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Book part
Publication date: 7 November 2018

Kevin Stainback, Kendra Jason and Charles Walter

Organizational approaches to racial inequality have provided contextual insight into a host of traditional stratification outcomes (e.g., hiring, earnings, authority)…

Abstract

Organizational approaches to racial inequality have provided contextual insight into a host of traditional stratification outcomes (e.g., hiring, earnings, authority). This chapter extends the organizational approach by drawing on the health-stress framework to explore how organizational context affects experiential and health-related outcomes – discrimination, social support, and psychological distress. Drawing on a sample of Black workers in the United States, we examine the relationship between workplace racial composition and psychological distress, as well as two potential mediators – racial discrimination and workplace social support. Our findings reveal that psychological distress is similar for Black workers in token (<25% Black coworkers), tilted other race (25–49.99% Black coworkers), and tilted same race (50–74.99% Black coworkers) job contexts. Workers in Black-dominated jobs (>75% Black coworkers), however, experience significantly less psychological distress than other compositional thresholds, net of individual, job, and workplace characteristics. This relationship is not explained by either racial discrimination experiences or supervisor and coworker social support. This finding suggests that researchers need to theorize and examine other protective factors stemming from coworker racial similarity.

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2003

Erica S Breslau

The sequence of stress, distress and somatization has occupied much of the late twentieth-century psychological research. The anatomy of stress can be viewed from…

Abstract

The sequence of stress, distress and somatization has occupied much of the late twentieth-century psychological research. The anatomy of stress can be viewed from interactional and hybrid theories that suggest that the individual relates with the surroundings by buffering the harmful effects of stressors. These acts or reactions are called coping strategies and are designed as protection from the stressors and adaptation to them. Failure to successfully adapt to stressors results in psychological distress. In some individuals, elevated levels of distress and failed coping are expressed in physical symptoms, rather than through feelings, words, or actions. Such “somatization” defends against the awareness of the psychological distress, as demonstrated in the psychosocial literature. The progression of behavior resulting from somatic distress moves from a private domain into the public arena, involving an elaborate medicalization process, is however less clear in sociological discourse. The invocation of a medical diagnosis to communicate physical discomfort by way of repeated use of health care services poses a major medical, social and economic problem. The goal of this paper is to clarify this connection by investigating the relevant literature in the area of women with breast cancer. This manuscript focuses on the relationship of psychological stress, the stress response of distress, and the preoccupation with one’s body, and proposes a new theoretical construct.

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Gender Perspectives on Health and Medicine
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-239-9

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Masood Nawaz Kalyar, Munazza Saeed, Aydin Usta and Imran Shafique

This study aims to investigate the effects of workplace cyberbullying on creativity directly and through psychological distress. Furthermore, this study proposes that…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effects of workplace cyberbullying on creativity directly and through psychological distress. Furthermore, this study proposes that psychological capital (PsyCap) buffers the harmful effects of workplace cyberbullying on psychological distress and creativity.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected in two waves from 329 nurses working in four large public hospitals located in a metropolitan city of Pakistan. The data were analyzed through PROCESS (Model 8) using SPSS.

Findings

The results demonstrate that cyberbullying negatively affects creativity through increased psychological distress. The findings also explicate that PsyCap moderates the effects of cyberbullying on psychological distress such that the link was weak (vs strong) for those (victims) who had high (vs low) PsyCap.

Practical implications

This study recommends management to develop and promote PsyCap among employees because these positive resources help them to regulate their emotions and cognition to overcome negative consequences of cyberbullying and other workplace stressors.

Originality/value

Psychological distress as an underlying mechanism between cyberbullying and creativity as well as buffering effect of PsyCap is the novelty of the study.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 20 October 2020

Limin Guo, Ken Cheng and Jinlian Luo

Drawing on conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study aims to explore the influencing mechanism of exploitative leadership on knowledge hiding. Specifically, this…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study aims to explore the influencing mechanism of exploitative leadership on knowledge hiding. Specifically, this study focuses on the mediating role of psychological distress and the moderating role of hostile attribution bias in affecting the mediation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 324 employees of a high-technology company in China by a three-wave questionnaire survey. Hierarchical regression analysis and bootstrapping approach were employed to test hypotheses.

Findings

This study found that exploitative leadership was positively related to knowledge hiding and that psychological distress mediated this relationship. Moreover, the results revealed that the positive relationship between exploitative leadership and psychological distress and the indirect effect of exploitative leadership on knowledge hiding via psychological distress were stronger when hostile attribution was high rather than low.

