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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Armand Viljoen, Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

This paper aims to identify and cluster visitors to a premier South African cheese festival based on their motivation for attending the festival.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify and cluster visitors to a premier South African cheese festival based on their motivation for attending the festival.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from visitors over the three days of the festival, in which 519 usable questionnaires were included in the analysis. Three stages of the analysis were employed: a factor analysis examining the visitors’ motivation to attend the festival, a cluster analysis based on the motives identified by the factor analysis and an analysis of significant differences between the different market segments.

Findings

The general profile of respondents was similar to the profile of culinary tourists found in other studies. Furthermore, five key motives were identified, of which this combination has not been previously identified in the literature. The cluster analysis identified three distinct clusters, with heterogeneous behavioural and socio-demographic profile identifiers.

Practical implications

The value that this market segmentation technique holds regarding the marketing and branding of a(n) event/festival is that it could help managers/marketers to promote better culinary events/festivals in South Africa, by offering unique attributes that attract culinary visitors.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this study is a first attempt to segment culinary visitors based on motivational factors, especially within the South African context. Clustering based on motives proved to be a useful market segmentation tool and proposes a 3-S typology of visitors to food-related events/festivals, namely, social, serious and selective epicureans.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether a music festival leads to additional intangible benefits such as the appreciation of the specific music genre and music tourism…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether a music festival leads to additional intangible benefits such as the appreciation of the specific music genre and music tourism. This was done by using visitors’ behavioural intentions related to these benefits as a tool for market segmentation.

Design/methodology/approach

The research followed a quantitative approach by conducting a visitor survey at an international jazz festival in South Africa.

Findings

The results showed that visitors’ post-festival behavioural intentions are a useful market segmentation tool. This approach revealed three distinct market segments with different levels of post-festival behavioural intentions (high, medium, and low). The results further showed that music festivals have the potential to create benefits beyond the festival itself or the host destination in the form of music tourism and the appreciation of a music genre. However, influencing visitors’ behavioural intentions can only be achieved by a thorough understanding of the characteristics of the market.

Originality/value

This research applied an innovative market segmentation approach that showed the post-festival behavioural intentions of different visitor segments at a music festival. The findings confirm that music festivals can have far-reaching benefits that can contribute to their legacy.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2018

Armand Viljoen, Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

The role and importance of arts festivals are well documented within the festival and events literature. Art and culture, as well as the subsequent enhancement thereof, are…

Abstract

Purpose

The role and importance of arts festivals are well documented within the festival and events literature. Art and culture, as well as the subsequent enhancement thereof, are especially significant in multicultural societies. However, little is known regarding the role of culinary experiences within an arts festival setting. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study was a well-known and popular Afrikaans national arts festival held annually in Potchefstroom, South Africa. Visitors to three distinct tasting experiences (brandy, whisky and sparkling wine, including Méthode Cap Classique), offered as part of the festival programme, were surveyed.

Findings

In the analyses, 292 completed questionnaires were included, which revealed three managerial factors for a successful tasting experience, as well as six tasting experience dimensions. In all cases, the experiences exceeded the expectations. This research greatly contributes towards the body of knowledge regarding tasting experiences at national arts festivals, an aspect that has not been researched to date.

Practical implications

Based on the results, practical implications are provided to enhance the current tasting experiences as well as visitor loyalty. This research is a stepping stone towards understanding the needs and preferences of the visitors, as well as identifying how the festival can capitalise on delivering these experiences.

Originality/value

This research identified for the first time the factors that contribute to a memorable tasting experience, as well as evaluated the tasting experience dimensions.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

The purpose of this paper is to determine the motives of visitors to an electronic dance music (EDM) festival in South Africa and clustered the participants according to these…

2049

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the motives of visitors to an electronic dance music (EDM) festival in South Africa and clustered the participants according to these motives.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a visitor survey at the oldest EDM festival in South Africa, namely, H2O, five motives for attending H2O were identified (fun and dance; novelty; excitement, group identity and entertainment; lifestyle and well-being; and travel and escape), while the results revealed three clusters of EDM festival visitors: enthusiasts, energizers and electros. The results demonstrated that clustering EDM festival visitors based on their motives is a useful market segmentation tool as it yields a clear and direct profile and understanding of different types of attendees and their preferences.

