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The purpose of this paper is to develop theory regarding reputation and legitimacy signaling by organizations in contested emerging fields characterized by category…
The purpose of this paper is to develop theory regarding reputation and legitimacy signaling by organizations in contested emerging fields characterized by category ambiguity. Because impression management becomes increasingly important as category boundaries become fuzzy, the authors examine how highly participatory audiences in contested emerging fields respond to organizational attempts to seek acceptance and manage impressions.
Using a database of web-based advertisements by 1,226 medical marijuana dispensaries, the authors test the effect that dispensary attempts to signal either legitimacy or reputation have on audience approval.
The authors find that audiences react differently to communication strategies intended to build reputation vs those intended to build legitimacy. Under conditions of highly contested category legitimation, audiences respond positively to signals of legitimacy but negatively to signals of reputation.
This study advances the understanding of category emergence and category building under conditions of contestation. The study adds to the growing body of work that suggests category creation involves unique collaborative processes between organizations and audiences, and the authors show that these processes constrain organizational attempts at impression management.
This chapter explores the historical context of drug control in the United States, the ongoing regulation of the cannabis market at the State level and the role of the…
This chapter explores the historical context of drug control in the United States, the ongoing regulation of the cannabis market at the State level and the role of the United States in the international negotiations related to the United Nations General Assembly Special Sessions (UNGASS) on drugs in 1998 and 2016. We continue by analysing the position, allies and activities of the United States before and during UNGASS 2016 to provide an understanding of possible scenarios related to the 2009 Political Declaration and Plan of Action review to take place via a High-level Ministerial Segment within the 2019 Commission on Narcotic Drugs meeting. While US drug policy is not expected to positively shift in the next few years, State-level regulation of cannabis is expected to continue and create pressure from below.
Andrea Seid is responsible for tourism marketing in a destination management organization in Colorado. In her position, she faces a difficult decision of whether to…
Andrea Seid is responsible for tourism marketing in a destination management organization in Colorado. In her position, she faces a difficult decision of whether to promote marijuana-related businesses on her website and in the local welcome centers.
Primary research took place through interviews with Andrea Seid and John Mace, a local business owner. All other data were collected from secondary sources.
Relevant courses and levels
This case would help students to apply concepts from courses such as: services marketing, tourism management, destination management and tourism development.
The decision at the root of the case is a real-world application of stakeholder theory.
Domestically produced, high potency cannabis (often referred to as ‘skunk’ in the mainstream UK media) has become increasingly widespread in the UK. This paper considers…
Domestically produced, high potency cannabis (often referred to as ‘skunk’ in the mainstream UK media) has become increasingly widespread in the UK. This paper considers whether the trend reflects an increased awareness of and desire for medical marijuana. Determining whether cannabis is a drug or a medicine depends on its objective physiological effects ‐ which may vary from one individual to another ‐ as well as how and why those effects are experienced. The medicinal and mind‐altering effects of cannabis are not easily separable for many cannabis users. The medicinal use of cannabis in Britain has waxed and waned since the early 19th century. Currently, the UK is at the cutting edge of the development of cannabis‐based pharmaceuticals, but criminalises people who choose to self‐medicate with herbal cannabis. We are living in a time of political, social and economic uncertainty, which threatens the stability of national healthcare systems. The broad‐ranging effects of cannabis on the human body and mind, combined with its relatively easy cultivation, make it a sustainable and effective alternative medicine. Research is needed, especially on the experiences of people who use cannabis to benefit, enrich and even prolong their lives.
The purpose of this paper is to offers the authors’ perspective on a problem rarely considered by those making strategic decisions: conflicting laws at different levels of…
The purpose of this paper is to offers the authors’ perspective on a problem rarely considered by those making strategic decisions: conflicting laws at different levels of jurisdiction, specifically those related to stigmatized products.
The authors use as examples of product categories from marijuana to single-use plastic bags, describing the conflicting laws that add to costs for marketers and consumers.
The authors find that conflicting laws add to the uncertainty, legal expenses, and therefore, the cost of marketing a stigmatized product, whether stigmatized because of its impact on the environment, on health or on moral grounds.
The examples are not exhaustive, but their implications are significant: that as state legislatures are preempting local bans, Congress may preempt state laws.
This paper adds one more complexity to decision-making in the area of products to offer and/or merger/acquisition decisions that may bring company products that face conflicting laws.
This chapter provides several up-to-date examples of failures in companies’ B2B operations and branding for the readers to learn from such mistakes and never repeat them…
This chapter provides several up-to-date examples of failures in companies’ B2B operations and branding for the readers to learn from such mistakes and never repeat them. Usually managers look for best practices in order to develop their knowledge about a certain topic, but one should not disregard the value of learning from mistakes, which may be as useful if not more efficient than obtaining knowledge from best practices. The chapter examines what kind of B2B failures are likely to happen to companies in various industries and B2B branding situations and provides a detailed case of a blunder that occurred with the Finnish multinational IT services company Tieto. In addition to accentuating errors, the chapter goes further and tries to uncover the reasons why blunders occur and provides advices on how to avoid them and what to do when a mistake has already been made.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the distinctions and complementary of William Baumol and Israel Kirzner’s classifications of and insights into entrepreneurship…
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the distinctions and complementary of William Baumol and Israel Kirzner’s classifications of and insights into entrepreneurship, and thus providing a more complete taxonomy of the substance of entrepreneurial activity. This paper also attempts to clarify distinctions between unproductive and destructive entrepreneurship.
This paper illustrates a more complete taxonomy of the substance of entrepreneurial activity by examining entrepreneurial innovation in drug markets both legal and illegal, identifying cases of productive, unproductive, superfluous, erroneous, destructive, and protective entrepreneurship.
This paper finds that the classifications of entrepreneurship (productive, superfluous, unproductive, erroneous, protective and destructive) put forth by Baumol, Kirzner, and the institutional entrepreneurship literature are complementary. While Baumol seeks to explain the disequilibrating tendencies of entrepreneurship, Kirzner seeks to explain the equilibrating tendencies of entrepreneurship within the institutional context.
This paper utilizes case studies from legal and illegal drug markets to uniquely and better explain the six cases of entrepreneurship. This paper also contributes to the literature by clearly articulating the complementarity of Baumolian and Kirznerian entrepreneurship.
Entrepreneurship research has paid little attention to variance in entrepreneurial opportunities, instead choosing to treat them as homogenous. Thus, the field has failed…
Entrepreneurship research has paid little attention to variance in entrepreneurial opportunities, instead choosing to treat them as homogenous. Thus, the field has failed to acknowledge that there are significant variations in means–ends conceptualizations giving rise to different types of opportunities. Further, researchers and educators have not fully considered that the type of opportunity being pursued has implications for which entrepreneurial actions are required to realize a successful outcome. We address these issues in this chapter by distinguishing means–ends combinations such that four types of opportunities – replication, reinterpretation, revelation, and revolution – are introduced. This matrix leads to propositions regarding differing actions that would be emphasized as a function of the type opportunity under consideration (e.g., legitimacy building, knowledge assimilation, market demand, and resource acquisition). The net effect is an improved understanding of how variations in means–ends conceptualizations influence how entrepreneurs interpret their particular opportunity, which in turn drives the actions they take as they attempt to turn their vision into reality. This improved understanding has important implications for entrepreneurship education and we suggests a number of possible changes to pedagogy that flow from our framework. We believe that these changes will bring added richness and value to the classroom.