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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

The purpose of this paper is to determine the motives of visitors to an electronic dance music (EDM) festival in South Africa and clustered the participants according to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the motives of visitors to an electronic dance music (EDM) festival in South Africa and clustered the participants according to these motives.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a visitor survey at the oldest EDM festival in South Africa, namely, H2O, five motives for attending H2O were identified (fun and dance; novelty; excitement, group identity and entertainment; lifestyle and well-being; and travel and escape), while the results revealed three clusters of EDM festival visitors: enthusiasts, energizers and electros. The results demonstrated that clustering EDM festival visitors based on their motives is a useful market segmentation tool as it yields a clear and direct profile and understanding of different types of attendees and their preferences.

Findings

The results as well as findings emphasize how EDM events can play a role in expanding tourism, especially youth travel, by hosting more EDM festivals in the country.

Originality/value

The study proposes a 3E typology of EDM festival visitors that could be applied to other EDM festival and event markets. This research, therefore, makes a clear contribution to the literature on EDM festivals and events and the market that this distinct music genre attracts.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Martinette Kruger

The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the literature by focusing on the profile and loyalty of visitors to a literary arts festival in South Africa. In addition…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the literature by focusing on the profile and loyalty of visitors to a literary arts festival in South Africa. In addition, this research advocates that festivals can influence visitors’ supplementary behavioural intentions and actions beyond loyalty in the form of literary arts appreciation, purchases and tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

A visitor survey was conducted at one of the oldest literary arts festivals in the country where a total of 391 completed self-administered questionnaires were obtained. The statistical analyses comprised three factor analyses (motives to attend the festival, satisfaction with the festival offering elements and behavioural intentions) as well as structural equation modelling, to establish the relationship between the motives, evaluation of the “festivalscapes”, behavioural intentions and loyalty.

Findings

The findings confirmed that literary arts festival loyalty is the principle behavioural intention that will occur after attending a literary arts festival. However, the results demonstrated that literary arts festivals also have the potential to increase and stimulate supplementary behavioural intentions in the form of greater awareness of the arts, increased purchasing behaviour of literary works, increased travel to support the literary arts and greater personal involvement.

Practical implications

Festivals, irrespective of the art form that they showcase, therefore, play a significant role in encouraging and increasing purchasing behaviour, which is vital to the viability and continuation of the arts industry.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to research the literary arts festival market in South Africa, thereby making a distinct contribution by expanding the literature on the needs of this neglected market and the aspects that influence loyalty to these types of festivals.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Armand Viljoen, Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

This paper aims to identify and cluster visitors to a premier South African cheese festival based on their motivation for attending the festival.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify and cluster visitors to a premier South African cheese festival based on their motivation for attending the festival.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from visitors over the three days of the festival, in which 519 usable questionnaires were included in the analysis. Three stages of the analysis were employed: a factor analysis examining the visitors’ motivation to attend the festival, a cluster analysis based on the motives identified by the factor analysis and an analysis of significant differences between the different market segments.

Findings

The general profile of respondents was similar to the profile of culinary tourists found in other studies. Furthermore, five key motives were identified, of which this combination has not been previously identified in the literature. The cluster analysis identified three distinct clusters, with heterogeneous behavioural and socio-demographic profile identifiers.

Practical implications

The value that this market segmentation technique holds regarding the marketing and branding of a(n) event/festival is that it could help managers/marketers to promote better culinary events/festivals in South Africa, by offering unique attributes that attract culinary visitors.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this study is a first attempt to segment culinary visitors based on motivational factors, especially within the South African context. Clustering based on motives proved to be a useful market segmentation tool and proposes a 3-S typology of visitors to food-related events/festivals, namely, social, serious and selective epicureans.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Andrea Báez and María Devesa

The purpose of this paper is to analyse film festival spectators on the basis of their motives for attending as well as other variables linked to cultural consumption, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse film festival spectators on the basis of their motives for attending as well as other variables linked to cultural consumption, the evaluation of the event and certain sociodemographic characteristics of attendees.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected at the Valdivia International Film Festival, the case study. In order to achieve the goals of the paper, a variety of statistical methods and techniques were used. First, principal component factorial analysis was applied to identify the underlying motivational dimensions. Second, the authors adopted cluster analysis based on the dimensions pinpointed in the factorial analysis in order to segment festival attendees. Finally, analysis of variance and χ2 analysis were applied to establish each group's profile.

Findings

The empirical research reveals three motivation factors (discovery, entertainment and cinema) and three discrete groups of spectators, labelled as socially indifferent, film lovers and enthusiasts). They present different profiles from a consumption viewpoint.

Research limitations/implications

The results provide useful insights into cultural policy and management of this kind of events, and even for those in charge of tourism policies in the city and the region.