Findings

The results as well as findings emphasize how EDM events can play a role in expanding tourism, especially youth travel, by hosting more EDM festivals in the country.

Originality/value

The study proposes a 3E typology of EDM festival visitors that could be applied to other EDM festival and event markets. This research, therefore, makes a clear contribution to the literature on EDM festivals and events and the market that this distinct music genre attracts.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

Melville Saayman and Andrea Saayman

The Comrades Marathon is a world‐renowned ultra marathon that takes place yearly between the cities of Pietermaritzburg and Durban in KwaZulu‐Natal, South Africa. It attracts…

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Abstract

Purpose

The Comrades Marathon is a world‐renowned ultra marathon that takes place yearly between the cities of Pietermaritzburg and Durban in KwaZulu‐Natal, South Africa. It attracts athletes from around the world, and boasts a participation of more than 14,000. The purpose of this article is to determine the impact that this marathon has on the provincial economy – a manufacturing‐based economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Spending data of participants and their accompanying spectators were compiled by means of surveys and participants were split into categories based on their origin. The provincial Social Accounting Matrix is used to quantify the impact of this spending stimulus on production, income and job creation within the province.

Findings

The results show that Comrades Marathon contributes significantly to the provincial economy and that more than 600 jobs are dependent on the event.

Research limitations/implications

It has a larger impact on the local economy than many similar sport events and this is attributed to the specialised nature of the event as well as its status as an ultra‐marathon.

Originality/value

This research is one of few on ultra‐marathons and the focus is on participants’ spending behaviour during the event.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Lisa-Mari Coughlan and Melville Saayman

Tourism is a key source of income to South Africa. Food and beverages is a key part of tourism and the literature reveals that tourists spend up to a quarter of their budget on…

Abstract

Tourism is a key source of income to South Africa. Food and beverages is a key part of tourism and the literature reveals that tourists spend up to a quarter of their budget on cuisine. South Africa has, however, been rated as the least-prepared culinary travel destination and the travel destination with the greatest potential for growth. Therefore, a segmentation taxonomy based on culinary preferences of international tourists to South Africa is put forth which can be used to prepare South Africa as a culinary travel destination. The 627 international tourists surveyed were divided into five segments with the use of factor analyses, t-tests, Spearman rank correlations and analysis of variance. The segments were named conservationists, experience seekers, devotees, explorers and socialisers (CEDES taxonomy). Multiple results and implications are discussed in the paper.

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2012

Saskia de Klerk and Melville Saayman

Networking is an important managerial skill and small businesses and businesses that are operated in informal settings, such as those of the festival entrepreneur, need to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Networking is an important managerial skill and small businesses and businesses that are operated in informal settings, such as those of the festival entrepreneur, need to concentrate on building strong relationships with the role players in their networks in order to survive, thrive and to enhance their competitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current level of networking skills and to determine the perceptions of entrepreneurs of their current networking relationships. The tourism industry, which is regarded as a people's industry, needs high levels of networking skills to meet customer needs and expectations. Networking can therefore be seen as a key success factor. The Grahamstown National Arts festival is South Africa's oldest arts festival and was chosen, first because of the economic impact it has and, second, tourism and entrepreneurship are considered as key developmental issues in South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative study (structured questionnaire) was used to achieve the goal of the study and 137 festival entrepreneurs participated. A factor analysis was conducted with an Oblimin rotation to determine the factors that correlate most strongly with each other.

Findings

The main findings indicated that becoming a festival entrepreneur is a career choice and, second, that relationships and trust are important aspects of networking behaviour.

Originality/value

It is very important to investigate entrepreneurial behaviour in terms of networking practices at festivals. This research might help festival organisers to better understand and support the entrepreneurs conducting their business at these festivals and the organisers can offer services to support these networking efforts by offering courses, networking opportunities and engagement on higher levels of festival management. This research might also assist in the development of tourism curriculums which focus on event tourism.

