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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Michelle Davies and Stephanie J. Boden

This study aims to investigate the sexual preference effect in depicted male sexual assault. Consistent with Davies et al., the study seeks to predict that males are more…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the sexual preference effect in depicted male sexual assault. Consistent with Davies et al., the study seeks to predict that males are more blaming toward gay victims of male perpetrators and heterosexual victims of female perpetrators, while females would not blame the victim.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 200 participants read a hypothetical scenario depicting a case of the non‐consensual touching of an adult male, and then completed a victim blame scale.

Findings

Analysis of variance confirmed predictions. Results are discussed in relation to gender beliefs and homophobia. Suggestions for future work are proposed.

Originality/value

This study confirms the existence of the sexual preference effect in attributions toward male victims of sexual assault utilising a scenario depicting non‐consensual touching. These findings extend current knowledge in this growing area.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2011

Irina Anderson and Helena Bissell

This study seeks to examine whether blame and fault assigned to victims and perpetrators in a hypothetical sexual violence case are distinct conceptually, and whether they…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine whether blame and fault assigned to victims and perpetrators in a hypothetical sexual violence case are distinct conceptually, and whether they are affected by gender of participant, perpetrator and victim.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants read an incident of either female or male rape, perpetrated by either a female or a male, and assigned attributions of blame and fault to both victims and perpetrators. Participants also completed Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale.

Findings

Findings showed that none of the independent variables had any effect on victim attributions of blame and fault, only affecting blame and fault assigned to perpetrators. Perpetrators of male victim rape were assigned more blame than perpetrators of female victim rape. In terms of fault: male participants reduced the amount of fault that they attributed to female perpetrators relative to male perpetrators; and female participants increased the amount of fault that they attributed to female perpetrators relative to male perpetrators. In addition, greater endorsement of traditional sex‐role attitudes and rape myths was associated with higher rape victim blame.

Originality/value

Findings are discussed in relation to social norms, social categorisation theory and differential focus of specific rape victim vs rape victims in general.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Aliraza Javaid

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether the voluntary sector meets male rape victims’ needs in England, UK. The author’s contribution represents an attempt to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether the voluntary sector meets male rape victims’ needs in England, UK. The author’s contribution represents an attempt to piece together some of the voluntary sector’s responses to male rape victims in England, UK and examine whether they meet male rape victims’ needs.

Design/methodology/approach

The author draws on data collected from semi-structured interviews and qualitative questionnaires with male rape counsellors, therapists and voluntary agency caseworkers (n=70).

Findings

The findings reveal nuanced themes that have been overlooked in the existing literature of male rape: first, male rape victims are not given a choice of their voluntary agency practitioner (regarding gender) to serve them; second, there is no specific training on male rape in voluntary agencies; third, the impact of limited resources and funding in the voluntary sector means that many male rape victims’ needs are unmet; and finally, there is ageism and discrimination in some voluntary agencies, whereby male rape victims are prioritised in terms of their age.

Research limitations/implications

Methodologically, the author’s sample size was not considerably large (n=70), making it difficult to generalise the findings to all voluntary agency practitioners in a British context.

Practical implications

At a time of scarce funding and scant resources for the third sector, the impact of limited resources and funding in the voluntary sector could mean that male rape victims may not receive proper care and treatment. Budget cuts in the third sector are problematic, in that voluntary agencies may be unable to get access to robust training programs for male rape or to resources that can help shape and develop the ways in which they serve male rape victims. The needs of male rape victims, therefore, are unlikely to be met at the local, regional and national levels.

Social implications

Some practitioners are misinformed about male rape and do not have the tools to be able to adequately and efficiently handle male rape victims. Not only can their lack of understanding of male rape worsen male rape victims’ trauma through inappropriate ways of handling them, but also the practitioners may implicitly reinforce male rape myths, such as “male rape is solely a homosexual issue” or “men cannot be raped”.

