Search results

1 – 10 of over 49000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Abdul Rashid, Ataullah Muneeb and Maria Karim

This paper first examines how changes in the real effective exchange rate and its volatility affect the exporting activities of firms. Next, it investigates whether…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper first examines how changes in the real effective exchange rate and its volatility affect the exporting activities of firms. Next, it investigates whether exchange rate volatility (EXRV) affects the export behavior of financially constrained and unconstrained firms differently. Finally, it examines the role of financial development in mitigating the effects of EXRV and financial constraints on firms' exports.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis of the paper is based on a wide panel of Pakistani nonfinancial firms listed at the Pakistan Stock Exchange during the period 2001–2016. To mitigate the problem of endogeneity and to take into account the dynamic nature of the empirical model, the authors apply the robust two-step system-GMM estimator developed by Blundell and Bond (1998). To examine the role of credit constraints, firm-year observations are sorted as financially constrained and unconstrained based on the median value of three alternative measures: the liquidity ratio, the dividend payout ratio and the Whited and Wu (WW) index.

Findings

The results reveal that an increase in the real effective exchange rate has a positive and significant impact on firms' exports. However, the results show that the EXRV is significantly and negatively related to exporting decisions, suggesting firms considerably decrease their exports during periods of increased unpredictable variations in exchange rates. The findings also suggest that compared to financially constrained firms, the adverse effect of EXRV on exports is weaker for financially unconstrained firms. This finding implies that firm-level financial constraints unfavorably impact exports by making exporting more sensitive to the EXRV. Finally, the findings indicate that financial development not only positively affects firms' exports but also plays a vital role in declining the adverse effects of EXRV on firm-level exports. Specifically, the results show that financial development decreases the negative impact of EXRV on exports for both financially constrained and unconstrained firms. However, the moderating role of financial sector development is higher for financially unconstrained firms.

Research limitations/implications

Notwithstanding that the authors present robust and strong empirical evidence of the effects of EXRV on exporting and on the role of both firm-level financial constraints and financial sector development in formulating these effects, there are some limitations of the study. The authors use a single proxy for measuring financial sector development. However, one may construct an index for the financial sector developed using principal component analysis (PCA) by considering different measures of financial development. The authors use three different measures of financial constraints. Nonetheless, more sophisticated techniques such as switching regression can be used to endogenously determine whether firms are financially constrained. Moreover, an examination of the asymmetric effects of EXRV on exporting across different industries would also be worthwhile.

Practical implications

From a policy point of view, the results suggest that the development of the financial sector and the strategies to lessen credit constraints faced by firms will help in mitigating the adverse effects of the EXRV on the exporting behavior of firms in Pakistan. The findings also suggest that managers in financially constrained firms should apply appropriate hedging strategies to hedge exchange rate risks. Finally, the findings suggest that investors should take into consideration exchange rate dynamics and firms' financial constraints while investing in exporting firms' stocks.

Social implications

Since the findings suggest that financially constrained firms' exports are more exposed to EXRV, managers of such exporting firms are suggested to apply effective and suitable currency risk-minimizing hedging instruments for enhancing their exports. The government should also implement economic and financial policies in such a way that they should help in reducing volatilities of exchange rates and in turn, encouraging firms to export more. Definitely, any policy, at both government and firm level, favoring exporting and export-oriented growth will not only help in overcoming the problem of a persistent and wide trade deficit but also help society by providing more employment and investment opportunities.

Originality/value

Recently, Pakistan has experienced significant declines in foreign reserves, persistent political unrest and enlarged trade deficits. All these have increased the uncertainty about the exchange rate. Therefore, it is valuable to know the EXRV effects on firms' exporting activities. Second, Pakistani firms face more financial constraints, and thus, the influence of financial constraints in formulating the volatility effects on exporting would be worth exploring. Finally, no research has yet taken place to scrutinize the role of financial development in mitigating the adverse effects of EXRV and financial constraints on exporting activities. This paper provides firsthand empirical evidence on the role of financial constraints and financial sector development in formulating the EXRV impacts on firm-level exports in Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 August 2020

Igbekele Sunday Osinubi

Existing studies that documented the effect of financial distress on trade credit provisions did not include measures financial constraint. It is possible that financial

Abstract

Purpose

Existing studies that documented the effect of financial distress on trade credit provisions did not include measures financial constraint. It is possible that financial distress is tie to financial constraints, and both financial distress and financial constraints mutually reinforce each other in their effects on trade credit provision. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of financial constraint and financial distress on trade credit provisions in the UK FTSE 350 listed firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs panel data in the estimation of the determinants of accounts payables and accounts receivables of the UK FTSE 350 firms from 2009 to 2017.