Originality/value

The paper aims to contribute to the literature addressing festival motivation for the specific case of a film festival, a field for which there are almost no studies into motivation, in a given geographical area South America which is active in creating festivals.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether a music festival leads to additional intangible benefits such as the appreciation of the specific music genre and music…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether a music festival leads to additional intangible benefits such as the appreciation of the specific music genre and music tourism. This was done by using visitors’ behavioural intentions related to these benefits as a tool for market segmentation.

Design/methodology/approach

The research followed a quantitative approach by conducting a visitor survey at an international jazz festival in South Africa.

Findings

The results showed that visitors’ post-festival behavioural intentions are a useful market segmentation tool. This approach revealed three distinct market segments with different levels of post-festival behavioural intentions (high, medium, and low). The results further showed that music festivals have the potential to create benefits beyond the festival itself or the host destination in the form of music tourism and the appreciation of a music genre. However, influencing visitors’ behavioural intentions can only be achieved by a thorough understanding of the characteristics of the market.

Originality/value

This research applied an innovative market segmentation approach that showed the post-festival behavioural intentions of different visitor segments at a music festival. The findings confirm that music festivals can have far-reaching benefits that can contribute to their legacy.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Maarit Kinnunen, Antti Honkanen and Mervi Luonila

The purpose of the study is to compare features of career development and fandom in frequent festival attendance in the context of Finnish music festivals.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to compare features of career development and fandom in frequent festival attendance in the context of Finnish music festivals.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a mixed methods research approach and employs two theoretical frameworks: theories of career development and fandom.

Findings

In frequent festival attendance, both festival career development and festival fandom are most clearly present in motivation development and social dimensions.

Practical implications

Strategically, frequent festivalgoers should be considered as crucial stakeholders, who might mobilize the co-creation of a sense of community or festival brand.

Originality/value

Music-related fandom has been previously investigated in relation to artists and specific musical genres, but not so much in relation to music festivals in general. Career studies, on the other hand, concentrate heavily on sports events. There is a scarcity of research scrutinizing both career development and fandom in the festival context within the same study, and festival attendance as part of music tourism is an under-researched area.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Christina Muhs, Adesola Osinaike and Lorna Thomas

This paper explores the factors motivating people to attend the Dutch hardstyle festival, Defqon.1. This paper delivers new insights to festival attendance by including…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the factors motivating people to attend the Dutch hardstyle festival, Defqon.1. This paper delivers new insights to festival attendance by including social and cultural factors in the motivational dimensions and considering a niche electronic music festival.

Design/methodology/approach

This research utilised qualitative methods to identify and gain detailed information about attendee's visitor motives. Eleven semi-structured in-depth interviews which focus on the influence of intangible features of visitor motivations were conducted.

Findings

The research result revealed an increased influence of social factors and decreased the effect of all other visitor motives. The subcultural ties amongst members of the hardstyle scene were identified as stronger than the ones of different electronic music scenes. The study concluded that social factors, such as friendships gain significant importance for stimulating return visits.

Originality/value

Contemporary music festivals, especially electronic events have not comprehensively been researched. Also, the effects of social and cultural factors on festival attendance have previously been neglected in research. Studies on popular electronic music genres, such as rave and hardcore, are from a sociological viewpoint. These studies revealed motivations of members of the subculture to be a part of the scene and to attend events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Medet Yolal, Eunju Woo, Fatmagul Cetinel and Muzaffer Uysal

The study has three objectives. The first objective of this paper is to investigate the underlying dimensions of motivation for attending an international festival in…

Abstract

Purpose

The study has three objectives. The first objective of this paper is to investigate the underlying dimensions of motivation for attending an international festival in Turkey and whether motivation will vary across six different festival products (symphony, rock, world music, dance, ballet, and theater). The second purpose is to understand how festival attendees perceive the socio‐economic impacts of the festival and how these perceived impacts vary across different festival attendee groups. Finally, the study examines the overall satisfaction of festival attendees with respect to different festival products.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical data was collected by way of self‐administered questionnaires to obtain perceptions and motivations of 523 attendees in Eskisehir International Festival.

Findings

The results showed that there were significant differences in motivation among attendees from six different festival products. Duncan's multiple‐range tests were performed to further examine differences in motivation among these attendees. The mean scores of different groups indicate that “rock event” attendees tended to have lower motivation scores than other groups and have the lowest ratings on the factor of “family togetherness”. However, attendees did not differ on the perceived importance of socio‐economic impacts and satisfaction with the festival, irrespective of the festival product attended.

