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Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2013

Isabelle Collin-Lachaud and Dannie Kjeldgaard

This chapter addresses the concept of loyalty from a consumer culture theory perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter addresses the concept of loyalty from a consumer culture theory perspective.

Methodology

We investigated loyalty in the context of annual (French) music festivals and their ritualized meanings for consumers with a multi-method approach, both qualitative and quantitative methods.

Findings

From our study loyalty appears as: (a) social rather than individual; (b) outcome of a social evaluation of emotional experiences rather than individual satisfaction; (c) temporally and (d) spatially structured and structuring. This stands in contrast to dominant conceptualizations of loyalty that emphasize individual’s satisfaction as antecedent of loyalty.

Originality/value

Our findings take off from Fournier and Yao’s (1997) and Fournier’s (1998) suggestions that loyalty can be reconceptualized as relationships. However, we argue that these relationships are as much a matter of social relations between people than between people and brands (or brands as anthropomorphized by brand communities) that are performed ritually and repetitively. This research highlights the necessity to reconsider both the definition of loyalty and organizations’ main loyalty strategies, which are individual-centric and do not consider the social and cultural environment of consumers.

Details

Consumer Culture Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-811-2

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Aikaterini Manthiou, Juhee Kang and Thomas Schrier

This paper aims to empirically examine how five different brand equity dimensions of a festival brand (i.e. awareness, image, quality, value and loyalty) are…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to empirically examine how five different brand equity dimensions of a festival brand (i.e. awareness, image, quality, value and loyalty) are inter-related. Specifically, this study aims to examine the impact of brand awareness on perceived brand image, perceived brand quality and perceived value; the impact of perceived brand image on perceived brand quality and brand loyalty; and the impact of perceived brand quality on perceived value and brand loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual model was tested with an onsite sample of a public festival referred to as the VEISHEA (Veterinary Medicine, Engineering, Industrial Science, Home Economics and Agriculture) festival, which is located in a Midwestern college-town. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to reach the goals of the study.

Findings

The findings revealed that improving attendees’ awareness is a keystone in promoting brand quality perceptions, increasing perceived value and creating favorable brand image. Perceptions of quality on brand loyalty were stronger than any other effect, pointing out the need for superior quality. These findings confirmed that a public festival which does not require visitor admission fees can increase visitors by utilizing branding strategies, as has been done with other types of festivals.

Research limitations/implications

This research was conducted at a public festival. Further study should be conducted at other festivals/events. Analysis of antecedents such as advertising and promotions in the brand equity creation process will provide further important information.

Practical implications

This study provides guidance for practitioners to manage festival brands properly and develop strategies (e.g. communications and promotions) which reinforce the intangible asset of brand equity.

Originality/value

This is the first study that applies the brand equity concept to the setting of public festivals. This application to a new context contributes to the body of knowledge of brand equity theory.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 69 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

Sheng-Hshiung Tsaur, Yao-Chin Wang, Chyong-Ru Liu and Wen-Shiung Huang

The purpose of this paper is to propose the mechanism of festival attachment and examine how it serves as a significant predictor of place attachment and place loyalty.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose the mechanism of festival attachment and examine how it serves as a significant predictor of place attachment and place loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

Through on-site survey with convenience sampling, 465 visitors were surveyed at the Pingxi Sky Lantern Festival, which is one of the most famous Taiwanese festivals. Structural equation modeling is used to examine the proposed research model.

Findings

Empirical results of this study reveal that “hedonism” is the most important antecedent for improving festival attachment, followed by novelty seeking, attractions and cultural exploration. Festival attachment exerts positive effects on place attachment, which then increases place loyalty. Moreover, place attachment partially mediates the relationship between festival attachment and place loyalty.

Originality/value

By hosting festivals, festival managers can induce festival attachment in visitors and then transfer the attachment with festivals into the host place. The findings of this study demonstrate the major role of festivals in promoting local tourism.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Aikaterini Manthiou, Seonjeong (Ally) Lee, Liang (Rebecca) Tang and Lanlung Chiang

A desirable experiential environment is an essential source of competitive advantage in the festival industry. Understanding festival attendees' experience is imperative…

Abstract

Purpose

A desirable experiential environment is an essential source of competitive advantage in the festival industry. Understanding festival attendees' experience is imperative for festival organizers because attendees' experience is a predictor of their future behavior. With the experience economy concept of Pine and Gilmore (1998), the study identified four underlying dimensions of festival attendees' experience (education, entertainment, esthetics, and escapism) and examined the impacts of these experience dimensions on festival attendees' vividity of memory and loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from online surveys completed by 338 attendees of VEISHEA festival. This study employed confirmatory factor analysis, regression analysis, and structural equation modeling to achieve its goals.

