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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Szu‐Hsien Chang and Brian H. Kleiner

Observes racial stereotypes and explains the way human beings “see” one another because of this. Adumbrates that even as far back as 1798, the media stereotyped people…

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Abstract

Observes racial stereotypes and explains the way human beings “see” one another because of this. Adumbrates that even as far back as 1798, the media stereotyped people into various groups, and subsequent surveys only seem to emphasize this. Lists out the more common racial stereotypes using (US) surveys to collect peoples’ thoughts and feelings. Shows how to overcome racial stereotypes. Sums up that communication barriers can ensue from stereotyping races and that people should be responsible in overlooking media influences in this area.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Adamantios Diamantopoulos, Ilona Szőcs, Arnd Florack, Živa Kolbl and Martin Egger

Drawing on the stereotype content model (SCM), the authors investigate the stereotype content transfer (in terms of warmth and competence) from country to brand and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the stereotype content model (SCM), the authors investigate the stereotype content transfer (in terms of warmth and competence) from country to brand and the simultaneous impact of these two stereotypes on consumer responses toward brands.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test a structural equation model conceptualizing brand stereotypes as full mediators between country stereotypes and consumer outcomes. In addition, in a moderated mediation analysis, the authors investigate the role of brand typicality and utilitarianism/hedonism in potentially moderating the country to brand stereotype content transfer.

Findings

Country warmth and competence, respectively, impact brand warmth and competence, thus confirming the hypothesized stereotype content transfer. This transfer is found to be robust and not contingent on brands' perceived typicality of their country of origin. However, brands' utilitarian nature amplifies the positive impact of country competence on brand competence. Finally, brand stereotypes fully mediate the impact of country stereotypes on consumers' brand attitudes and behavioral intentions.

Originality/value

The authors provide the first empirical attempt that (1) explicitly differentiates between consumers' stereotypical perceptions of countries and stereotypical perceptions of brands from these countries, (2) empirically examines the transfer of stereotypical dimensions of different targets (i.e. country to brand), (3) explores boundary conditions for such transfer and (4) simultaneously considers the impact of both kinds of stereotypes on managerially relevant consumer outcomes.

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International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2021

Annick Hortense Dominique Van Rossem

The present research offers insights into the generational stereotypical beliefs that different generations of nurses hold about the own and the other generations and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research offers insights into the generational stereotypical beliefs that different generations of nurses hold about the own and the other generations and the implications on the work floor.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional, exploratory study employs a cognitive mapping approach known as the repertory grid. The sample consisted of 15 Generation Y, 15 Generation X and 15 Baby Boomer nurses.

Findings

Beliefs of nurses about their own and the other generations direct social categorization and generational stereotypes of the in-group and out groups. These stereotypes mold nurses' beliefs and attitudes towards their coworkers and are enacted leading to self-fulfilling prophecies. Especially Generation Y and Baby Boomer nurses are negatively stereotyped and have their ways to deal with these negative stereotypes.

Practical implications

Nurses and their managers who hold generational stereotypes may unknowingly create cliques within an organization and adopt behaviors and expectations based on generational (self-) stereotypes. The author offers noteworthy insights for fostering intergenerational synergies amongst nurses, which are important since the level of interdependent relations amongst nurses required to provide care.

Originality/value

The present study moves away from the research about the typical characteristics of nurses across the generational workforce. Instead, mental models about how different generations of nurses construe their coworkers belonging to different generations including their own generation are drawn. Employing the repertory grid technique (RGT), an established method for uncovering people's personal and collective belief systems, the present study shows how generational stereotyping and self-stereotyping among nurses belonging to varying generational cohorts occurs and debates its implications.

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Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Regina Kim, Jimena Y. Ramirez-Marin and Kevin Tasa

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of nonnative speakers in conflictual situations with native speakers in the workplace. In three studies, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of nonnative speakers in conflictual situations with native speakers in the workplace. In three studies, the authors examine whether nonnative speakers experience stereotype threat in workplace conflict situations with native speakers, whether stereotype threat is associated with certain conflict managing behaviors (e.g. yielding and avoiding) and the relationship between stereotype threat, satisfaction with conflict outcomes and processes, and objective conflict outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies 1 and 2 use critical incident recall methodology to examine nonnative speakers’ conflict behaviors and satisfaction with conflict outcomes. In Study 3, data were collected from a face-to-face simulation with a random-assignment design.

Findings

Findings suggest that nonnative speakers indeed experience heightened stereotype threat when interacting with native speakers in conflict situations and the experience of stereotype threat leads to less satisfaction with conflict outcomes, perceptions of goal attainment, as well as worse objective conflict outcomes.

