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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2022

Ramy Hindiyeh and Jennifer Cross

The purpose of this paper is to identify, through an exploratory meta-analysis, which process- and outcome-related antecedents have the strongest relationship to overall…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify, through an exploratory meta-analysis, which process- and outcome-related antecedents have the strongest relationship to overall team performance. The secondary objective is to create an understanding of the extent to which relative research interest in each construct to date has aligned with its reported effects.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a random-effects meta-analysis on studies that have measured the relationship between at least one process or outcome factor and overall team performance. The number of studies, effect size and between-study variances are captured and analyzed for each process/outcome factor. Prior literature has explored relationships between various process/outcome factors and overall team performance. This study expands on previous literature by examining a comprehensive set of process/outcome factors and their relative impact on overall team performance.

Findings

A meta-analysis of 190 effect sizes extracted from 52 empirical studies over the past two decades (1999–2020) showed the specific process and outcome factors that most strongly contributed to overall team performance were efficiency, schedule and innovation. In addition, only a weak correlation was found between process and outcome factors’ relationships with overall team performance and how often they are studied in the research community.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the body of knowledge on team performance by examining prior research to identify the relevant impact of various process and outcome factors on overall team performance. In addition, this study also assesses the extent to which research interest in these factors has appeared to match their relative impact. Analyzing the relative impact of various process and outcome factors allows researchers and practitioners to better identify methods to create improvement in overall team performance. Based on the findings, prioritizing efficiency, schedule and innovation may promote overall team performance.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Rune Elvik

Purpose – This chapter gives an overview of meta-analytic methods and illustrates the use of these methods for synthesising research findings. The advantages of performing…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter gives an overview of meta-analytic methods and illustrates the use of these methods for synthesising research findings. The advantages of performing a meta-analysis are described. Pitfalls in meta-analyses are also discussed. The chapter is intended to present the main elements of a meta-analysis and guide readers to literature presenting meta-analytic methods in greater detail.

Methodology – Key references in the meta-analysis literature are quoted and examples of meta-analyses are presented.

Findings – A meta-analysis is a useful tool for summarising knowledge in fields where a large number of studies have been reported. In addition to providing summary estimates of results, a meta-analysis can be applied to identify factors that produce systematic variation in study findings.

Research implications – Methods of meta-analyses keep developing to deal with complex data structures, thus extending the type of research findings that are amenable to meta-analyses.

Practical implications – Performing a meta-analysis saves labour by eliminating the need to read and digest a large number of studies in order to get an overview of the current state-of-knowledge in a field. Moreover, a meta-analysis establishes a system for easily and quickly updating knowledge as new studies become available.

Details

Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-223-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2013

Peter J. Buckley, Timothy M. Devinney and Ryan W. Tang

Over the past decade, international business and international management researchers have utilized meta-analytic approaches to synthesizing findings in the extant…

Abstract

Over the past decade, international business and international management researchers have utilized meta-analytic approaches to synthesizing findings in the extant literature. This chapter reviews the studies published in the top five international business and management journals from 2004 to 2012. The review investigates major problems in the published meta-analyses by evaluating their overall analyses as well as the approaches utilized. The findings of this review reveal differences among the journals and improvements in the approaches applied in recent years. The chapter ends by discussing why and how international business and management researchers need to focus more on methodological fundamentals in their applications of meta-analysis.

Details

Philosophy of Science and Meta-Knowledge in International Business and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-713-9

Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2005

Dan R. Dalton and Catherine M. Dalton

Meta-analysis has been relied on relatively infrequently in strategic management studies, certainly as compared to other fields such as the medical sciences, psychology…

Abstract

Meta-analysis has been relied on relatively infrequently in strategic management studies, certainly as compared to other fields such as the medical sciences, psychology, and education. This may be unfortunate, as there are several aspects of the manner in which strategic management studies are typically conducted that make them especially appropriate for this approach. To this end, we provide a brief foundation for meta-analysis, an example of meta-analysis, and a discussion of those elements that strongly recommend the efficacy of meta-analysis for the synthesis of strategic management studies.

