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Article

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

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Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Book part

Marc Schneiberg

Despite recent advances, neither organizational studies nor the scholarship on economic resilience has systematically addressed how the ecologies of organizations that…

Abstract

Despite recent advances, neither organizational studies nor the scholarship on economic resilience has systematically addressed how the ecologies of organizations that populate local economies can serve as infrastructures for responding proactively to economic shocks. Using county-level data, this study analyzes relationships between the prevalence of organizational alternatives to shareholder value-oriented (SVO) corporations within a particular locality and its unemployment levels during and after the Great Recession. The results support the hypothesis that the presence of such alternative organizations can enhance the capacities of local economies to resist and recover from recession shocks. Cooperative, municipal, and community-based enterprises, research universities, and nonprofits more generally were associated with greater resistance to the recession shock and stronger recoveries – specifically, lower surges in unemployment rates from 2007 to 2010 and greater reductions in unemployment rates from 2010 to 2016. By contrast, SVO corporations were associated with greater surges in unemployment and perhaps weaker recoveries. Providing a proof of concept, this study opens up new lines of inquiry for organizational studies by linking organizational ecologies to the promotion of collective efficacy and a more broadly shared prosperity in economic life.

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Organizational Imaginaries: Tempering Capitalism and Tending to Communities through Cooperatives and Collectivist Democracy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-989-7

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Article

Louise Grimmer and Oskaras Vorobjovas-Pinta

The visitor economy is increasingly being recognised by local authorities, governments and destination marketing managers as having a significant effect on local retail…

Abstract

Purpose

The visitor economy is increasingly being recognised by local authorities, governments and destination marketing managers as having a significant effect on local retail precincts. This research note proposes that there is a link between the rise of the sharing economy (notably Airbnb) and the growing awareness and appreciation of the impact of the visitor economy. The purpose of this paper is to provide an example of the marketing efforts of a specific retail precinct to attract visitors engaged in the sharing economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken involves a review of the literature pertaining to the sharing and visitor economies. Using an example from an Australian tourist city – Hobart, Tasmania, this research reviews a collaborative marketing campaign undertaken by retailers in a city precinct designed to appeal to stakeholders in the visitor economy.

Findings

Shopping at local stores and retail precincts form an integral part of the travel experience. This research note offers an overview of the nexus between the sharing and visitor economies. In particular, it presents the potential implications of collaborative marketing efforts to attract visitors to a retail precinct. It is suggested that the development of new marketing and branding strategies, specifically retailer-led collaborative efforts, are a positive approach to attract stakeholders involved in the sharing and visitor economies.

Originality/value

This research note is one of the first to recognise the relationship between the rise of the sharing economy and the subsequent conceptualisation of a visitor economy. This note recognises the particular importance of the nexus between the sharing and visitor economies for retail precincts.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article

Zaheer Khan, Yong Kyu Lew and Rudolf R. Sinkovics

This paper aims to explore inter-organizational linkages and the extent of technology transfer and develop propositions related to the linkages, technology transfer and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore inter-organizational linkages and the extent of technology transfer and develop propositions related to the linkages, technology transfer and upgrading of local suppliers in developing economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct a literature review and 50 exploratory interviews with senior managers and policymakers in the automotive parts industry of Pakistan.

Findings

The data revealed that three major international joint ventures (IJVs) established in the automotive industry of Pakistan have created significant vertical linkages. However, advanced high-level technology transfer has not actually taken place due to the following reasons: IJV parents are reluctant to engage in technology transfer, there is limited support from local government and local suppliers exhibit limited improvement in their innovation capability. The vertical linkage creation and low-medium technology transfer contributes to incremental product upgrading of the local suppliers, rather than their process upgrading and insertion into the global value chain (GVC).

Research limitations/implications

This research looked at technology interactions between IJVs and local tier-1 suppliers (not tier 2 and tier 3) in Pakistan’s automotive industry. This paper’ illustrative case indicates what is required for local suppliers in developing economies to make breakthrough upgrades of their products and processes through their vertical linkages with foreign-owned indigenous firms.