Originality/value

Festivals and special events have increased worldwide because they provide significant economic, socio‐cultural, and political impacts on destinations. While a plethora of studies have examined tourists' motivation and socio‐economic impacts, little research has been conducted on the motivation and socio‐economic impact of festival attendees with regard to different product offerings.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 October 2019

Faten Alshammari, Jeremy Whaley, Songyee Hur and Youn-Kyung Kim

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a within-gender analysis and between-gender differences in seeking (personal and interpersonal) and escaping (personal and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a within-gender analysis and between-gender differences in seeking (personal and interpersonal) and escaping (personal and interpersonal) motivations to attend a non-traditional festival in Saudi Arabia. Specific objectives were: to conduct a within-gender analysis in motivations to attend a non-traditional festival in Saudi Arabia; and to examine between-gender differences in motivations to attend a non-traditional festival in Saudi Arabia.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the data collected from 458 attendees at a non-traditional festival in Saudi Arabia, the authors employed network analysis for within-gender analysis and MANOVA and ANOVA for between-gender comparison. The network analysis served two purposes, in that it examined each item’s predictability for each gender, and analyzed the correlations among motivation items within each gender. In addition, the General Linear Model served to compare the male and female groups’ motivations to attend the non-traditional festival. The authors first performed MANOVA for each dimension and then ANOVA for each dimension’s individual items.

Findings

Within-gender analysis reveals that several sets of motivations were associated strongly for both genders. This suggests that Saudi Arabians seem to enjoy entertainment because it projects the festival mood; they want to escape both from home and work and attend the festival to relieve stress by changing their routine pace. However, gender differences were apparent in several other items, especially for the group of women. Between-group comparison analysis shows significant gender differences in several elements of motivation. Overall, personal seeking and escaping were greater for males than females. In contrast, interpersonal seeking was greater for females than males.

Research limitations/implications

Entertainment seems to be a key contributor to the festival mood because entertainment and the festival mood were related closely for both genders. In fact, personal and interpersonal escaping means were greater than personal interpersonal seeking means for both genders. Indeed, opportunities exist to develop non-traditional festivals in the country further. Gender differences were identified in several items of personal seeking and escaping, and interpersonal seeking. With respect to personal seeking, men tend to seek the entertainment, festival mood and the event’s uniqueness more than do women, a finding that their higher means in personal escaping supported. It is clear that men view the festival as a way to enjoy themselves to escape from their jobs and daily stress to a greater degree than do their female counterparts. Women are more likely to seek interpersonal experiences in that they are more likely to enjoy the festival because it offers the opportunity to meet new people and spend quality time with family and friends. This study has several limitations, leading to suggestions for future research. Because seeking and escaping motivations have been used relatively little in the festival setting, future researchers should develop a valid scale of personal and interpersonal seeking and escaping motivations specifically for festivals employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. Second, while the data were collected at a single non-traditional festival, future research can use multiple sites to increase the ability to generalize the findings. Third, although this study was limited to Saudi Arabia, further research can apply seeking and escaping motivations, both at the personal and interpersonal levels, to other cultures to extend the applicability of the framework used in this study.

Practical implications

Non-traditional festival managers need to focus on an atmosphere that provides festivities, as many people in the Saudi Arabian culture appear to be escaping from their everyday lives to enjoy themselves and with family and friends. To appeal to male workers, festival organizers and managers need to advertise and market the events’ mood and liveliness overall with photos of workers leaving the office free of stress and looking forward to attending an event. To appeal to women who desire unique experiences that a variety of forms of entertainment provide, event managers must ensure that the entertainment is innovative and creative, and differs from what other festivals provide to attract more female attendees. Also, festival planners must focus on events that incorporate the family unit and promote the opportunity to meet new people to appeal to women in Saudi Arabia.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine gender differences in festival motivations in Saudi Arabia. The relaxation of the historically strict and conservative cultural values, coupled with the country’s desire to develop its tourism and event sector, provides an ideal opportunity for future research. The authors hope that this research will stimulate further interest in the country with the goal to develop and market its tourism sector and products on the world’s stage.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2020

Maria Gorete Dinis, Celeste Eusébio and Zélia Breda

This paper aims to present a framework to analyse whether information published on social media is accessible for people with disabilities (PwD), namely, visual and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a framework to analyse whether information published on social media is accessible for people with disabilities (PwD), namely, visual and hearing disabilities, with an application to a music festival.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in this exploratory study consists of establishing a recommended framework to assess social media accessibility for PwD, especially for people with visual and hearing disabilities (PwVHD), and analyse, through an observation grid, if the information published on the official pages of the “Rock in Rio Lisboa” music festival on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube is accessible for this target audience.

Findings

The results indicate that, although the Rock in Rio Lisboa music festival is promoted as a festival for all, posts on social media are not accessible for people with visual and/or hearing disabilities and do not meet most of the defined parameters established in the proposed assessment framework.

Originality/value

Social media accessibility has not been analysed in previous research in the tourism context. This paper aims to fill in the void by establishing criteria and parameters that can serve as a basis for a framework for accessibility assessment in social media for PwVHD.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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