Practical implications

The findings of this study offer guidance for managers to better undermine the negative effects of exploitative leadership.

Originality/value

First, this study extends the literature on exploitative leadership by verifying the positive effect of exploitative leadership on knowledge hiding. Second, this study enriches one’s understanding of the “black box” underlying the link between exploitative leadership and its consequences by demonstrating the mediating role of psychological distress. Third, by verifying the moderating role of hostile attribution bias, this study provides insights into the boundary conditions of the impact of exploitative leadership.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Van Thac Dang

People are living in a very rich and diversified information world. However, they are facing an explosion of information on social networking site (SNS) bombarding them…

Abstract

Purpose

People are living in a very rich and diversified information world. However, they are facing an explosion of information on social networking site (SNS) bombarding them every day. People get confused when they expose to similar, overloaded, ambiguous and misleading information. Unfortunately, the effect of information confusion on users' psychological outcome and behavioral intention has been absent in prior literature. Thus, this study investigates the relationship between information confusion and users' intention to stop using SNS with a moderated mediation effect of psychological distress and perceived novelty.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses questionnaire survey to collect a sample data of 380 Facebook users in Vietnam. Structural equation modeling is used to test hypotheses in this study.

Findings

Empirical results show that information confusion has a positive influence on stop using intention. Furthermore, psychological distress is found to have a mediating effect in the link between information confusion and stop using intention. In addition, perceived novelty moderates the relationship between psychological distress and stop using intention. Perceived novelty also moderates the indirect effect of information confusion on stop using intention through psychological distress.

Originality/value

The influence of information confusion on users' psychological outcomes and behavioral intention has not been determined in prior literature. This study is one of the first studies that provide empirical evidence to clarify the relationship between information confusion and users' intention to stop using SNS. Furthermore, this study helps to clarify the mediating and moderating mechanism of psychological distress and perceived novelty in this relationship. By investigating the issue of information confusion and its impact on users in SNS environment, this study provides implications for researchers and practitioners regarding management and development of SNS.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Danny Osborne and Chris G. Sibley

The purpose of this paper is to examine individual differences in people's resilience to changes in psychological distress following the 22 February 2011 Christchurch…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine individual differences in people's resilience to changes in psychological distress following the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were based on a subsample of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) – an annual nation-wide longitudinal study of New Zealand adults that began in 2009. In both waves of the NZAVS examined here, participants completed measures of the Big-Five, psychological distress, and demographic covariates. As such, the analyses, which focus on participants who were living in the Canterbury region before the 2011 earthquake (n=325), use measures of personality collected in late October of 2010 (Time 1) to predict changes in psychological distress after the devastation that unfolded on 22 February 2011.

Findings

Time 1 levels of Emotional Stability were inversely associated with increases in psychological distress following the 2011 earthquake. Psychological distress assessed at Time 1, however, was uncorrelated with changes in Emotional Stability.

Practical implications

These results show that Emotional Stability protects people against decrements to mental health following a disaster. Thus, efforts to rebuild disaster-stricken communities should ensure that those who are particularly likely to experience increases in psychological distress (i.e. those who, before a disaster, are low on Emotional Stability) receive the help they need.

Originality/value

This study assesses a subsample of respondents from a longitudinally based national probability study to show that Emotional Stability exerts a cross-lagged effect on changes in psychological distress following a natural disaster. The access to such measures affords us the rare opportunity to explain how people cope in the wake of a catastrophic disaster.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Bayard Roberts, Pamela Abbott and Martin McKee

The purpose of this paper is to compare levels of psychological distress in 2001 and 2010 in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and to explore how these changes…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare levels of psychological distress in 2001 and 2010 in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and to explore how these changes vary for different population groups.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using two related studies from 2001 (n=14,242) and 2010 (n=15,081). Both studies consisted of nationally representative cross‐sectional household surveys in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine using a standardized questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured using a 12 item instrument, with scores of 10‐12 indicating high psychological distress. Changes in prevalence of high psychological distress were measured between 2001 and 2010 by country, gender, age group, educational level, disability status, personal support and household economic status using descriptive and prevalence rate ratio analysis.