Findings

This study finds that financial distress has significant positive effect on accounts payables and a significant negative effect on accounts receivables. Financial constraints have significant negative effect on accounts payables and a significant positive effect on accounts receivables.

Practical implications

Trade creditor desiring to maintain an enduring product-market relationship grant more concessions to customer in financial distress. The amount of trade credit that sellers provide to financially constrained firm is an increasing function of the buyer's creditworthiness. The urgent cash needs of financially distressed firms lead them to sell trade receivables to factoring company leading to reduction in trade receivables. Firm facing external financing constraints increase trade credit to customers in anticipation of cash flow inflow to enhance liquidity.

Originality/value

This study shows that financial distress and financial constraints mutually reinforce each other in their effects on trade credit provisions, and firm's financing condition contributes to divergence in trade credit policies.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 February 2018

Wenwen An, Yuehua Xu and Jianqi Zhang

Previous studies have produced inconsistent findings regarding the effects of resource constraints on corporate illegal behavior. This study aims to explore how…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies have produced inconsistent findings regarding the effects of resource constraints on corporate illegal behavior. This study aims to explore how entrepreneurial firms can overcome the difficulties generated by resource constraints.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on insights from general strain theory and focusing on listed entrepreneurial firms, this study proposes that failure to obtain enough resources through listing generates strain in the managers of listed entrepreneurial firms, driving them to resort to corporate financial fraud as a solution. Nevertheless, such relationships between resource constraints and the likelihood of corporate financial fraud can be weakened by innovation capability, because innovation capability can generate more confidence in their managers and relieve their strains, thereby dissuading them from engaging in corporate financial fraud.

Findings

According to our empirical results, both financial and human resource constraints are positively related to the likelihood of corporate financial fraud in listed entrepreneurial firms, but such effects can be mitigated by innovation capability.

Practical implications

This study provides practical implications for both regulators and managers by indicating that although entrepreneurial firms with resource constraints are more likely to commit financial fraud, innovation capability could be a strategic approach to enhance managers’ confidence and relieve the strain.

Originality/value

Our study contributes to the literature by enriching our understanding of the consequences of resource constraints in entrepreneurial firms and highlighting the strategic importance of innovation capability in mitigating such effects.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 October 2021

Baba Adibura Seidu, Yaw Ndori Queku and Emmanuel Carsamer

This paper focused on financial constraints scenario and tax planning activities of banks in Ghana. The study explores how financial constraints could motivate the banks…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper focused on financial constraints scenario and tax planning activities of banks in Ghana. The study explores how financial constraints could motivate the banks to pursue tax planning mechanism and the implication on tax revenue mobilisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper followed generalised method of moments and fixed effect estimators to investigate the financial constrained-tax planning activity nexus. Simulation approach is adopted to provide financially constrained bank scenario. Besides contemporaneous analysis, sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine time varying effect. Data from all the 20 commercial banks which have operated from 2008 to 2018 were used.

Findings

The paper found that when banks are faced with financial constraints, they exhibit lower cash-effective-tax-rate. The decomposition analysis also revealed that financially constrained banks are likely to take on both short- and long-term tax planning opportunities. The paper also found evidence of persistence in the tax planning activities under financial constrained scenario.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few studies which have extended the tax planning literature to the Ghanaian banking sector. Further novelty is seen from the development of financial constraint scenario from liquidity and solvency. Liquidity and solvency are the anchors for continuity of banking operation and sensitive to regulatory watch and sanctions. Therefore, by applying simulation approach to trigger financial constraints scenarios from these fundamental indicators reveals the extent to which commercial banks rely on tax planning opportunities to mitigate the consequence of financial constraints.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 May 2021