Originality/value

Whilst previous contributions have recognised the third sector’s responses to female rape victims, little work has been done to identify their treatment of male rape victims. The author attempts to fill some of this lacuna. In particular, The author draws attention to some of the issues and dilemmas that arise when voluntary agencies provide services for male victims of rape. The author’s concern is that many male rape victims’ needs may be neglected or ignored because of the rise in neoliberalism, as there appears to be a financial meltdown in the voluntary sector.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Jeff Gavin and Adrian J. Scott

Revenge pornography is a growing risk among adolescents and young adults. Often stemming from sexting, some victims of revenge pornography report experiencing victim-blame…

Abstract

Purpose

Revenge pornography is a growing risk among adolescents and young adults. Often stemming from sexting, some victims of revenge pornography report experiencing victim-blame similar to that accompanying the reporting of rape. The purpose of this paper is to explore the assumptions that underlie attributions of victim-blame, with a focus on perpetrator and victim responsibility, as well as gendered assumptions surrounding sexting.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 222 UK university students (111 male, 111 females) read one of two versions of a hypothetical revenge pornography scenario, one involving a male victim of a female perpetrator, the other a female victim of a male perpetrator. They then responded to an open-ended question regarding responsibility.

Findings

Qualitative content analysis of these responses identified three inter-related themes: the victim’s behaviour, mitigating victim responsibility and minimising the behaviour.

Social implications

The majority of participants in this study attributed at least some responsibility to the victims of revenge pornography depicted in the scenarios. Sex of the victim played a less important role than assumptions around sexting.

Originality/value

The study suggests that victim-blame is linked to the consent implied by sharing intimate images with a partner, but is also mitigated by the normative nature of this relationship practice. There was some evidence that the experience of male victims of revenge pornography is trivialised. These findings have implications for e-safety and victim support.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Michelle Davies, Jayne Walker, John Archer and Paul Pollard

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how male and female rape is scripted.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how male and female rape is scripted.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 100 (50 male, 50 female) participants were asked to write down in their own words what they considered to be the typical rape when the victim was either an adult male or female.

Findings

Results revealed that men's and women's rape scripts did not dramatically differ, though several differences were revealed between male and female rape scripting, focussing around the gender stereotypes of men verses women.

Originality/value

Results are discussed in relation to gender role stereotyping and wider implications are considered.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2017

Cristina L. Reitz-Krueger, Sadie J. Mummert and Sara M. Troupe

While awareness of sexual assaults on college campuses has increased, the majority of efforts to address it are focused on female victims. The relative neglect of male

Abstract

Purpose

While awareness of sexual assaults on college campuses has increased, the majority of efforts to address it are focused on female victims. The relative neglect of male victims may be due in part to problematic rape myths that suggest men cannot be sexually assaulted, especially by women. The purpose of this paper is to compare rates of different types of sexual assault between male and female undergraduates, and explore the relationship between acceptance of traditional rape myths focused on female victims, and rape myths surrounding male victims.

Design/methodology/approach

Students at a mid-sized university in Pennsylvania (n=526) answered an online questionnaire about their own experiences of sexual assault since coming to college, as well as their endorsement of male and female rape myths.

Findings

While women experienced more sexual assault overall, men were just as likely to have experienced rape (i.e. forced penetration) or attempted rape. Acceptance of male and female rape myths was significantly correlated and men were more likely than women to endorse both. Participants were also more likely to endorse female than male rape myths.

Research limitations/implications

By analyzing sexual assaults in terms of distinct behaviors instead of one composite score, the authors can get a more nuanced picture of how men and women experience assault.