Findings

Experience has a positive effect on vivid memory, which consequently influences loyalty. Each dimension of experience economy significantly influences vividity of memory. However loyalty is affected only by the entertainment and esthetics dimensions.

Practical implications

Festival marketers are advised to design activities that provide memorable experiential products and services for attendees based on the four dimensions of the experience economy.

Originality/value

The study is a pioneer in the evaluation of vividity of memory to the festival context.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Martinette Kruger

The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the literature by focusing on the profile and loyalty of visitors to a literary arts festival in South Africa. In addition…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the literature by focusing on the profile and loyalty of visitors to a literary arts festival in South Africa. In addition, this research advocates that festivals can influence visitors’ supplementary behavioural intentions and actions beyond loyalty in the form of literary arts appreciation, purchases and tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

A visitor survey was conducted at one of the oldest literary arts festivals in the country where a total of 391 completed self-administered questionnaires were obtained. The statistical analyses comprised three factor analyses (motives to attend the festival, satisfaction with the festival offering elements and behavioural intentions) as well as structural equation modelling, to establish the relationship between the motives, evaluation of the “festivalscapes”, behavioural intentions and loyalty.

Findings

The findings confirmed that literary arts festival loyalty is the principle behavioural intention that will occur after attending a literary arts festival. However, the results demonstrated that literary arts festivals also have the potential to increase and stimulate supplementary behavioural intentions in the form of greater awareness of the arts, increased purchasing behaviour of literary works, increased travel to support the literary arts and greater personal involvement.

Practical implications

Festivals, irrespective of the art form that they showcase, therefore, play a significant role in encouraging and increasing purchasing behaviour, which is vital to the viability and continuation of the arts industry.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to research the literary arts festival market in South Africa, thereby making a distinct contribution by expanding the literature on the needs of this neglected market and the aspects that influence loyalty to these types of festivals.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Li-Chun Hsu

This study aims to investigate the effects of visitors’ dietary habits on their acceptance of local food from the perspective of positive (e.g. local food involvement) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effects of visitors’ dietary habits on their acceptance of local food from the perspective of positive (e.g. local food involvement) and negative (e.g. food neophobia) food-related personality traits.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted on visitors to the Slow Food Festival in Taitung, Taiwan. A total of 327 valid questionnaire responses were collected and structural equation modeling was used to conduct path analyzes.

Findings

The analysis results supported all hypotheses. Food neophobia plays a key factor in moderating roles.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by integrating positive and negative perspectives of food-related personality traits. In addition, this study proposes that food neophobia plays a moderating role in food choice and behavioral decisions.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Woojin Lee, HeeKyung Sung, Eunju Suh and Jinlin Zhao

The purpose of this study was first to examine how goal-oriented attendees and experiential-oriented attendees were related with their overall satisfaction and loyalty of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was first to examine how goal-oriented attendees and experiential-oriented attendees were related with their overall satisfaction and loyalty of the destination with respect to international food and wine festival. It also investigated how these relations are mediated by different dimension of experiential consumption values such as consumer return on investment (CROI, active value), escapism (active value) and service excellence (reactive value) and aesthetics (reactive value).

Design/methodology/approach

Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to and collected from attendees at the 2011 Food Network South Beach Wine and Food Festival in Miami, Florida. A total of 450 subjects were collected from attendees indicating a response rate of about 88 per cent. Total 13 hypotheses were tested using structural equation model (SEM) with AMOS, and the results were interpreted adapting Mathwick’s (2001) typology of experiential value.

Findings

The findings indicate that goal-oriented attendees had stronger relationship with reactive experiential values such as service excellence and aesthetics than active values, whereas experiential-oriented attendees had more significant relations with active experiential values such as CROI and escapism than reactive values. In addition, CROI, escapism and service excellence were found to have a positive influence on the overall satisfaction with the festival; in turn, the attendees’ satisfaction had a positive effect on their intention to revisit the destination. Further, the results demonstrated that all experiential values, including CROI and escapism (active values), and service excellence and aesthetics (reactive values), played a mediating role between goal-oriented/experientially oriented attendee and satisfaction with the festival.

Practical implications

The festival organizers and managers should understand what drives the attendees’ participation in the festival. Implementing experiential marketing through various dimensions of experiential value can attract more potential attendees, provide unique experiences and create favorable perception toward the destination.