Originality/value

Unlike prior research, the authors investigate the role of inter-organizational linkages and the extent of technology transfer, and how these affect local suppliers’ product/process upgrading in the local value chain. Highlighting the illusion of upgrading in the GVC, this paper reveals the difficulties involved in upgrading suppliers’ positions (e.g. insertion and functional upgrading in the GVC) through their vertical linkages with foreign multinational enterprises in developing economies. The illusion of upgrading sheds a rather disappointing light on the position of developing country supplier vis-à-vis their powerful international partners.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 11 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article

Oluwadunsin Moromoke Ajulo, Jason von Meding and Patrick Tang

Vulnerability is understood as susceptibility to hazards born out of the complex interaction within the system scales. The current global economic system focuses on…

Abstract

Purpose

Vulnerability is understood as susceptibility to hazards born out of the complex interaction within the system scales. The current global economic system focuses on persistent growth and a top-down approach to wealth distribution, which not only puts a strain on the Earth's resources but also on communities by increasing vulnerability. Localised economy, on the other hand, uses a bottom-up approach to wealth distribution, whereby local resources are harnessed for sustainability of the local economy. Localising economies facilitate degrowth by shifting our focus to the quality of economies and the redefinition of growth and prosperity. The purpose of this study is to highlight the potentials of localisation and degrowth for vulnerability reduction.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors conducted a case study of the Lyttelton community in New Zealand, their local initiatives and how these efforts have been used to build capacities and reduce vulnerabilities in the community. Data were sourced from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were sourced through observation of the day-to-day running of the community and interviews with community members, while secondary data were sourced from existing literature on the community and related concepts.

Findings

Lyttelton community provides a good example of a community where bottom-up initiatives are particularly felt, and there is very limited dependence on the conventional economic system to solve their problems. The study shows that degrowth initiatives within the community have gained momentum because initiators see the value in their coming together as a community and doing what is right for themselves and the environment. Furthermore, localisation fosters innovation, personal growth and development and care for the environment.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing knowledge by discussing some local initiatives that serve an underlying purpose for degrowth based on a study carried out in Lyttelton, New Zealand. The study findings established that there is need for more focus on sensitisation about the risks of growth mania and the potential for degrowth in bringing about actual prosperity, for saving the environment and disaster risk reduction. Also, the encouragement of local production and existing institutions like the timebank, which give members access to the needed resources and skills contribute to vulnerability reduction.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article

Rick Molz and Catalin Ratiu

This paper seeks to develop a theoretical explanation of conflicts and incompatible interpretations of events between agents of multinational corporations (MNCs) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to develop a theoretical explanation of conflicts and incompatible interpretations of events between agents of multinational corporations (MNCs) and actors present in certain host countries. It aims to situate the argument in comparative economic systems as a part of a broader social system. The socio‐economic system can be modeled using institutional theory, particularly using Scott's three pillars and the concept of formal and informal institutions. Within different socio‐economic systems a dominant logic is developed, and this becomes internalized among actors and agents as behavioral scripts.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a multi‐level and multi‐disciplinary conceptual analysis, developing a model of dominant logic and behavioral scripts with MNC agents and traditional emerging economy actors.

Findings

MNC agents and traditional emerging economy actors have difficulty comprehending the logic of the other, creating a fertile context for conflict.

Research limitations/implications

An ideal type template is developed that can be used for empirical investigations focusing on situations where disagreement and conflict occur when MNCs operate in traditional emerging economies.

Practical implications

By integrating the authors' conceptualization into training for expatriate managers, the potential for conflict can be reduced.

Originality/value

This multi‐level and multi‐disciplinary model allows grounded development of understanding of conflicts or potential conflicts in the MNC agent‐traditional emerging economy actor context.

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Book part

Desalegn Abraha and Akmal S. Hyder

In this chapter, each case is analyzed in phases to reflect on the development of the business process between Swedish firms and local partners from the transitional…

Abstract

In this chapter, each case is analyzed in phases to reflect on the development of the business process between Swedish firms and local partners from the transitional emerging economies. Initially 20 cases were studied but the final number was 10 cases as other alliances or their continuation in some other forms cannot be traced. Transformation of the alliances shows how the partners have gained experience and grown over the years. Out of the 10 cases, three phases in eight of the cases can be identified. Only two phases are found in the remaining two cases. The analysis is done in such a way that cases can be compared in terms of the variables of the conceptual framework, which includes motives, resources, learning, network, performance, and business environment prevailing in the case countries. The analysis is in two steps: first, each case is discussed in different phases and second, all cases are compared together, also in separate phases. The result of the analysis is the starting point of the next chapter where general findings are discussed and related to the relevant literature.

