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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2010

Wayne W. Smith, Stephen W. Litvin, Andrea Canberg and Stacy R. Tomas

The purpose of this paper is to determine how festivals allocated their funds among various expense categories.

1972

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine how festivals allocated their funds among various expense categories.

Design/methodology/approach

Festival managers from across North and South Carolina were asked to specify the percentages of their expense budgets allocated to each of the following categories: marketing, administrative, entertainment and operations.

Findings

It was found that “smaller” festivals spend a significantly greater proportion of their budgets on marketing (23 percent) and a far smaller share on administrative expenditures (5 percent) than do their “larger” counterparts that spend only 15 percent on marketing and triple the “smaller” festival's administrative costs (15 percent). The differences related to their spending for entertainment (35 versus 28 percent) and operations (36 versus 41 percent) are not as dramatic in relation to their proportion of total spending. The data herein suggest that festival size plays an important role when it comes to such allocations.

Originality/value

The paper has provided benchmarks that hopefully will assist festival directors' budget‐decision‐making strategies as they allow a measure with which to evaluate those decisions. While the research needs to be interpreted with great care due to its relatively small sample size and broad budgetary categorizations, the findings provide a guide to assist festival organizers as they manage their events for the benefit of their stakeholders and the communities that support them. The paper also provides a starting point for future research in this area, much of which is needed.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Meg Houghton

For many wineries and wine regions the annual wine festival is a strategic tool for encouraging cellar door visitation. Wine festivals offer the opportunity to socialise…

Abstract

For many wineries and wine regions the annual wine festival is a strategic tool for encouraging cellar door visitation. Wine festivals offer the opportunity to socialise, possibly with friends and family, whilst learning about and enjoying a natural, agricultural setting and product. Revenue and recognition is generated for the participating wineries, awareness of the area and its resources is enhanced, and the community at large and outside providers find a new source of customers. Whilst this is a worthy list of benefits for all stakeholders, is there a longer‐term direct benefit to wineries? This study of wine festival participants looks at the propensity of wine festival attendees to be persuaded to revisit the participating wineries as a consequence of their attendance at a wine festival. The paper concludes that there are positive future visitation benefits not just for the wineries staging the festival but also the influence extends and benefits the wider industry.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Insun Sunny Lee, Charles Arcodia and Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee

The purpose of this paper is to examine why people visit multicultural festivals, with the overall aim being to better understand the apparent popularity of multicultural…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine why people visit multicultural festivals, with the overall aim being to better understand the apparent popularity of multicultural festivals. The paper aims to provide key stakeholders with a platform upon which to better manage and improve multicultural festivals as tourism attractions.

Design/methodology/approach

An on‐site questionnaire survey was administered at one of the multicultural festivals in South Korea in 2010. The reasons for visit were measured using a scale based on existing benefit scales, and literature related to multiculturalism. In total, 17 items were analyzed as visitor reasons for their visit. Demographic questions included age, nationality, the reason for living in South Korea if not a Korean, and gender. Out of 203 collected questionnaires, 183 were considered usable.

Findings

In total, five factors were identified as the reasons for attending a multicultural festival – family togetherness, escape, cultural exploration, socialization, and curiosity. The cultural exploration proved to be the most common reason for attending a multicultural festival for visitors.

Practical implications

The findings of this study will help all key stakeholders to more fully understand what visitors want, and guide festival management to organize sustainable festivals as a niche tourism attraction. Due to the desire for cultural exploration, festivals should offer multicultural themed activities. Sport competitions can be good for socialization between migrants and South Koreans, or migrants themselves.

Originality/value

Although multicultural festivals are held in many countries, there appears to be little research into the multicultural festivals in a country like South Korea, in transit from being ethnically homogeneous to becoming a multicultural society. This paper is a pioneer study in that particular discipline.

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Stephen Litvin, Bing Pan and Wayne Smith

The accurate measure of the economic contribution of festivals and special events is a challenge. Using a case study, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a…

2261

Abstract

Purpose

The accurate measure of the economic contribution of festivals and special events is a challenge. Using a case study, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a previously un‐captured economic contribution from increased hotel rates during the period of festival or event; the “rising tide” effect.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a case study on Charleston's hotel occupancy changes, and how the changes coincide with the occurrence of festivals and events in the community, to demonstrate the increased tourism income due to rising accommodation prices during festivals and events.

Findings

The study validates the increased tourism income due to rising accommodation prices during festivals and events, which can provide a significant boost to the economy of a local community.

Practical implications

Festival organizations, as well as hoteliers and other beneficiaries of tourist spending during festivals and events, should note how this additional contribution benefits them and their communities.