Findings

Levels of high psychological distress decreased from 8.7 per cent in 2001 to 4.9 per cent in 2010 for the whole study region (4.5 per cent to 2.8 per cent for men; 12.0 per cent to 6.5 per cent for women). All study countries recorded decreases in high psychological distress. The adjusted relative rate ratios indicate the observed decreases have not been experienced by men, older age groups, less educated respondents, those with a disabling health condition, low levels of support and bad household economic status.

Originality/value

The study shows decreases in levels of high psychological distress in the study countries, but that decreases were less for socially and economically marginalised populations. This highlights the cycle of poverty, social exclusion and poor mental health in the region. Despite decreases of psychological distress among women, they continue to bear a significantly higher burden than men.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2003

Debra L Nelson and Bret L Simmons

This chapter proposes a more holistic approach to understanding work stress by incorporating eustress, the positive response to stressors. We begin by casting the study of…

Abstract

This chapter proposes a more holistic approach to understanding work stress by incorporating eustress, the positive response to stressors. We begin by casting the study of eustress as part of a contemporary movement in both psychology and organizational behavior that accentuates the positive aspects of human adaptation and functioning. We discuss the development of the concept of eustress, and provide extensive evidence, both psychological and physiological, for the purpose of developing an explicit construct definition. An exploratory study of hospital nurses is presented as an initial test of our holistic model of stress. We conclude by asserting that there must exist a complement to coping with distress such that rather than preventing or resolving the negative side of stress, individuals savor the positive side of stress.

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Emotional and Physiological Processes and Positive Intervention Strategies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-238-2

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2010

Bayard Roberts, Pamela Abbott and Martin McKee

Although it is well recognised that the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent widespread social and economic changes impacted on the levels and distribution of…

Abstract

Although it is well recognised that the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent widespread social and economic changes impacted on the levels and distribution of physical health, there is very limited evidence on the social patterning of mental health in the countries that emerged. The aim of this paper is to assess levels of psychological distress and describe its demographic, social and economic correlates in eight former Soviet countries.Cross‐sectional surveys using multi‐stage random sampling were conducted in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. A standardised questionnaire was used for all countries, including the main outcome for this study of psychological distress, which consisted of 12 items on symptoms of psychological distress. Respondents who repor ted 10‐12 of the symptoms were considered to have a high psychological distress score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was then used to investigate how demographic, social and economic factors were associated with a high psychological distress score.High psychological distress in seven of the eight countries ranges from 3.8% in Kazakhstan to 10% in Ukraine but was substantially higher (21.7%) in Armenia. Factors associated with psychological distress in the multivariate analysis included: being female; increasing age; incomplete secondary education; being disabled; experiencing two or more stressful events in the past year; lack of trust in people; lack of personal suppor t in crisis; being unemployed; and poor household economic situation.The study contributes evidence on the association of impoverishment and social isolation on psychological distress in countries of the former Soviet Union and highlights the impor tance of exploring ways of improving mental health by addressing its social determinants.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2014

Diddy Antai and David Anthony

The purpose of this paper is to assess the prevalence of, and determined the factors associated with self-reported symptoms of suicide attempts and psychosocial distress

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the prevalence of, and determined the factors associated with self-reported symptoms of suicide attempts and psychosocial distress among female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV).

Design/methodology/approach

Using cross-sectional data from 13,594 women aged 15-49 years from the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys, the authors measured univariate prevalence, conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression models to examine the associations between outcomes, exposures, and potential explanatory variables.

Findings

In total, 47 and 8 per cent of the women reported psychological distress, and suicide attempts following IPV, respectively. Physical and psychological IPV occurred in 7 per cent of the women, respectively, whilst sexual IPV occurred in 5 per cent of the women. Multivariate analyses showed significant association between physical and psychological IPV and suicide attempt, as well as psychological distress.

Research limitations/implications

This study extends the knowledge about the interaction between IPV, suicide attempts, and psychological distress by redirecting the attention to more systemic expressions of the excess burden of IPV among abused women.

Practical implications

It highlights the significance of screening for the presence of, and accumulated effect of IPV exposures as a risk factor for suicide attempt and psychological distress.

Social implications

Since IPV is a product of gendered norms and power relations, the extent to which exposure to IPV results in poor mental health outcomes is determined by the interplay between societal gender norms and attitudes, poverty, and psychological distress.

Originality/value

Given that most of the literature on the association between traumatic events, psychosocial stress, and suicidality derive from high-income countries, they do not reflect cultural differences within the context of low-middle-income countries like the Philippines, or be generalizable to the low-middle-income countries.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

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