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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2019

Mengyang Zhang and Sarah Gibney

The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between experiencing ageism in the workplace and working conditions on perceived job sustainability among current…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between experiencing ageism in the workplace and working conditions on perceived job sustainability among current workers aged 40 and over in Europe, within the context of positive and active ageing strategies and programmes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are from the 6th round of the European Working Conditions Survey (n=22,229), and the analytical sample contains adults aged 40 and older in 28 European Member States grouped by employment regime: social-democratic regime, corporatist regime, liberal regime, Southern European regime, post-socialist corporatist regime and post-socialist liberal regime. Perceived job sustainability estimated based on whether the respondent thinks (yes/no) that they can do their current job or similar role until the age of 60 or in next five years if the respondent is aged 56 and over. Experience of ageism in the workplace (yes/no) is self-reported. Generalised structural equation modelling was used to control for both individual- and organisational-level influences and to correct for potential endogeneity in estimating the impact of experienced ageism on perceived job sustainability. In addition, employment regimes are included in the model to investigate differences in this relationship by setting.

Findings

Adults who have not experienced ageism are more likely to have positive perceptions of job sustainability, net of other factors and employment regime. Job sustainability is positively associated with age, being male, being in good health status and higher levels of work satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is that data are cross-sectional, and time variant factors and individual fixed characteristics are excluded from the estimation. The results are influenced by the self-reported data about experienced ageism and evaluation of workplace environment, which may lead to potential endogeneity caused by unobservable personal characteristics such as personality type.

Originality/value

Although the average reported prevalence of ageism in the workplace is 3.4 per cent across the 28 European Union Member States, this study shows that ageism imposes significant negative influence on current workers. This study has highlighted the interrelationship between ageism, workplace satisfaction and job sustainability in this comparative setting. Efforts to reduce ageism in the workplace are likely to lead to improved working conditions and job sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Mohammad Rababa, Ammar M. Hammouri and Sami Al-Rawashdeh

This study aims to examine the association between nurses’ ageism and their knowledge about aging and socio-demographic and professional characteristics in recent…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the association between nurses’ ageism and their knowledge about aging and socio-demographic and professional characteristics in recent international nursing research studies.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive search of seven databases covering papers since 2000 was undertaken and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed.

Findings

Ageism among nurses is still poorly understood. It is evident that ageism is associated with poor nurses’ level of knowledge about aging. A range of nurses’ demographical and professional characteristics have been examined as potential predictors of ageism, but they were inconsistent with positive, negative and neutral associations.

Originality/value

There is a lack of robustly designed studies investigating the association of nurses’ level of knowledge about aging and their socio-demographical and professional characteristics to ageism. Future descriptive-correlational and interventional studies are recommended to understand and target ageism in health-care settings.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Jenny Meinich and Kate Sang

While age is receiving increased attention in the literature on workplace diversity, it remains under researched. Intergenerational contact and its relationship to ageism

Abstract

Purpose

While age is receiving increased attention in the literature on workplace diversity, it remains under researched. Intergenerational contact and its relationship to ageism require further research to understand their mechanisms and impacts. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Using semi-structured interviews in the Norwegian technical industry, this paper explores how generations are formed and how this influences intergenerational contact.

Findings

Through the lens of ageism, the findings reveal that generational stereotypes are strongly held by respondents, and may affect how members of the generations interact in the workplace. Further, the data demonstrate that both age and generation are socially constructed, and age discrimination is perceived by both older and younger workers.

Originality/value

The study has relevance for managers who are overseeing organizations with considerable age differences.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Jacqueline Granleese and Gemma Sayer

This study set out to explore employees' experience and understandings of gender and age in higher education to identify if women in higher education experienced the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study set out to explore employees' experience and understandings of gender and age in higher education to identify if women in higher education experienced the double jeopardy of gendered ageism. Further the role of physical attractiveness and appearance in higher education is explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Rich data were afforded by the qualitative method of in‐depth interviewing of 48 employees in a matched by gender, age grouping and academic status design. The recorded transcripts were subject to content and interpretative phenomenological analyses.

Findings

This study supports previous findings in different workplace settings that women, both academics and non‐academics, experience the double jeopardy of being discriminated against on the grounds of their age and gender in a way that men do not experience. Emergent themes are women: question they experience age discrimination as any perceived discrimination may be gender related and not only age‐related (uncertainty); are socialised to tolerate acceptable levels (tolerance); grow to love the perpetrators (identify with the status quo). Physical attractiveness and appearance are seen as relevant to the workplace in higher education. Non‐academics see academics as being career driven by their lack of attractiveness and or poor appearance. Male academics perceive women academics as unattractive and dressing down in appearance. Young female academics play down their “looks”, i.e. attractiveness and appearance so the effect is minimal (minimisation) as they perceive these be a disadvantage in their careers. Male academics do not report such considerations. “Lookism” thus presents a further prejudice that female academics experience beyond gendered ageism.

Research limitations/implications

One experienced interviewer was used to enhance consistency of interviewing but there may be concerns about possible interviewer effects and the generalisability of the findings within higher education.