Practical implications

Campus-based efforts to address sexual assault need to be aware that male students also experience assault and that myths surrounding men as victims may impede their ability to access services.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to our knowledge of a relatively understudied topic: undergraduate male victims of sexual assault.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Jan Jordan

Assumptions are often made that women police officers will respond more sympathetically to rape complainants than their male colleagues. In the research study presented…

Abstract

Assumptions are often made that women police officers will respond more sympathetically to rape complainants than their male colleagues. In the research study presented here, 48 women complainants of rape and sexual assault expressed their views of the extent to which they considered the gender of the interviewing officer to be important and commented on the ways in which the men and women involved with their case interacted with them. The results showed that, overall, gender per se was not the determining factor of complainant satisfaction. Professionalism, warmth and sensitivity were the qualities most desired and these were not exclusively associated with gender. This suggests that not only is it possible for some male officers to be sensitive victim interviewers, but also that being female does not automatically denote possession of the key attributes required for victim interviewing. Some rape complainants, however, expressed a strong preference for women officers. This places the onus on the police not simply to provide a woman officer – the “any woman will do” scenario – but to ensure the availability of trained and experienced women and men officers.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Ivana Sekol and David P. Farrington

– This research examined some personal characteristics of victims of bullying in residential care for youth. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Abstract

Purpose

This research examined some personal characteristics of victims of bullying in residential care for youth. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 601 young people aged 11-21 from 22 residential facilities in Croatia completed an anonymous self-reported bullying questionnaire, the Big Five Personality Inventory, the Basic Empathy Scale and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale.

Findings

The results demonstrated that male and female victims lacked self-esteem, presented with neurotic personality traits and were likely to believe that bullying was just part of life in residential care. Female victims also presented with lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness, while male victims were young and had a history of victimisation during their previous placement, in school and at the beginning of their current placements.

Practical implications

Victims in care might benefit from programmes addressing their low self-esteem, high neuroticism and attitudes approving of bullying. Male residential groups should not accommodate young boys together with older boys. New residents who have a history of victimisation during their previous placement and in school should be supervised more intensively but in a manner that does not increase their perception of being victimised.

Originality/value

The present study is the first work that examines individual characteristics of bullying victims in care institutions for young people. As such, the study offers some insights on how to protect residential care bullying victims.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Ioannis A. Bolimos and Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo

This paper aims to determine the level of online fraud offending within an Australian jurisdiction and how to best apply resources to combat it.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the level of online fraud offending within an Australian jurisdiction and how to best apply resources to combat it.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were provided by an Australian law enforcement agency, and qualitative responses were obtained from the parties involved in the crimes themselves (the victims, the offenders and the nominated law enforcement agency).

Findings

Although there was variance between the ages of the online fraud victims, there was a slightly higher chance of an older member of the population falling victim to an offender than that of a younger person. The number of a particular gender reporting an instance of cybercrime in a given area can be higher if the total number of participants in that area was also high. Older victims were more likely to lose larger amounts of money to online fraud. Furthermore, it was found that when the non-gender identifiable data were removed, this increased to over 80 per cent.

Originality/value

Existing literature on online fraud and criminal offending generally focused on the quantitative aspects of measuring offending, which does not give an indication into the “why” component of the study: why are these offences being committed; why do these offenders pick particular victims; and why do the victims fall for such ruses? In this paper, the authors combined the qualitative responses obtained from those parties involved in the crimes themselves (the victims, the offenders and the nominated law enforcement agency) with a quantitative examination of the crime figures provided by an Australian law enforcement agency.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Kristine A. Peace and Deanna L. Forrester

The present study aims to examine the influence of emotional content and gender pertaining to victim impact statements (VIS) on sentencing outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to examine the influence of emotional content and gender pertaining to victim impact statements (VIS) on sentencing outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a 2 (emotionality)×2 (participant gender)×2 (victim gender)×2 (statement gender) factorial design. Participants (n=715) read a crime vignette and corresponding VIS, and completed questionnaires pertaining to sentencing recommendations, legal attitudes, and levels of emotional empathy (counterbalanced).

Findings

Results indicated that participant gender was related to the emotional appeal of the VIS, and ratings of punishment severity. Emotional empathy was positively associated with perceptions of credibility and emotionality. Higher legal attitudes scores were positively correlated with higher minimum sentences, ratings of credibility, emotional appeal, as well as more severe punishments.

Originality/value

This study has important implications with respect to perceptions of VIS in relation to how emotional they are, who the victim is, who the statement is written by, and who hears the statement. Given the lack of previous research in this area, the study provides data that warrant further investigation.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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