Originality/value

Many economic contributions of festivals/events overstate their values. The current study first demonstrates a previously un‐captured economic contribution using a case study approach.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 January 2023

Fang Deng, Wen-Qi Ruan and Shu-Ning Zhang

This study aims to explore and clarify the role of national traditional festival tourism in cultivating national identity (NI) and confirm its construction model.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore and clarify the role of national traditional festival tourism in cultivating national identity (NI) and confirm its construction model.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on social identity theory and complexity theory, a complex nurturing framework for visitors’ NI is developed. The paper with 479 samples used fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to analyse NI from the holistic perspective of “cultural inheritance” (festival authenticity [FA], historical re-enactment [HR] and cultural experience [CE]) and “inherited innovation” (event design innovation [EDI], cultural innovation [CUI], aesthetic innovation [AI] and creative innovation [CRI]).

Findings

The findings indicated three driving modes of forming NI: cultural inheritance-led, inherited innovation-led and the dual coordination of cultural inheritance and inherited innovation. FA, HR, CE, AI and CRI are core incentives, whereas event design and CUI are AI.

Practical implications

The findings provide directions for strengthening visitors’ national emotion, which has significant value for the development of traditional festival tourism.

Originality/value

The study offers a new perspective for the cultivation of NI in the tourism context and provides theoretical guidance for the coordinated development of cultural inheritance and inherited innovation in national traditional festival tourism destinations.

目的

本研究旨在探索和厘清全国性传统节日旅游在培养国家认同中的作用, 并确定国家认同的建构模型。

设计/方法/途径

基于479份有效问卷, 研究基于社会认同理论和复杂性理论和模糊集定性比较分析(fsQCA), 从“文化沿袭”(节日真实性、历史重演、文化体验)和“传承创新”(活动设计创新、文化创新、审美创新和创意创新)的整体视角构建了国家认同的复杂培育框架。

研究发现

国家认同培育涵盖三种驱动模式:文化沿袭主导、传承创新主导、文化沿袭与传承创新的双重协调。其中, 节日真实性、历史重演、文化体验、审美创新和创意创新是核心激励因素, 而活动设计创新和文化创新是辅助条件。

实践意义

研究结论为增强参与者的国家情感提供方向, 对传统节日旅游发展具有重要价值。

原创性/价值

本研究为旅游语境下国家认同的培养提供了新的视角, 为全国性传统节日旅游目的地文化沿袭与传承创新的协调发展提供理论指导

Propósito

El objetivo de este estudio es explorar y clarificar el papel del turismo de fiestas tradicionales nacionales en la formación de la identidad nacional (IN), y confirmar su modelo de construcción.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Sobre la base de la teoría de la identidad social y la teoría de la complejidad, se desarrolla un complejo marco de fomento de la IN de los visitantes. El artículo, con 479 muestras, utilizó el análisis cualitativo comparativo de conjuntos difusos (fsQCA) para analizar la IN desde la perspectiva holística de la “herencia cultural” (autenticidad del festival, recreación histórica, experiencia cultural) y la “innovación heredada” (innovación en el diseño del evento, innovación cultural, innovación estética e innovación creativa).

Hallazgos

Los resultados indican que existen tres modos de formación de la IN: el propiciado por la herencia cultural, el guiado por la innovación heredada y la doble coordinación de la herencia cultural y la innovación heredada. La autenticidad del festival, la recreación histórica, la experiencia cultural, la innovación estética y la innovación creativa son los principales motivadores, mientras que el diseño del evento y la innovación cultural desempeñan un papel secundario.

Implicaciones practices

Las conclusiones proporcionan orientaciones para reforzar el sentimiento nacional de los visitantes, lo que tiene un gran valor para el desarrollo turístico de las fiestas tradicionales.

Originalidad/valor

El estudio ofrece una nueva perspectiva sobre el cultivo de la IN en el contexto turístico, y ofrece orientación teórica para el desarrollo coordinado de la herencia cultural y la innovación heredada en los destinos turísticos de fiestas tradicionales nacionales.

Article
Publication date: 15 November 2022

Luna Đurić, James Kennell, Miroslav D. Vujičić, Igor Stamenković and Jelena Farkić

This research explores how protest events can change and develop over time, through an analysis of stakeholder perceptions of the EXIT festival in Serbia. In doing this…

Abstract

Purpose

This research explores how protest events can change and develop over time, through an analysis of stakeholder perceptions of the EXIT festival in Serbia. In doing this, it builds on previous research into protest events from a critical events studies perspective and has implications for the management and understanding of events linked to social movements.

Design/methodology/approach

This research took a neo-institutionalist perspective and is based on 18 stakeholder interviews, which were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Purposive sampling in the highly-networked city of Novi Sad, Serbia, allowed for the inclusion of diverse participants from politics, NGOs, media and the festival itself.

Findings

The findings reveal that the EXIT festival has departed significantly from its original protest roots. Although it is now perceived as part of the dominant political culture in Serbia, it still has the potential to campaign on issues of relevance to the region, which is unrealised. This research demonstrates that the neo-institutionalist perspective can offer fresh insights for research into protest events. Taking this perspective suggests practical implications for the managers of events with protest roots and for social movements seeking to use protestival-style methods to achieve social change.

