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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2012

Matthew S. Wood, David W. Williams and Denis A. Grégoire

Studies of entrepreneurial action often distinguish between different phases such as opportunity identification, evaluation, and exploitation. Yet, the richness of past…

Abstract

Studies of entrepreneurial action often distinguish between different phases such as opportunity identification, evaluation, and exploitation. Yet, the richness of past contributions masks the absence of an integral framework to organize, in a theoretically consistent ensemble, the different kinds of cognitive processes that underpin entrepreneurial action. In this chapter, we draw from research on human action and cognition to offer an integrative model of the cognitive processes that foster entrepreneurial action. By presenting a more specific articulation of when, how, and why different cognitive processes operate, we provide theorists and empiricists with a more complete picture of how entrepreneurs’ thinking evolves from the emergence of an opportunity idea to the initiation of concrete entrepreneurial acts. In addition, our framework draws attention to cognitive inflection points that entrepreneurs must navigate in their journey toward entrepreneurship. By explicitly locating these inflection points and specifying the changes in mental processing that occurs at each point, we highlight that for entrepreneurial action to ensue, entrepreneurs must shift from one type of cognitive processing to another. Along this line, our model draws attention to the entire set of cognitive “skills” entrepreneurs must master for successful completion of each phase and successful transitions between phases.

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2012

Kelly G. Shaver

This chapter describes part of the philosophical and psychological context for the study of entrepreneurial action. Unlike some other human behaviors, entrepreneurial

Abstract

This chapter describes part of the philosophical and psychological context for the study of entrepreneurial action. Unlike some other human behaviors, entrepreneurial action is typically extended through time, bringing it into the realm of personal causality. When intention, motivation, and environmental properties are all considered, one is led to the metatheoretical assumptions that (a) human beings are capable of conscious thought, (b) they are capable of intentional action, and (c) effort exerted in the direction of an intention can lead to an “equifinal” outcome regardless of starting point or obstacles that may appear along the way. Entrepreneurship research should more explicitly take note of these traditions to ensure that the measures selected incorporate the multiple antecedents of entrepreneurial action. This chapter has four primary objectives: to outline the precursors of intentional action of any sort, to touch on the specifics of entrepreneurial intention, to ameliorate a bit of our concern over self-report measures, and to describe methodological alternatives that might have promise for the future.

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Jon-Arild Johannessen and Hanne Stokvik

Abstract

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Evidence-Based Innovation Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-635-8

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Isa Nsereko

The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to examine the relationship between comprehensive social competence, entrepreneurial tenacity and social entrepreneurial action

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to examine the relationship between comprehensive social competence, entrepreneurial tenacity and social entrepreneurial action and (2) to test the mediating role of entrepreneurial tenacity in the relationship between comprehensive social competence and social entrepreneurial action among social ventures in Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is cross-sectional and quantitative. Data were analyzed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences and analysis of moment structures.

Findings

Results show that both comprehensive social competence and entrepreneurial tenacity are significantly associated with social entrepreneurial action. Results further indicate that entrepreneurial tenacity partially mediates the relationship between comprehensive social competence and social entrepreneurial action.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this study provides initial empirical evidence on the relationship between comprehensive social competence, entrepreneurial tenacity and social entrepreneurial action using evidence from a developing African country – Uganda. Mostly, this provides an initial evidence of the mediating role of entrepreneurial tenacity on the relationship between comprehensive social competence and social entrepreneurial action.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Curtis Sproul, Kevin Cox and Amanda Ross

The purpose of this paper is to investigate different types of investment actions undertaken by entrepreneurial firms to determine how these actions influence performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate different types of investment actions undertaken by entrepreneurial firms to determine how these actions influence performance. Specifically, the effects of entrepreneurial action with regards to investments in human capital, the capabilities of the firm and the competitive dynamics of the business relative to other firms are examined. These actions are examined in conjunction with the offering of products, services or both, to determine the benefits of specific actions for firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample is taken from the confidential version of the Kauffman Firm Survey (KFS). The data are analyzed using a fixed effects model.

Findings

Results show that investment in human capital development actions and capability development actions improve firm performance. Further, investment in human capital development actions is shown to have the largest positive impact on the performance of firms that offer products only. Competitive positions actions have the greatest positive impact on firms that offer products and services.