Originality/value

The current study is one of the first studies to document the effects of accent stereotype threat on conflict behaviors and outcomes. More broadly, it contributes to the conflict studies literature by offering new insight into the effects and implications of stereotype threat on workplace conflict behaviors and outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Marcela Espinosa-Pike, Edurne Aldazabal and Itsaso Barrainkua

This study aims to explore undergraduate students’ stereotypes of auditing and the influence of knowledge of the profession and its sources on the stereotype.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore undergraduate students’ stereotypes of auditing and the influence of knowledge of the profession and its sources on the stereotype.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a questionnaire distributed among 360 undergraduate business students at 21 higher education institutions in Spain.

Findings

The study reveals that undergraduate business students consider auditors competent and ethical. Auditing is viewed as an interesting and rigorous activity, which requires high responsibility and contributes significantly to society. Students perceive that the auditing career is difficult but contributes to professional development. The knowledge acquired through business studies influences the creation of a positive image of the profession and of auditors.

Practical implications

The profession could benefit from the fact that having more information about the profession improves students’ perceptions of it. The provision of auditing courses through the degree and related activities to increase the visibility of the profession during the first years of the degree could improve the auditor stereotype and enhance students’ intentions to enter this profession.

Originality/value

Previous studies have analyzed the image of the accounting professional as a homogeneous professional status. This study specifically addresses the image of auditors, who are at the core of the traditional accounting domain. It analyzes the influence of sources of knowledge (academic training, having familiars and media) on auditors’ stereotypes. Moreover, it provides evidence concerning the perceptions of the new generations (Gen Z).

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Gary N. Powell, D. Anthony Butterfield and Xueting Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to examine stability and change in the linkage between gender and managerial stereotypes over a five-decade period.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine stability and change in the linkage between gender and managerial stereotypes over a five-decade period.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples from two populations (n = 2347) described a “good manager” on an instrument that assessed masculinity and femininity during each of the past five decades.

Findings

Good-manager descriptions exhibited a decreasing emphasis on masculinity and increasing emphasis on femininity over time, culminating in an androgynous profile, or a balance of masculine and feminine traits, for each population in the most recently collected data.

Practical implications

Although women face systemic barriers in the managerial ranks of organizations, a change in managerial stereotypes to an androgynous rather than masculine profile would represent one less barrier for them to overcome.

Social implications

If managers come to be held to an androgynous standard in their behavior regardless of their gender, there would be a more level playing field for candidates for open managerial positions, rather than one tilted in favor of men.

Originality/value

The analysis of data from samples of the same population types using the same measures systematically over five decades, and the provocative finding of an androgynous profile of a good manager in the most recently collected data, are original contributions to the literature.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Jonida Carungu and Matteo Molinari

This paper explores the stereotype of the accountant in Florentine medieval popular culture based on literary works and from a historical perspective. It aims to highlight…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the stereotype of the accountant in Florentine medieval popular culture based on literary works and from a historical perspective. It aims to highlight how stereotypes change with time and represent the cultural and historical evolution of a society. This research challenges Miley and Read (2012), who stated that the foundation of the stereotype was in Commedia dell'arte, an Italian form of improvisational theatre commenced in the 15th century.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors applied a qualitative research method to examine the accountant from a medieval popular culture perspective. The analysis consists of two phases: (1) categorisation of the accountant stereotype based on accounting history literature and (2) thematic analysis of The Divine Comedy (1307–1313) and The Decameron (1348–1351). The authors explored a synchronic perspective of historical investigation through a “cross-author” comparison, identifying Dante Alighieri as the first key author of medieval popular culture. During his imaginary journey through The Divine Comedy, Dante describes the social, political and economic context of the Florentine people of the 14th century. Then, with its various folkloristic elements, The Decameron of Giovanni Boccaccio becomes the “manifesto” of the popular culture in the Florentine medieval times.

Findings

This study shows the change of the accountant stereotype from the medieval age to the Renaissance. The Divine Comedy mainly connotes a negative accountant stereotype. The 14th century's Florentine gentlemen (“i galantuomini”) are apparently positive characters, with an ordered and clean aspect, but they are accused of being usurers. Dante Alighieri pictures the accountant as a “servant of capitalism”, “dishonest person, excessively fixated with money”, “villain and evil” and “excessively rational”. Giovanni Boccaccio mainly portrays a positive accountant stereotype. The accountant is increasingly more reliable, and this “commercial man” takes a more prestigious role in the society. In The Decameron, the accountant is depicted as a “hero”, “gentleman”, “family-oriented person with a high level of work commitment” and “colourful persona, warm, and emotional”. Overall, the authors provided new evidence on the existence of the accountant stereotype in the Florentine medieval popular.