Abdul Rashid and Mahir Ahmed Hersi

The paper examines the differential effect of liquidity constraints on corporate growth using unbalanced panel data for 457 Pakistani firms over the period 2010–2017.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines the differential effect of liquidity constraints on corporate growth using unbalanced panel data for 457 Pakistani firms over the period 2010–2017.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the probability of a financial unconstrained index constructed by estimating the endogenous regression model. This approach provides a time-varying measure of financial position for all firm-year observations and takes into account the different degrees of liquidity constraints that a company faces in attaining funds from external markets. It is derived from a multivariate selection equation that simultaneously accounts for all-important features of the underlying company identified in the literature. The cash flow variable has then interacted with various groups of dummy variables for financial constraint, which allows the coefficient of cash flow to vary across firm-year observations in the different liquidity constraint categories. The two-step system-GMM estimator is applied to estimate the main empirical model.

Findings

The results of the study provide evidence of the heterogeneity in firms' growth sensitivity to internal funds, depending on the degree of liquidity constraints. Financing growth through internal funds is found to be essential for both liquidity unconstrained and constrained corporates. However, it is observed that the coefficient of cash flow is greater for firms that do not have access to external financing and it eventually decreases with reductions in the magnitude of liquidity constraints, making the least constrained corporates' growth less responsive to internal funds. The results further indicate that smaller and younger firms show higher responsiveness of growth to internal funds. This finding is mainly attributed to financial market imperfections that make external funding difficult for them.

Practical implications

The results suggest that financially constrained firms should expand their corporate size more than the magnitude of positive income shocks they encounter. The study also suggests important policy implications for liquidity-constrained firms to carefully concentrate on their financing strategies to enhance their growth. By improving the corporate's capacity for production, corporates can achieve a faster effect of a potential positive income shock on their growth.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by constructing a financial constraint index by running the endogenous regression model. It also contributes by investigating the differential impact of credit constraints on firms' growth in Pakistan and how corporate size and age affect firm growth when financial constraints and investment opportunities are controlled.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 February 2021

Vibhuti Mittal and T.V. Raman

The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) counter numerous financial obstacles concerning business financing and cash flow management. The study, therefore, intends…

Abstract

Purpose

The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) counter numerous financial obstacles concerning business financing and cash flow management. The study, therefore, intends to examine the level of perceived severity of financial constraints on the business growth of enterprises, in terms of sales, profitability and asset growth. An attempt is made to study the influence of owner and firm attributes as the determinants of financial constraints faced by MSMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from MSME owners of Northern India through a self-administered questionnaire. In total, 213 responses were analysed using partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique through SmartPLSv2.

Findings

The findings advocate the role of owner and firm attributes in the severity of financial constraints experienced by the MSME owners. Most importantly, the study establishes a strong link between owner and firm attributes and cash flow constraints. Further, the paper confirms the negative influence of financing and cash flow problems on the growth of the firm.

Research limitations/implications

The evaluation and categorisation of perceived financial challenges into meaningful dimensions generate value to the problematic area of MSME operations. Thus, the findings are useful for the policymakers and researchers to contemplate the financial vulnerability of MSMEs.

Originality/value

The empirical findings of the present study add worth to the limited evidence of the relationship between owner and firm attributes and severity of cash flow constraints faced by the Indian MSME owners.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 September 2020

Yafeng Fan, Jing Jiang and Zuohao Hu

In daily life, consumers usually experience economic limitations on their consumption, which in turn results in experiencing financial constraints. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

In daily life, consumers usually experience economic limitations on their consumption, which in turn results in experiencing financial constraints. The purpose of this article is to examine how feeling financially constrained influences variety seeking in consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted three experiments to test the proposed hypotheses by applying multiple methods of manipulation of financial constraints and different measures of variety seeking.

Findings

The authors found that feeling financially constrained increases consumers’ insecurity, which in turn decreases their variety-seeking behavior. Additionally, the authors noted that individuals’ positive illusion could moderate the aforementioned effect. The negative effect of financial constraints on variety seeking only existed among consumers with a low positive illusion.

Practical implications

The findings in this article could help marketers attain a better understanding of consumers’ choices under financial constraints and could help retailers optimize their product lines and distribution.