Details

Research Methodology in Strategy and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-208-5

Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2006

Andreas Rauch and Michael Frese

We argue that entrepreneurship research should use meta-analysis to integrate the findings of the field. A meta-analytical approach has several advantages as compared with…

Abstract

We argue that entrepreneurship research should use meta-analysis to integrate the findings of the field. A meta-analytical approach has several advantages as compared with narrative reviews: First, narrative reviews are likely to bias empirical evidence because they are limited by the information-processing capacities of the reviewers (Tett, Jackson, & Rothstein, 1991). This is often a downward bias leading to the conclusion of little positive knowledge in the field. For example, frequency counts of significant results ignore sampling errors of individual studies, reliability problems of instruments, range restrictions of samples, dichotomization of continuous variables, imperfect construct validity, and extraneous factors (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004). These issues usually result in a higher incidence of Type II errors (i.e., rejecting the hypothesis wrongly). Thus, narrative reviews are more likely to lead to the conclusion that there are no relationships between independent and dependent variables in entrepreneurship when in fact they are (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990; Tett et al., 1991). Second, meta-analysis accumulates studies based on a set of explicit decision rules and, therefore, is less biased by subjective perceptions of the reviewer than narrative reviews. Meta-analyses require judgments as well, e.g., when defining the area of the study or coding moderator variables. However, the decisions are public and open to criticism and replication by other scientists (Johnson & Eagly, 2000). Third, meta-analysis is based on many studies and, thus, avoids the influence of single studies. Fourth, meta-analysis controls for sampling error variance and, thus, controls for power deficits of individual studies (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004). For example, the Brockhaus and Nord (1979) study is frequently cited in the entrepreneurship literature for providing evidence that there is no relationship of personality characteristics with entrepreneurship. However, this study is based on a small sample of 31 business owners and therefore, has serious statistical power problems. Noteworthy, the effect sizes of small samples are less precise in estimating a population value than effect sizes of larger samples. Fifth, meta-analyses can correct many errors of individual studies (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004). Since meta-analyses estimate population correlations between given variables, it is important to correct for errors of studies (e.g., unreliability, range restriction, and sampling error) to achieve unbiased estimates. Sixth, meta-analysis allows an assessment of the magnitude of relationships and, thus, provides more precise and often comparable assessments of the validity of concepts. Thus, meta-analyses support the assessment of the practical significance of findings. Seventh, meta-analysis tests for variations in relationships across studies and, therefore, allows an assessment of the generalizeability of effects. If the size of reported relationships varies considerably between different studies, there will be context conditions that account for these variations. These context conditions are moderators that affect the size of relationships. The moderators may include study characteristics, method moderators, and theoretical moderators. Thus, meta-analyses also help to identify areas for new studies. Finally, meta-analysis techniques allow to test more than one independent and/or moderator variable by using methods based on regression analysis (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). Using such procedures allows to estimate the independent contribution of variables on results, to control for methodological variables, and to test the interactions between moderator variables.

Details

Entrepreneurship: Frameworks And Empirical Investigations From Forthcoming Leaders Of European Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-428-7

Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2013

Timothy M. Devinney and Ryan W. Tang

Meta-analysis is one of a number of scientific approaches for accumulating knowledge in a research domain. It provides a quantitative synthesis of a literature using…

Abstract

Meta-analysis is one of a number of scientific approaches for accumulating knowledge in a research domain. It provides a quantitative synthesis of a literature using various statistical instruments. This chapter introduces the main points underlying meta-analytic methodology by discussing its merits when compared to a conventional literature review and covers the fundamental approaches used when conducting a meta-analysis. Criticism of meta-analysis is briefly discussed in the context of the major issues facing meta-analysis in international business.

Details

Philosophy of Science and Meta-Knowledge in International Business and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-713-9

Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Jeremy D. Mackey, Charn P. McAllister, Liam P. Maher and Gang Wang

Recently, there has been an increase in the number and type of studies in the organizational sciences that examine curvilinear relationships. These studies are important…

Abstract

Recently, there has been an increase in the number and type of studies in the organizational sciences that examine curvilinear relationships. These studies are important because some relationships have context-specific inflection points that alter their magnitude and/or direction. Although some scholars have utilized basic techniques to make meta-analytic inferences about curvilinear effects with the limited information available about them, there is still a tremendous opportunity to advance our knowledge by utilizing rigorous techniques to meta-analytically examine curvilinear effects. In a recent study, we used a novel meta-analytic approach in an effort to comprehensively examine curvilinear relationships between destructive leadership and followers' workplace outcomes. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an actionable guide for conducting curvilinear meta-analyses by describing the meta-analytic techniques we used in our recent study. Our contributions include a detailed guide for conducting curvilinear meta-analyses, the useful context we provide to facilitate its implementation, and our identification of opportunities for scholars to leverage our technique in future studies to generate nuanced knowledge that can advance their fields.