Originality/value

This study engages with accounting history literature accountants' stereotypes in an unexplored context and time period, providing a base for comparative international research on accounting stereotypes and popular culture. Additionally, it addresses the need for further research on the accountant stereotype based on literary works and from a historical perspective. Therefore, this research also expands the New Accounting History (NAH) literature, focussing on the investigation of the accountant stereotype connotations in the 14th century.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Nina Smith, Tor Eriksson and Valdemar Smith

The purpose of this paper is to describe how gender stereotypes and self-stereotypes of Danish managers vary among managers at different job levels, from lower level…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how gender stereotypes and self-stereotypes of Danish managers vary among managers at different job levels, from lower level managers to CEO level, in a large survey of Danish private-sector managers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is explorative. Measures of stereotypes and self-stereotypes are constructed and analyzed with regressions models that control for a large number of individual and firm characteristics.

Findings

The results document significant gender differences in stereotyping among managers. Male managers have significantly more masculine stereotypes of successful leaders, and they rate themselves higher on masculine traits than female managers. For CEOs, the picture is different. Stereotypes do not differ by gender and female CEOs have more pronounced masculine stereotypes than female managers at lower levels. Female managers at the age of 50 are the least gender stereotyping managers. Younger female managers have significantly more masculine stereotypes about the role as a successful leader.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on cross-sectional data and does not claim to uncover causal relationships.

Practical implications

The results suggest that gender stereotypes and self-stereotypes among Danish private-sector managers are not going to change quickly indicating that new government policies with more focus on gender equalization and affirmative actions are called for.

Originality/value

Most earlier studies of stereotypes concerning female managers are based on studies of samples drawn from the general population or consisting of students. This study makes use of a large sample of managerial employees from all levels of the corporate hierarchy in different types of firms.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Janine Hobeika

Despite interest in social stereotypes such as gender, race and age, professional stereotypes of frontline employees is still a new topic that requires measurement in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite interest in social stereotypes such as gender, race and age, professional stereotypes of frontline employees is still a new topic that requires measurement in the banking services. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a reliable banker stereotype scale that reflects all useful dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-dimensional scale is developed using a mixed method in the French context. Qualitative data were collected from two samples (11 private banking clients, 17 retail banking clients). Quantitative data were collected from two diversified samples built by quotas: an exploratory sample (n = 226) and a confirmatory sample (n = 579). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test and validate the scale.

Findings

The measurement scale proves to be valid and reliable. The scale is then used in a conceptual model as an explanatory factor of expected relational benefits where relations are analyzed using structural equation modeling. The model successfully provides some explanatory links between the banker stereotypes and the expected relational benefits.

Practical implications

The concept of the professional stereotype can be further used to better understand relationship quality and customer satisfaction through relational benefits, and more widely as a part of the know your customer (KYC) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) procedures.

Originality/value

The scale identifies four behavioral dimensions (partner, paternalistic, subordinate and shark) and one about dress code (formal clothing).

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Andrea Slobodnikova and Brandon Randolph-Seng

One of the goals of various European Union (EU) organizations (i.e. Roma and non-Roma nonprofits) is the integration of Roma into the educational system. A challenge for…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the goals of various European Union (EU) organizations (i.e. Roma and non-Roma nonprofits) is the integration of Roma into the educational system. A challenge for the educational systems of EU countries, therefore, is to determine how to support the academic performance of Roma. Understanding the positive and negative factors related to Roma’s academic performance and achievement is an important first step in increasing academic success among this minority group.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative experimental design was used both online and face-to-face to examine whether stereotype threat had an influence on the academic performance of Roma in Slovakia and second, whether such threat was moderated by social identification and academic self-efficacy.

Findings

The results showed that stereotype threat does influence Roma in Slovakia and there were direct effects of social identity and academic self-efficacy on academic performance of the face-to-face participants.

Originality/value

Consistent with stereotype threat theory, to the best of authors’ knowledge, this research is the first to show that a stereotype threat did harm the academic performance of the face-to-face Roma sampled. Further, although many studies have examined stereotype threat effects on academic performance, little is known regarding whether social identification and academic self-efficacy have an influence on such threats. The results of the study show that social identification and academic self-efficacy had a significant direct influence on academic performance.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

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