Research limitations/implications

Results contribute to multiple theoretical lenses within the context of entrepreneurship and demonstrate applicability of theory related to entrepreneurial action to other established theories. Findings also demonstrate that different entrepreneurial actions benefit firms that offer products or services in different ways. Limitations of the study are those associated with survey research generally, such as self-reported measures, non-response bias and the KFS specifically such as survivorship bias and variance in survey items across years.

Originality/value

The consideration of firms whose primary focus is the selling of products compared to services and how they moderate specific actions is novel and valuable. Theoretical development tying human capital, competitive dynamics and dynamic capabilities to entrepreneurial action creates new avenues for inquiry.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Elina Kallas and Eve Parts

The present paper aims to identify a set of cognitive and contextual characteristics that explain entrepreneurial intentions, actions and venture creation, thereby…

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper aims to identify a set of cognitive and contextual characteristics that explain entrepreneurial intentions, actions and venture creation, thereby covering three successive stages of becoming an entrepreneur.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on entrepreneurship data from a self-reported online survey (n = 1,492) gathered among the Estonian population in 2017. The authors use an exploratory factor analysis to reduce initial survey responses about the external environment into latent factors. Linear regression models are applied to predict the determinants of entrepreneurial intention and actions, whereas the logit model is applied to find out the determinants of being or not being an entrepreneur.

Findings

Younger people, respondents with vocational education and the unemployed have a higher intention to start up. Men are more active than women in the second stage of taking real action, whereas middle-aged respondents and managers are less active. In the final stage of enterprise creation, men become more likely entrepreneurs, whereas younger people and those who do not have higher education become less likely entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial attitudes and competencies as preconditional factors of entrepreneurial readiness have a positive effect in all three stages. The role of motivation appeared to be controversial – it has a weak positive effect on the intention stage but a strong negative effect on the action stage, becoming insignificant in the final stage of becoming an entrepreneur. In the final stage, taking real action has the strongest positive effect. Regarding differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs have a more positive perception of the business environment and the ease of doing business, including the simplicity of entrepreneurship-related legislation. On the other hand, entrepreneurs are more skeptical about the availability of financial resources, and they perceive public attitudes and the role of entrepreneurs in a society less positively.

Research limitations/implications

As data of this study originates from a survey, the sample may not represent the whole population. This might limit the extent to which the conclusions of this study can be generalized. Also, the study’s data do not enable us to consider all potential factors that may affect entrepreneurial intention, action and venture creation. For example, the authors do not consider the effect of income or differences between opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship because of data limitations.

Practical implications

This study focuses on environmental obstacles and individual restrictions that are important in different stages of becoming an entrepreneur. In terms of policy implications, providing better financing opportunities both from private and public institutions and keeping entrepreneurship legislation simple and transparent have the utmost importance in increasing the share of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship-related benefits in society. The younger population’s high entrepreneurial intentions should be transferred more effectively into real actions toward starting up, paired with supportive entrepreneurship education.

Social implications

The study results show that developing positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship and providing relevant competencies through the education system are relevant factors in all stages of becoming an entrepreneur, thus enabling entrepreneurial activities in society.

Originality/value

First, the authors investigate the factors of entrepreneurship separately during the three stages in the journey of becoming an entrepreneur, starting from intentions, followed by preparation actions and finalized by real enterprise creation. Second, the analysis of this study is based on the original Environment-Readiness Entrepreneurship Intention model, which emphasizes the role of the external environment in entrepreneurial processes. Ten factors of the external environment are extracted using exploratory analysis instead of using three traditional predefined factors of the economic, political and socio-cultural environment. Third, our focus on Estonia broadens the knowledge about entrepreneurship in the Central and Eastern European region in general and in the Baltic region, more specifically.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Isa Nsereko

The purpose of this study is two-fold: to examine the relationship between conditional resources, social entrepreneurial intent and social entrepreneurial action and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is two-fold: to examine the relationship between conditional resources, social entrepreneurial intent and social entrepreneurial action and to test the mediating role of social entrepreneurial intent in the relationship between conditional resources and social entrepreneurial action among social ventures in Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts a quantitative methodological approach were hypotheses were statistically tested using structural equation modelling based on survey data (n = 243) from community-based organization owner-managers in Uganda.