Details

Advancing Methodological Thought and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-079-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2022

Jaeseong Jang and Jisu Jeong

The purpose and approaches of this article differ from those of prior research in several ways. First, while existing leadership meta-analytic research has focused on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose and approaches of this article differ from those of prior research in several ways. First, while existing leadership meta-analytic research has focused on the relationship between specific types of leadership and organizational correlates, this study is a comprehensive and systematic meta-study of overall leadership types and organizational effectiveness. Second, while most of the aforementioned previous leadership meta-analysis studies target various countries and organizations, this study focuses on the leadership of the police, especially the South Korean police, and organizational effectiveness. In particular, this study is necessary because leadership meta-analysis studies of police organizations are rare. Third, this study can contribute to the accumulation of leadership knowledge in the context of contingency theory. According to contingency theory, no form of leadership is effective in all situations. Both the environment and organizational factors of leadership have a significant impact on the effectiveness of leadership. In this regard, it is very meaningful to meta-analyze the studies on leadership and organizational effectiveness of the Korean police and interpret the results in conjunction with the Korean national context and the characteristics of the police.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors conduct a meta-analysis of the studies on the leadership and organizational effectiveness of the South Korean police. To select the literature for the meta-analysis, the authors used the Preferred Items for Systematic Views and Meta-analysis procedure. First, 254 papers were searched, of which 133 were published in academic journals and 121 were dissertations. Second, 84 studies were selected, excluding 135 double-discovered studies, 30 studies unrelated to police leadership and 5 undisclosed studies. Finally, the authors checked the abstract and content of the literature. The authors evaluated the quality of the 36 studies that were selected through the above process. The authors estimate the sample size–weighted mean correlation by reflecting the sample size of each study in the converted Fisher's z-value. The final result is presented by reverting to the correlation coefficient for convenience of interpretation. Through this meta-analytic process, the authors estimated the mean effect size of whole leadership on the organizational effectiveness of the Korean police by integrating the effect size of each study.

Findings

The findings of this study have the following theoretical and practical implications. First, the results of this study indicate that the above trends in international leadership research have been applied to the Korean police as well and that the above trends in international leadership research have been applied equally to research into the South Korean police. The authors argue that more servant leadership studies are needed on the South Korean police. Second, the results of this study demonstrate that leadership is strongly correlated with organizational effectiveness among the South Korean police as well. Leadership is also found to be significantly positively related to attitude, behavior and satisfaction among the South Korean police. These results suggest that the leadership of police managers is very important for effective organizational management and improved police performance. Third, the results indicate significant differences in the effect sizes of each type of leadership. The largest effect size is the empowering leadership (EML), almost double the smallest effect size, authentic leadership. The results of the current study also indicate that transactional leadership (TSL) has a strong correlation with organizational effectiveness. Advanced research shows a significantly smaller effect than the magnitude of the effect size in this study. The authors examine the powerful effect of EML among the South Korean police from the perspective of organizational culture and the characteristics of the South Korean police. Influenced by social culture, the South Korean police also have hierarchical characteristics and a rigid organizational culture. In addition, although the police have strong discretion due to the nature of policing, individual police officers often have to take responsibility for the consequences of police discretion.

Research limitations/implications

The most significant limitation of the current study is the lack of research using meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of the study was conducted on the police leadership and organizational effectiveness of one country, Korea. This is both a strong and weak point of the study. The lack of effect size on other leadership styles except transformational leadership and TSL can make it difficult to generalize the study results. There are only four samples of effect size, so careful interpretation is needed. This is also the inherent limitation of meta-analysis. After sufficient research is accumulated, it is necessary to re-estimate the effect size in future studies. In this study, the authors found differences in the effect sizes on organizational effectiveness by leadership types among the South Korean police, but more research is needed to determine the cause of the difference. In addition, this meta-analysis has a very high level of heterogeneity. This implies the possibility of various moderators, but the current study does not consider moderators. The authors recommend a continuous study on moderators that play a role in the relationship between police leadership and leadership outcomes.

Practical implications

In this study, the authors found differences in the effect sizes on organizational effectiveness by leadership types among the South Korean police, but more research is needed to determine the cause of the difference. In addition, this meta-analysis has a very high level of heterogeneity. This implies the possibility of various moderators, but the current study does not consider moderators. The authors recommend a continuous study on moderators that play a role in the relationship between police leadership and leadership outcomes.

Social implications

The authors’ empirical evidence once again supports the claim of leadership contingency theory that leadership is the result of the interaction of factors such as followers, leaders and organizational environments. It is difficult to conclude that the most effective leadership style among the South Korean police is EML. However, the authors’ findings can raise reasonable questions about generalized leadership effects and serve as evidence that the effects of leadership can vary across national and organizational contexts. Nevertheless, the authors can ask reasonable questions about the existence of generalized leadership effects. Furthermore, the authors’ findings can serve as evidence that the effectiveness of leadership can vary depending on cultural and organizational contexts.