Originality/value

This research marks the first attempt to examine the relationship between financial constraint and variety seeking. The findings make for a valuable addition to both the financial constraint and variety-seeking literature reviews. The research study also extends the literature on how insecurity and positive illusion influence individuals’ decisions in the consumption context.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 October 2019

Misraku Molla Ayalew and Zhang Xianzhi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of financial constraints on innovation in developing countries. It also examines how the effect of financial

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of financial constraints on innovation in developing countries. It also examines how the effect of financial constraints varies by sector and with main firm characteristics such as size and age.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes matched firm-level data from two sources; the World Bank Enterprise Survey and the Innovation Follow-Up Survey. From 11 African countries, 4,720 firms have been included in the sample. A recursive bivariate probit model is used.

Findings

The result shows that financial constraints adversely affect a firm’s decision to engage in innovative activities and the likelihood to have product innovation and process innovation. The results point out that the extent of the adverse effect of financial constraints on innovation differs across the sectors, firm size and age groups. A firm’s innovation is also explained by firm size, R&D, cooperation/alliance, the human capital of the firm, staff training, public financial support and export. At last, the probability of encountering financial constraints is explained by firms’ ex ante financing structure, amount of collateral, accounting and auditing practices and group membership.

Practical implications

Managers should strengthen the internal and external financing capacity to reduce financing constraints and their adverse effect on innovation.

Social implications

A pending policy task for African leaders is to design and evaluate reforms that reduce the adverse effects of financial constraints on innovation.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature on financing of innovation by examining how and to what extent financial constraints affect innovation across various sectors, size and age groups.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Sung Gyun Mun and SooCheong (Shawn) Jang

The purpose of this study is to develop an index for financial constraints, specifically for restaurant firms, and to further validate the developed financial constraint index.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop an index for financial constraints, specifically for restaurant firms, and to further validate the developed financial constraint index.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used logistic regression with a composite criterion based on the dividend payout ratio, KZ index and Cleary index to estimate restaurant firms’ financial constraints. Then, a fixed-effects regression was used to verify the validity of the measurement of restaurant firms’ financial constraints.

Findings

A restaurant firm’s operating profit, financial leverage, asset tangibility, sale of fixed assets and percentage change in number of employees are critical indicators for identifying financial constraints. The results indicated that in cases with positive operating cash flows, the effect of operating cash flow on capital investments continuously decreased as restaurant firms’ financial constraints increased.

Originality/value

This study is unique in that the specific financial and operational characteristics of restaurant firms were included in the model to determine financial constraint indicators, such as sale of fixed assets and percentage change in number of employees.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Xuechang Zhu, Jingbin Wang, Bin Liu and Xiaoyi Di

Although the adoption of lean inventory management for performance improvement has been widely recognized, sticky inventory management is still a stopgap measure for new…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the adoption of lean inventory management for performance improvement has been widely recognized, sticky inventory management is still a stopgap measure for new small and medium enterprises (SMEs) against survival risks. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the nonlinear relationship between new SMEs inventory stickiness and venture survival by focusing on the moderating effects of environmental dynamism and financial constraints.

Design/methodology/approach

Classical moderating model is employed to investigate the effects of environmental dynamism and financial constraints on the relationship between inventory stickiness and venture survival. This study uses the accelerated failure time model for survival analysis and tests the relationships based on a large set of new manufacturing SMEs in China over the period from 1999 to 2007.

Findings

The main finding is that inventory stickiness has an inverted U-shaped impact on the likelihood of survival. However, the inflection point of this inverted U-shaped relationship lies at the end of the sample. Further moderation analysis indicates that environmental dynamism positively moderates the inverted U-shaped relationship between inventory stickiness and venture survival, while financial constraints negatively moderate this relationship.

Practical implications

Most new SMEs have great potential to increase the likelihood of survival by improving inventory stickiness before achieving effective lean inventory management. Sticky inventory management can help new SMEs achieve better survival in a dynamic environment. However, new SMEs that are financially constrained should prudently implement sticky inventory management.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing understanding about the likelihood of SMEs survival by addressing the role of sticky inventory management. It may be the first study to empirically demonstrate the moderating effect of environmental dynamism and financial constraints on the inverted U-shaped relationship between inventory stickiness and venture survival.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 49000