Originality/value

This paper provides a new theoretical perspective on protest events and proposes a new model that can be used in future research into protest events that persist over time. It also suggests implications for the management and development of protest events within social movements.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 December 2022

Jovan Velroy Fernandes and Ewa Krolikowska

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the conceptualisation of the festival customer experience by proposing a new framework based on three interrelated concepts…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the conceptualisation of the festival customer experience by proposing a new framework based on three interrelated concepts: event design, social environment and digital environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a theory adaptation research design to adapt an existing customer experience framework to the specific context of festival customer experience based on the literature on customer experience and experiential marketing within events, festivals, tourism and leisure.

Findings

Based on this new conceptual framework, the authors identify interrelationships between event design, social environment and digital environment which can be managed by festival organisers to improve the customer experience.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s analysis identifies five areas which are crucial for managing the contemporary festival customer experience. It offers researchers a conceptual framework for further development.

Originality/value

The paper proposes a new conceptual framework for festival customer experience which can be used to improve brand experiences at festivals. This is an emerging area which warrants further attention since festivals provide a valuable opportunity for brands to engage and build relationships with prospective and existing customers. This study is the first to combine insights from the interrelationships between event design, digital environment and social environment to better understand how to improve the management of brand experiences at festivals.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 November 2022

Parmita Saha, Atanu Nath and Kokho (Jason) Sit

The purpose of this study is to reexamine the dimensionality and role of experience quality (EQ) to explain other related factors, namely, perceived value, satisfaction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to reexamine the dimensionality and role of experience quality (EQ) to explain other related factors, namely, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intention. Using dual methodological approaches of fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and structural equations modeling (SEM), it seeks to establish the EQ’s construct and predictive validity.

Design/methodology/approach

Grounded in cross-sectional and online research design, the present study surveyed 881 attendees of an annual music festival (Malakoff) held in Norway and subjected the quantitative data to SEM and fsQCA.

Findings

Both SEM and fsQCA confirmed the socializing and enjoyment dimensions of EQ, with good validity and reliability, as well as the functional and emotional value dimensions explaining visitors’ perceived value of attending a festival. Both statistical analyses also showed that perceived value-derived satisfaction leads to behavioral intention regarding festival visits.

Practical implications

This study provides numerous valuable consequences for festival organizers, or marketers that can aid in developing effective strategies to measure visitors’ perceived quality of experience and numerous practical implications for festival organizers or marketers can help in developing effective strategies to measure visitors’ perceived quality of experience and then increase value perceptions, satisfaction and behavioral intentions toward attending festivals.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is among the first to adopt a dual-dimensional framework to measure EQ in festivals and establish its utility with two statistical approaches (SEM and fsQCA). It also shows the utility of perceived value, initially developed for adventure tourists, to study visitors’ experience with festivals.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2016

Robert Owen Gardner

In jam festival music scenes, participants build elaborate networks that connect members formally and informally between music events. Largely regional in scope…

Abstract

In jam festival music scenes, participants build elaborate networks that connect members formally and informally between music events. Largely regional in scope, participants form these networks to develop and perform scene identities and cultivate intimate social relationships. Emerging through cultivated “crews” and “camps,” members build hubs of interaction that sustain and persist well beyond the festival event to create a vital sense of belonging and place. While the affective relationships formed at music festival events tend to be temporary, diffuse, and episodic, scene networks provide a “portable” interactional infrastructure that promotes relational continuity and persistence. These networks also provide more pragmatic benefits to networked members in the form of social and subcultural capital exchanged for symbolic and material rewards within the scene. Drawing from nearly 20 years of formal and informal participant observation in festival scenes, I provide an analysis of these networks and articulate common practices that drive their formation and continuation.

Details

Symbolic Interactionist Takes on Music
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-048-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2022

Fiona Measham and Henry Simmons

This study aims to assess service user characteristics, uptake and outcomes for drug checking services offered to over 250,000 English festival-goers in summer 2018 and to…

1007

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess service user characteristics, uptake and outcomes for drug checking services offered to over 250,000 English festival-goers in summer 2018 and to compare findings with earlier years, wider festival-goers and the general population.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 2,672 substances of concern were submitted by the public and tested by chemists in mobile laboratories on 24 show days at seven festivals. Results were embedded in 2,043 individually tailored brief interventions (BI) delivered by health professionals to 4,240 service users. Comparative data were collected through anonymous self-report surveys with 1,291 respondents at five of the same festivals.

Findings

Three percent of drug-using festival-goers received BI, 95% of whom had not previously accessed health services regarding their alcohol or other drug use. Drug checking service users were significantly more likely to be younger, male and past month polydrug users with a wider range of drugs consumed in the last month compared with the general festival population. For samples matching purchase intent, nearly half intended to reduce dosage, with younger and female service users significantly more likely to reduce dosage. For substances identified as other than expected, nearly two thirds disposed of them.

Social implications

Festivals are potential sites to deliver innovative health interventions and to monitor their outcomes, reduce the risk of poisoning and overdose, and facilitate access to follow-up support services.

Originality/value

This study suggests that there is value in event-based services that provide risk reduction communications directly to young adults engaged in higher risk drug use compared with wider event and general populations.

Details

Drugs, Habits and Social Policy, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2752-6739

Keywords

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