Originality/value

The research is original in terms of conceptualizing and empirically testing the relation between experiential consumption values and behavior loyalty within the special events and festivals with a specific focus on international food and wine festival. A finding of particular importance here is verifying the unique characteristics of goal-/experiential-oriented attendees in festival settings and determining the linkages between these different attendees and active/reactive experiential values, not to mention the relation with the overall satisfaction and loyalty to the festival destination.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

Hsing-Jung Tsai, Shih-Shuo Yeh and Tzung-Cheng TC Huan

Using the Chiayi International Band Festival (CIBF) as an example, this study attempts to examine the relationships between visitor involvement, visitor satisfaction…

Abstract

Using the Chiayi International Band Festival (CIBF) as an example, this study attempts to examine the relationships between visitor involvement, visitor satisfaction, place attachment, and visitor loyalty. A survey was carried out from December 25, 2010, to January 3, 2011, and was able to obtain 400 valid responses. The study initially theorizes, based on literature review, that satisfaction contributes greatly to place attachment and loyalty, and visitor involvement is just an antecedent of satisfaction. However, the result indicates that visitor involvement is in fact a strong contributing factor of visitor loyalty. Furthermore, the study proposes that the casual relationship between visitor involvement and visitor satisfaction is indirect. The originally proposed model is then revised accordingly.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-769-8

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Tarek Sayed Abdelazim and Abdallah Ali Alajloni

– The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the experience of visitors with the Janadriyah festival.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the experience of visitors with the Janadriyah festival.

Design/methodology/approach

An on-site intercept survey was conducted among a random sample of visitors of the festival. The survey was conducted by two field researchers between February 10 and February 25, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed only to those who agreed to respond to the survey. Out of 200 questionnaires distributed, 28 were incomplete and thus eliminated from the study. As a result, 172 questionnaires were accepted for the purpose of final analysis, representing a response rate of 86 percent.

Findings

There is a statistically significant contribution for both the first motivation (I participate in the Janadriyah festival to increase my cultural knowledge) and the fifth one (I participate in the Janadriyah festival to see new and different things and to enjoy a unique atmosphere). There is a statistically significant relationship between the most of services provided and the level of satisfaction. As well as, there is a statistically significant relationship between the perception and the level of satisfaction, also with the word of mouth communication. Finally, the results shown that behavioral intention had a positive influence on word of mouth communication.

Research limitations/implications

There were time limits to this study as the research was conducted during the organization of the Janadriyah festival during its 26th session (February-March 2014).The research was also limited by place as it was conducted at the capital of Saudi Arabia, Janadriyah province.

Practical implications

The model of the study could be applied in similar studies for different festivals all over the world.

Social implications

Increasing the promotional efforts to attract more visitors from different regions in the world. As it is observed that the vast majority of participants in the Janadriyah festival are local residents. In addition, there is a need to organize training programs to all staff participating in the organization of the festival supervised by academics and professionals. Organizing seminars during the festival in order to increase the awareness of local residents with importance of the cultural heritage and how to keep it. And at the end, the program of the festival has to be updated from one session to another in order to attract more attendees.

Originality/value

The integrated model of the study represent an added value to the research in the field of tourism festivals.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Yi Hsien Lin and Tsung Hung Lee

This study examines the relationship between authentic experience and festival identity as well as place identity among tourists visiting the 2018 Lugang Dragon Boat…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the relationship between authentic experience and festival identity as well as place identity among tourists visiting the 2018 Lugang Dragon Boat Festival, one of the largest traditional cultural festivals in Taiwan and the festival with the longest history.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an on-site survey with convenience sampling, a total of 1,360 valid questionnaires were collected in Lugang Township, a well-known, popular heritage tourism destination in Taiwan. The study also applies structural equation modeling to examine the proposed research model.

Findings

The findings of this study establish that the investigated authentic experience has relationships with image, value, satisfaction and identity, thus filling a research gap. In accordance with the theoretical model, the experience of authenticity affects satisfaction through festival image and festival value and strengthens both the attendee's perception of festival identity and place identity.

Originality/value

This research has both theoretical and managerial values. Regarding its theoretical implications, the study explains the relation between authentic experience and festival and place identity. Thus, it fills a research gap resulting from insufficient academic interest in the relationship between festival satisfaction and the formation of festival and place identity. Regarding its managerial implications, to achieve sustainable festival development, festival information services, programs, souvenirs, food and facilities and the convenience of festival activities should be strengthened.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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