Details

Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume II
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-748-7

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Article

Changhwan Shin

With the aim of finding a balance between social and economic benefits, the social economy has reemerged in the crisis of the welfare state. The Fordist welfare state can…

Abstract

Purpose

With the aim of finding a balance between social and economic benefits, the social economy has reemerged in the crisis of the welfare state. The Fordist welfare state can be characterized by state-provided welfare, the mediation of paid work and welfare by the labor market and redistributive policies. Globally, neoliberalism and the market have given rise to social exclusion; in this context, the social economy is emerging as an alternative to the market domination of societies. This paper aims to construct a conceptual framework of welfare provision in an open innovation era.

Design/methodology/approach

The welfare state system between the Fordist welfare state and post-Fordist welfare state is different on provision and delivery of welfare service. To construct the conceptual relation among the social economy, the state and the market and welfare provision in the social economy, this study mainly used the literature review.

Findings

Attention should be paid to civil society at the local level to ignite social economy through open social innovation. Various social actors in the local community need to change and develop the social economy with collaborative entrepreneurship and collaborative economic mindsets.

Research limitation/implications

This paper presents the welfare service model led by social economy and open innovation, as well as social change. To fill the shortage of welfare provision caused by crisis of the welfare state, social economy is considered as an alternative for neo-liberalism. This study emphasizes that endogenous local development is a prerequisite for social economy as a welfare supplier.

Practical implications

In the social economy, reciprocity, democracy, self-help and social capital at the local level are emphasized. Also, open innovation put emphasis on collaboration economy among the local community, firms and the public sector: this emphasis can be expected to affect the welfare provision system and the social relations surrounding welfare. To address social problem and social needs, the social economy can adapt and apply the open innovation model.

Originality/value

The previous researches on open innovation mainly deal with the business sector and the public sector, but this paper has a focus on the relation between provision of social welfare and social innovation. The social economy is likely to function properly on the foundation of open social innovation.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article

Ana Colovic, Octavio R. Escobar, Olivier Lamotte and Pierre-Xavier Meschi

This paper aims to investigate whether multinational enterprises (MNEs) are more or less likely than local firms to violate their employees’ human rights in emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether multinational enterprises (MNEs) are more or less likely than local firms to violate their employees’ human rights in emerging economies, whether regional institutional pressures influence the likelihood of violating employee human rights and whether the density of MNEs in a region affects the likelihood of employees’ human rights violation by local firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on neo-institutional theory, this paper hypothesizes that, in an emerging economy, MNEs violate their employees’ human rights significantly less than local firms do. Moreover, it is hypothesized that the quality of regional institutions only influences the social behavior of local firms toward their employees. In addition, it is hypothesized that the density of MNEs in a region has a positive effect on local firms’ attitudes toward employee human rights. These hypotheses are examined using a sample of 1,211,638 respondent–year observations in 32 Mexican regions between 2005 and 2014.

Findings

This paper shows that MNEs are less likely to violate their employees’ human rights than local firms are. It also provides evidence that regional institutions do not influence MNE behavior toward employee human rights violation, but affect local firms. Furthermore, contrary to what was hypothesized, the density of MNEs in a region has a negative rather than positive influence on local firms’ respect of employee human rights.

Originality/value

This paper advances understanding of the behavior of MNEs in an emerging economy setting and contributes to the ongoing debate in the literature on their social impact.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Book part

Jacques Defourny and Victor Pestoff

There is still no universal definition of the third sector in Europe, but it can be seen as including all types of non-governmental not-for-profit entities such as…

Abstract

There is still no universal definition of the third sector in Europe, but it can be seen as including all types of non-governmental not-for-profit entities such as non-profit organizations, mutuals, cooperatives, social enterprises and foundations. This article attempts to make sense of the current shifting conceptualization of the third sector in Europe. It is based on short country summaries of the images and concepts of the third sector in 13 European countries by EMES Network’s members, first presented in 2008 (Defourny and Pestoff, 2008; nine of them were recently revised and are found in the appendix to this article.). The perception and development of the third sector in Europe is closely related to the other major social governance institutions/mechanisms, like the market, state and community and through the third sector’s interaction with them. Moreover, many third sector organizations (TSOs) overlap with these other social institutions, resulting in varying degrees of hybridity and internal tensions experienced by them. TSOs can generate resources from their activities on the market, by providing services in partnership with the state and/or by promoting the interests of a given community or group. The country overviews document a growing professionalization of TSOs in most countries and a growing dependency of public funds to provide services. This has important theoretical and practical implications for orienting the articles included in this book. Thus, it can provide a key for better understanding the discussion and analysis in the remainder of this volume.

Details

Accountability and Social Accounting for Social and Non-Profit Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-004-9

Keywords

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