Findings

Results show that both conditional resources and social entrepreneurial intent are significantly associated with social entrepreneurial action. Results further indicate that social entrepreneurial intent partially mediates the relationship between conditional resources and social entrepreneurial action.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this study provides a shred of initial empirical evidence on the relationship between conditional resources, social entrepreneurial intent and social entrepreneurial action using evidence from a developing African country – Uganda. Mostly, this study provides initial evidence of the mediating role of social entrepreneurial intent in the relationship between conditional resources and social entrepreneurial action.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2012

David M. Townsend

Despite the growing importance of young, entrepreneurial ventures in modern economic systems, many such ventures fail quite early in their lifecycles. While both…

Abstract

Despite the growing importance of young, entrepreneurial ventures in modern economic systems, many such ventures fail quite early in their lifecycles. While both evolutionary theory and organizational learning theory yield important insights for the literature on young venture survival, questions remain as to why ventures facing similar environments experience differential rates of survival. In response, I propose a theory of entrepreneurial agency – defined as the emergence and/or transformation of firms, markets, industries governed by the evolving interaction of temporally situated, intentional strategic action with a malleable external environment – to complement prevailing viewpoints on the causes of young venture survival. My central thesis in this chapter is that to develop more comprehensive explanations of differential survival rates, a theory of entrepreneurial agency – illuminating the transformative potential of entrepreneurial action – is necessary to complement evolutionary perspectives in the literature on firm survival. With this objective in mind, I construct a theoretical model linking diverse perspectives on the duality of human agency and theories of environmental selection, and offer several theoretical and empirical suggestions to guide future research.

Details

Entrepreneurial Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-901-1

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Magdalena Markowska

The purpose of this paper is to theorize on the mechanisms underlying the development of entrepreneurial expertise. While prior studies have identified differences between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to theorize on the mechanisms underlying the development of entrepreneurial expertise. While prior studies have identified differences between the behavior of novice and expert entrepreneurs, the mechanisms that cause these differences have not received sufficient attention.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper systematically reviews the extant literature on entrepreneurial expertise and builds the conceptual framework by employing an action-control belief framework to propose mechanisms underlying the development of expert behavior.

Findings

This paper argues that differences in behavior between novice and expert entrepreneurs stem from self-perceptions of their ability to act. More specifically, stronger action-control beliefs encourage entrepreneurs to create new interpretations of the world over time; develop and use strategies that allow them to rely on perceived control over means and ends, their perceived capacity, and their agency; and hence behave more like experts.

Practical implications

This paper suggests that strategy, capacity, and control beliefs are key in individuals’ decisions of whether to engage in entrepreneurial action and that expert entrepreneurs hold stronger beliefs than novices. Positive experiences, particularly those associated with deliberate practice, contribute to developing these beliefs and, more broadly, to entrepreneurial expertise.

Originality/value

This paper proposes that the mechanism of transformation from novice to expert behavior can be attributed to positive changes in deeply held beliefs about strategy (i.e. possible means-ends frameworks), capacity (i.e. access to means), and control (i.e. perceived efficacy). Each of the beliefs can develop separately from others and at different pace. In other words, this work explains why novice and expert entrepreneurs behave differently.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Abel Duarte Alonso, Seng Kiat Kok, Seamus O'Brien and Louis Geneste

The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine entrepreneurial deviance from the perspective of New Zealand's commercial honey producers. The study adopts…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine entrepreneurial deviance from the perspective of New Zealand's commercial honey producers. The study adopts entrepreneurial action and social learning theories and proposes a theoretical framework in the context of entrepreneurial deviance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through online surveys from 52 professional beekeepers.

Findings

Overstocking of beehives, encroachment, biosecurity threats and unfair competition were most common forms of deviance affecting participants. While these predominantly responded through investing in disease prevention, security equipment or by reporting deviant incidents, finding proper solutions remains elusive. The findings revealed robust alignments with both theories. Overall, offenders’ perceived incentives to act illustrate alignment with social learning theory’s four key constructs. Entrepreneurial action emerged through individual perpetrators’ evaluation and subsequent maximisation of potentially lucrative opportunities.

Originality/value

The study addresses an important and under-researched dimension, notably, the negative or “dark” side of entrepreneurs, in this case, illustrated through greed and disregard for fair and proper ways of conducting business. This knowledge gap is even more obvious among small and medium business, which is also the focus of the research.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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