance against the state‐of‐the‐art constrained optimization algorithms.

Practical implications

The proposed algorithm can be used to solve single objective problems with linear or non‐linear functions, and subject to both equality and inequality constraints which can be linear and non‐linear. In this paper, it is applied to various engineering design problems, and for the solution of state‐of‐the‐art benchmark problems.

Originality/value

A new neighborhood structure for PSO algorithm is presented. Two perturbation operators to improve PSO algorithm are proposed. A special technique to handle equality constraints is proposed.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

M.R. Rotab Khan

A methodology of structuring a garment production simulation model using a spreadsheet is described to minimize the average daily production cost through the investigation…

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Abstract

A methodology of structuring a garment production simulation model using a spreadsheet is described to minimize the average daily production cost through the investigation of various man‐machine combinations. The capability and usability of an easily available modern spreadsheet Excel 7.0 to simulate a simple garment production system is accessed with an attempt to demonstrate the simulation model building in a user friendly environment rather than learning and using costly simulation programming languages or simulation software packages. Simulation has evaluated the resource utilization and measured the system performance and developed strategies for taking operational decisions in a logical and better way to minimize the garment production cost. It may also assist and benefit the garment production managers to plan, design and operate their systems in an efficient manner in a competitive environment.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Abstract

Details

Digital Media and the Greek Crisis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-328-9

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Patrick Doreian

The arguments in this chapter address all three of the questions motivating this volume on network strategy. First, they focus on the issue of network evolution and show…

Abstract

The arguments in this chapter address all three of the questions motivating this volume on network strategy. First, they focus on the issue of network evolution and show how networks can emerge and change over time. Second, the chapter tackles the issue of endogeneity and shows that, under certain conditions, some structural advantages do precede rather than follow network positions. Networks evolve over trajectories and the trajectories matter. Third, the arguments respond to the core question of network entrepreneurship: does the awareness of structural advantages available to network positions inspire managers, acting on behalf of organizations, to seek these advantages? In responding, this chapter challenges the idea that filling structural holes necessarily confers advantages on the actors filling them. It follows that the advantages of bridging are dependent not only on the network structure, when decisions regarding tie formation or deletion are made, but also on the costs of forming and maintaining ties relative to the benefits obtained from doing so.

Details

Network Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1442-3

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2020

Ali Kaveh, Hossein Akbari and Seyed Milad Hosseini

This paper aims to present a new physically inspired meta-heuristic algorithm, which is called Plasma Generation Optimization (PGO). To evaluate the performance and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a new physically inspired meta-heuristic algorithm, which is called Plasma Generation Optimization (PGO). To evaluate the performance and capability of the proposed method in comparison to other optimization methods, two sets of test problems consisting of 13 constrained benchmark functions and 6 benchmark trusses are investigated numerically. The results indicate that the performance of the proposed method is competitive with other considered state-of-the-art optimization methods.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a new physically-based metaheuristic algorithm called plasma generation optimization (PGO) algorithm is developed for solving constrained optimization problems. PGO is a population-based optimizer inspired by the process of plasma generation. In the proposed algorithm, each agent is considered as an electron. Movement of electrons and changing their energy levels are based on simulating excitation, de-excitation and ionization processes occurring through the plasma generation. In the proposed PGO, the global optimum is obtained when plasma is generated with the highest degree of ionization.

Findings

A new physically-based metaheuristic algorithm called the PGO algorithm is developed that is inspired from the process of plasma generation.

Originality/value

The results indicate that the performance of the proposed method is competitive with other state-of-the-art methods.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Peter M. Pinsky and Raja V. Jasti

A new laminated composite plate finite element is proposed that is numerically stable and accurate in displacements and stresses, including transverse shear stress. The…

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31

Abstract

A new laminated composite plate finite element is proposed that is numerically stable and accurate in displacements and stresses, including transverse shear stress. The formulation is based on the Hellinger—Reissner principle with Mindlin kinematics. All stress components are given independent approximations and do not satisfy equilibrium conditions a priori. A novel feature of the formulation is the additive decomposition of the displacement field into two parts corresponding to nodal interpolations and independent local basis functions. The additional basis functions and their associated parameters play an important role in characterizing the accuracy of the element. These functions eliminate shear locking in the lower order elements and provide additional variational constraints on the stresses, leading to very accurate results. A 4‐node and a 9‐node version are developed and it is shown that both elements pass the patch test suggested by Zienkiewicz et al. and are stable in the sense of the Babuška—Brezzi condition. The special structure of the element flexibility matrix provides computational efficiency approaching that of displacement based formulations.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Tarun Kant and B.S. Manjunatha

A C° finite element formulation for flexure‐membrane coupling behaviour of an unsymmetrically laminated plate based on a higher‐order displacement model and…

Abstract

A C° finite element formulation for flexure‐membrane coupling behaviour of an unsymmetrically laminated plate based on a higher‐order displacement model and three‐dimensional state of stress and strain is presented. This theory incorporates the more realistic non‐linear variation of displacements through the plate thickness, thus eliminating the use of a shear correction coefficient. The discrete element chosen is a nine‐noded quadrilateral with 12 degrees of freedom per node. The computer program developed incorporates the realistic prediction of interlaminar stresses from equilibrium equations. The present solution for deflection and stresses is compared with those obtained using three‐dimensional elasticity theory, another higher‐order shear deformation theory and Mindlin theory. In addition, numerical results for unsymmetric sandwich plates are presented for future reference.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Charis Gerosideris and Ioanna Ferra

The mobilisations against the wildfires in Greece (2007) redefined the notion of environmentalism in the country, and it was one of the first examples which showcased the…

Abstract

The mobilisations against the wildfires in Greece (2007) redefined the notion of environmentalism in the country, and it was one of the first examples which showcased the potential of digital media for protests and resistance in the Greek context. At the same time, the global recession strongly affected the environmental politics and policies applied in Greece, indicating threats, risks and areas of conflict (e.g., privatisation of recourses, water, etc.). Following the environmental protests of 2007, this study provides an insight into the case of #Skouries forest and the antimining protests, focussing on the period 2015–2017. The study developed through the analysis of online data (Twitter) which was collected during the period March 2015 to March 2017 (#skouries). This chapter develops an insight into the online networks, coalitions and dominant actors (SNA) and also investigates the hashtags evolution and discourse (Semantic analysis). The collection and visualisation of the data developed using NodeXL. This case is considered one of the most indicative examples of the Greek environmental movement, as this shaped during the evolution of social media and in the crisis context. As such, this chapter demonstrates that the importance of the use of Twitter for the organisation of the movement, as well as an alternative space for public engagement/debate on climate change and environmental-related issues.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Digital Media in Greece
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-401-2

Keywords

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