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Martinette Kruger

The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the literature by focusing on the profile and loyalty of visitors to a literary arts festival in South Africa. In addition, this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the literature by focusing on the profile and loyalty of visitors to a literary arts festival in South Africa. In addition, this research advocates that festivals can influence visitors’ supplementary behavioural intentions and actions beyond loyalty in the form of literary arts appreciation, purchases and tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

A visitor survey was conducted at one of the oldest literary arts festivals in the country where a total of 391 completed self-administered questionnaires were obtained. The statistical analyses comprised three factor analyses (motives to attend the festival, satisfaction with the festival offering elements and behavioural intentions) as well as structural equation modelling, to establish the relationship between the motives, evaluation of the “festivalscapes”, behavioural intentions and loyalty.

Findings

The findings confirmed that literary arts festival loyalty is the principle behavioural intention that will occur after attending a literary arts festival. However, the results demonstrated that literary arts festivals also have the potential to increase and stimulate supplementary behavioural intentions in the form of greater awareness of the arts, increased purchasing behaviour of literary works, increased travel to support the literary arts and greater personal involvement.

Practical implications

Festivals, irrespective of the art form that they showcase, therefore, play a significant role in encouraging and increasing purchasing behaviour, which is vital to the viability and continuation of the arts industry.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to research the literary arts festival market in South Africa, thereby making a distinct contribution by expanding the literature on the needs of this neglected market and the aspects that influence loyalty to these types of festivals.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

Mathilda van Niekerk and Melville Saayman

The aim of this paper is to investigate whether tourism awareness can be created through introducing tourism as a subject in high schools in South Africa. It also explores if…

1603

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate whether tourism awareness can be created through introducing tourism as a subject in high schools in South Africa. It also explores if studying tourism as a high-school subject has an influence on the travel patterns of students and their parents, and if it stimulates students to pursue a career in the tourism industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is exploratory in nature. Based on a literature review, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 250 students with tourism as a high-school subject (research group), 250 students without tourism as a high-school subject (control group), 250 parents whose children have tourism as a high-school subject (research group) and 250 parents (control group) whose children do not have tourism as a high-school subject in South Africa.

Findings

Data revealed that introducing tourism as a high-school subject created tourism awareness among students. The travel patterns of those parents whose children studied tourism were also influenced. Results also indicated that students who studied tourism at high-school level are likely to pursue a career in the tourism industry.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted on learners who had been exposed to the tourism curriculum for only a year-and-a-half and therefore did not measure the full impact of the three-year curriculum. The study was also conducted in only one of the nine provinces of South Africa and the demographic location of the learners could have had an influence on the findings. More advanced statistical analysis could have been performed to increase the value of the study. The Bartlett Tests of Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin overall measure could also have been reported. The study can be replicated in other countries, where tourism is currently being offered as a school subject to measure the effectiveness of the tourism curriculum as an awareness tool. The influence of children on their parents' travel patterns should also be further studied as it can assist in strategic development, planning and marketing of tourism attractions.

Practical implications

Introducing tourism as a high-school subject in other developing countries can be considered as a way of creating tourism awareness, and to stimulate the domestic tourism market and the tourism industry as a whole. If tourism can be introduced as a subject at a younger age students will be able to influence their parents' travel patterns and are likely to pursue a career in the tourism industry.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to measure the effectiveness of a tourism curriculum as a tourism awareness tool. It also adds to a limited body of knowledge on how children influence their parents' travel patterns. Last, it shows the effect that tourism awareness has on students in their decision to pursue a career in the tourism industry in South Africa.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 68 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Abderrahim Daoudi and Tanja Mihalič

The first thematic workshop on «Strategic Importance of Tourism as a Part of an Integrated Development Strategy of Countries and Places» showed that strategic importance of…

Abstract

The first thematic workshop on «Strategic Importance of Tourism as a Part of an Integrated Development Strategy of Countries and Places» showed that strategic importance of tourism varies according to its economic weight and political actuality. In many countries the economic importance of tourism is relatively low and tourism goals are not high on the political agenda. Nevertheless, even in such countries, tourism can be important economic activity for some less developed places (regions).

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 54 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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