Practical implications

Having identified and elucidated “lookism” as a concern for female academics, its extent and sequalae in higher education may be addressed.

Originality/value

This is the first study to show female academics experience the triple jeopardy of gendered ageism and how they look i.e.“lookism”.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Annette Boaz and Carol Hayden

Older people feel that ageism underlies many of their more specific concerns. A number of pieces of research carried out on behalf of the Inter‐Ministerial Group on Older…

Abstract

Older people feel that ageism underlies many of their more specific concerns. A number of pieces of research carried out on behalf of the Inter‐Ministerial Group on Older People also reveal the importance of the Government addressing the ageist attitudes to older people that affect their ability to participate in society.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

Ian Glover and Mohamed Branine

Offers a fairly general discussion of the significance of ageism in work and employment and then proceeds to suggest that labour process researchers might very usefully…

Abstract

Offers a fairly general discussion of the significance of ageism in work and employment and then proceeds to suggest that labour process researchers might very usefully pay some attention to it. Writers about the labour process tend to emphasize the issue of labour exploitation and gender and race discrimination but, to some extent, seem to overlook the problem of ageism in work and employment. In this context, considers the character of links between a number of economic and social phenomena and ageism, namely life cycles, divisions of labour, managerialism and industrialization. Specific aspects of ageism in the UK are discussed and the need for debate and policy formulation about the issue of ageism is called for.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2020

Per Erik Solem

The purpose of this paper is to explore responses of older workers and of managers to the call from the authorities to extend working life.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore responses of older workers and of managers to the call from the authorities to extend working life.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are from the Norwegian Senior Policy Barometer with interviews with samples of about 750 managers and 1,000 workers each year from 2003. There is no panel data.

Findings

Older workers increasingly prefer to extend their working career. The preferred age for exit has increased from 61 years in 2003 to 66 years in 2018. Managers seem less interested in expanding their older workforce. A majority of managers expressed quite positive conceptions of older workers' performance, but less often they liked to recruit older workers. As an average, managers told that they would hesitate to call in applicants above 58 years of age to job interviews. Age for hesitation is only moderately correlated (r = 0.29) to managers' beliefs about older workers’ performance at work. Thus, the managers' beliefs about older workers’ performance made only a small difference for their willingness to hire older workers.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that counteracting stereotypes, prejudice and age discrimination in working life needs a broad approach, including attention to the affective component of ageism. For research, the measurement of the affective component needs consideration and further exploration.

Originality/value

The article brings data from a distinctive Norwegian context and approaches the rarely studied affective component of ageism in working life.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2019

Laura Naegele, Wouter De Tavernier, Moritz Hess and Frerich Frerichs

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discourse on labour market discrimination by introducing an analytical process model that offers a template for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discourse on labour market discrimination by introducing an analytical process model that offers a template for the systematic analysis of discrimination within the process of labour market integration. Its usage and contribution to the field is exemplified by applying the proposed model to the case of ageism in labour market integration.

Design/methodology/approach

Five phases and four actors are distinguished that, added together, compose the proposed analytical process model. In the following, the model is used as an analytical framework for a mapping review, aimed at identifying and critically evaluating the vast and extensive literature on ageism in the process of labour market integration.

Findings

The paper concludes that ageism occurs in all five phases of the integration process, pinpointing potential areas for policy interventions. Furthermore, the authors conclude that the existing literature on ageism in labour market integration is fragmented, with some elements and/or actors within the process so far having received little attention.

Originality/value

The analytical process model developed in this paper provides the scientific community with a tool to systematise the literature, detect underlying mechanisms and uncover existing research gaps, not only for the case of ageism presented here, but for a vast variety of other –isms. In addition, policy makers, trade unions and employers can use the model to better target and tailor anti-discrimination measures in labour market integration.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2003

Marylyn Carrigan and Isabelle Szmigin

Demographic trends are suggesting that older people are growing in importance in the population. The advertising industry has been accused of ignoring older people in…

Abstract

Demographic trends are suggesting that older people are growing in importance in the population. The advertising industry has been accused of ignoring older people in advertisements, or treating them inappropriately. In order to respond to accusations of ageism within the industry it is suggested that regulation may be required to raise the awareness of advertisers and agencies to the importance of older people, and to encourage more age diverse advertising. This paper presents the findings of a study conducted to elicit the opinions of advertising industry commentators about the issue of ageism in advertising. The general opinion was that the industry was ageist, and may require the incentive of regulation before it will respond to the needs of the older population.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Rosemary E. Lucas

In the context of a gradually ageing labour force and skillsshortages, discrimination against older workers has recently become anissue of public policy concern. Ageism is…

Abstract

In the context of a gradually ageing labour force and skills shortages, discrimination against older workers has recently become an issue of public policy concern. Ageism is arguably more pervasive in the hospitality industry than elsewhere; a recent follow‐up study confirms that hospitality organizations continue to rely heavily on younger workers and show little disposition to capitalize on the acknowledged benefits which older workers can offer. Consequently, these organizations do not appear to be well placed to manage future developments in the labour market, particularly in relation to obtaining managers.

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