Originality/value

Numerous studies have been conducted on leadership and organizational effectiveness. However, meta-analysis studies on the relationship between leadership and organizational effectiveness focusing on certain national police forces have been limited. In this regard, the current study conducted a meta-analysis on the correlation between leadership and organizational effectiveness for South Korean police. While existing leadership meta-analytic research has focused on the relationship between specific types of leadership and organizational correlates, this study is a comprehensive and systematic meta-study of overall leadership types and organizational effectiveness. While most of the aforementioned previous leadership meta-analysis studies target various countries and organizations, this study focuses on the leadership of the police, especially the South Korean police, and organizational effectiveness. Previous research studies on the leadership of the Korean police have not properly considered national and cultural contexts. Most of them have the same limitations, that is, they applied each leadership theories that were developed in foreign countries (especially transformative leadership and transactional leadership) to the Korean police to explain whether each leadership type has a significant relationship with organizational effectiveness. The meta-analysis of this study can contribute to existing literature by overcoming this limitation. In addition, if the authors’ results match the cultural and historical characteristics of Korean police, they can provide evidence of the potential for effective police leadership in each country. The authors can also argue that meta-analysis of police leadership in other countries is necessary.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2021

Mona Jami Pour, Javad Mesrabadi and Mohammad Asarian

Reviewing the existing literature in the field of e-learning success reveals a considerable number of studies that primarily investigate the causal relationships proposed…

Abstract

Purpose

Reviewing the existing literature in the field of e-learning success reveals a considerable number of studies that primarily investigate the causal relationships proposed by the DeLone and McLean (D&M) information system (IS) success model. However, the various relationships in the D&M model have found different levels of support or even contradictory results within the empirical literature. To synthesize the existing knowledge in the field of e-learning success, the authors have conducted a meta-analysis of e-learning success studies using D&M to combine the quantitative results and validate the model in this field. Furthermore, a moderator analysis involving user types was performed to examine the situation under which they may have different effects.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, through a systematic review of the studies, 44 independent studies were selected from 29 qualified related journals. In order to analyze the quantitative results of the studies, the meta-analysis of the effect sizes of the casual relationships in the D&M model has been used.

Findings

The findings indicated that all relationships of the model were supported. It was also revealed that the extent of effect sizes of the examined relationships depends on the type of user. Except for one relationship (user satisfaction and net benefit), all effect sizes of employees were more than those of students and teachers.

Research limitations/implications

This meta-analysis reviewed the relationships found in the literature on D&M constructs in e-learning contexts. This study better explains the e-learning success factors by consolidating contradictory findings in the past researches and contributes to the existing e-learning success literature. The findings can assist educational institutions and organizations in decision-making because the findings resulting from the meta-analysis are more consistent than previous primary researches.

Originality/value

Despite the widespread use of the D&M model in the field of e-learning success, no study has yet consolidated the quantitative findings of these studies and the current field abounds in some controversies and inconsistent findings. This paper integrates the results of empirical studies that examined the relationships within the D&M model. The main contribution of this paper, which is the first of its kind, is to apply meta-analysis to reconcile the conflicting findings, investigate the strengths of the relationships in the D&M model and provide a consolidated view.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2020

Baleigh Qassem Al-Wasy

This paper aims to highlight a research on integrating technology into teaching and learning of second/foreign language writing.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight a research on integrating technology into teaching and learning of second/foreign language writing.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 18 empirical studies, involving a total of 1,281 second and foreign language learners, have been reviewed. These studies are selected from the following two databases: Web of Science and Google Scholar. The meta-analysis investigates how effect sizes vary depending on these moderators as follows: stage of writing, language context, learners’ educational level and language proficiency level.

Findings

The findings of this meta-analysis have indicated that technology has a large effect on second/foreign language writing (d = 1.7217). These findings have also revealed that the two stages of writing, drafting and editing, have received most of the researchers’ concern. In addition, high school and university learners have achieved a larger effect size of using technology in writing learning; beginner learners have achieved the smallest effect size.

Originality/value

To sum, the previous meta-analyses and reviews tried to explore the effect of computer on writing skills. However, some of them were limited to special groups (Williams and Beam, 2019) and some others analyzed very few studies (Little et al., 2018). Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the effect of implementing technology in writing skills is needed. The purpose of this study is to perform a meta-analysis of the primary studies about the integration of technology into writing skills. The primary goals of this meta-analysis were to: examine the overall effects of implementing technology in writing; synthesize the relationship between technology and a number of moderators such as stages of writing, language context, learners’ target language proficiency and learners’ educational level (school and university).

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 33000