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Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2010

Hemantha S.B. Herath, Wayne G. Bremser and Jacob G. Birnberg

The balanced scorecard (BSC) allows firms to place importance on both financial and nonfinancial performance measures in four perspectives for developing and implementing…

Abstract

The balanced scorecard (BSC) allows firms to place importance on both financial and nonfinancial performance measures in four perspectives for developing and implementing corporate strategy and performance evaluation. The BSC literature however provides minimal insight on how to set targets, how to weigh measures when evaluating managers and the firm, and how to resolve conflicts that arise in the BSC process. Researchers have attempted to fill these gaps using two contending approaches. In particular, Datar et al. (2001) uses an agency model to select the optimal set of weights and more recently Herath et al. (2009) develop a mathematical programming–based collaborative decision model to find the optimal (or approximately optimal) set of target and weights considering inputs from two parties. In this article, we apply the Herath et al. (2009) model to a detailed BSC example. We demonstrate how the collaborative BSC model can be implemented in Microsoft Excel by practitioners to minimize BSC conflicts. Finally, we discuss how the model facilitates alignment and a culture of open reporting (information sharing) around the BSC that is necessary for its effective implementation.

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Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-755-4

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Abstract

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Prioritization of Failure Modes in Manufacturing Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-142-4

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Orçun Avcı and Zeynep Demirci

The favorable results of fiscal/tax policies implemented in a country depend on the accuracy of the declarations and the full timely payment of taxes. Tax auditing is the…

Abstract

The favorable results of fiscal/tax policies implemented in a country depend on the accuracy of the declarations and the full timely payment of taxes. Tax auditing is the administrative function that ensures the accuracy of the taxes to be paid. From a global perspective, tax auditing is very important in all countries. Each country wishes to bring its own tax audit structure to an optimal level. Along with the audit, the tax function of the taxpayers and the investigations carried out on the books and documents related to these transactions, as well as, the exploratory function aimed at finding out and correcting errors, frauds and deficiencies, and preventing the occurrence of errors and frauds are in question. Ensuring the effectiveness of tax auditing will result in effective tax administration. Any increase in total tax revenues whilst keeping the expenses made for taxation at a certain level will increase the efficiency of tax administration. The tax audit, which is mandatory for the realization of the intended purpose, will also contribute to the tax compliance of taxpayers. Voluntary compliance of taxpayers who think that they will be audited in certain periods will be strengthened. All this can be achieved through an effective audit system. The aim of this study is to provide an assessment of the tax audit, highlighting its need and the things to be done in order to ensure the effectiveness and the advantages of the tax audit.

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Colin Williams and Gamze Oz-Yalaman

The dominant theorisation of the informal economy views participants as rational economic actors operating in the informal economy when the expected benefits exceed the…

Abstract

Purpose

The dominant theorisation of the informal economy views participants as rational economic actors operating in the informal economy when the expected benefits exceed the perceived costs of being caught and punished. Recently, an alternative theory has emerged which views participants as social actors operating in the informal economy due to their lack of vertical trust (in governments) and horizontal trust (in others). The aim of this paper is to evaluate these competing theorisations.

Design/methodology/approach

To do so, data are reported from special Eurobarometer surveys conducted in 2007, 2013 and 2019 in eight West European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom).

Findings

Using probit regression analysis, the finding is that increasing the expected likelihood of being caught and level of punishment had a weak significant impact on the likelihood of participating in the informal economy in 2007, and there was no significant impact in 2013 and 2019. However, greater vertical and horizontal trust is significantly associated with a lower level of participation in the informal economy in all three time periods.

Practical implications

The outcome is a call for a policy to shift away from increasing the expected level of punishment and likelihood of being caught, and towards improving vertical and horizontal trust. How this can be achieved is explored.

Originality/value

Evidence is provided in a Western European context to support a shift away from a rational economic actor to a social actor approach when explaining and tackling the informal economy.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Thomas Jason Boulton and Terry D. Nixon

The authors study the shareholder wealth effects of the adoption and subsequent litigation confirming the validity of shareholder right plans that are enacted to protect a…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors study the shareholder wealth effects of the adoption and subsequent litigation confirming the validity of shareholder right plans that are enacted to protect a firm’s net operating loss (NOL) carry forwards (tax benefit preservation plans (TBPPs)). The purpose of this paper is to expand the understanding of nontraditional shareholder rights plans, which are becoming increasingly more common.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper considers abnormal returns around TBPP adoptions and Delaware Court rulings that validated their use. The authors study 118 plans adopted between 1998 and 2011. Abnormal returns are measured using both a market model and a performance-matched sample.

Findings

The authors find that abnormal returns are negative at the announcement of a new TBPP. However, the full impact of plan adoption on share prices is not evident until the Delaware Courts validated their use. The Delaware Court rulings in the case of Selectica, Inc. v. Versata Enterprises, Inc. and Trilogy, Inc. are associated with additional negative wealth effects for both prior plan adopters and the firms most likely to consider adopting a plan. These results suggest that entrenchment concerns tend to outweigh the protection of NOL carry forwards when firms adopt TBPPs.

Originality/value

This study was the first to consider the adoption of TBPPs. Currently, it is the only study that considers Delaware Court rulings related to these plans, which allows us to successfully disentangle the entrenchment hypothesis from the potential alternative hypothesis that the negative announcement period returns are driven by investors updating their expectations for firm performance.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Tao Zeng

– The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of using derivative financial instruments, tax aggressiveness and firm market value.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of using derivative financial instruments, tax aggressiveness and firm market value.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops analytical models and designs an empirical study.

Findings

Using data from large Canadian public companies, this paper finds that a firm’s realized losses or unrealized gains from using derivatives are negatively associated with its effective tax rate, and a firm’s realized losses or unrealized gains from using derivatives are positively associated with its market value.

Research limitations/implications

This study simplifies the analytical model by separating the firm’s intrinsic market value from the tax-timing option value. In a more general framework, the tax-timing option value could be subsumed in the firm’s market value, and the firm’s market value would be determined endogenously.

Originality/value

This study develops a framework to show how firms exploit the tax-timing option by using derivatives. It is the first study to conclude that a motive for firms to use derivatives is to exploit the tax-timing option.

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Lara Carminati

The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical and broad perspective on how transnational companies (TNCs) behave in the global context, focussing its attention on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical and broad perspective on how transnational companies (TNCs) behave in the global context, focussing its attention on the controversial issue of tax avoidance in the UK. It pursues this aim by taking into account not only economic globalisation, mobility of capital and tax havens but also ethics and corporate social responsibility.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper seeks to provide an interdisciplinary viewpoint drawing not only from well-established scholarly literature but also from real cases and evidence, such as the scandals involving corporate giants, such as Starbucks, Google and Amazon in the UK.

Findings

This paper highlights the fundamental interplay and mutual aid of ethics and international laws, underlining the increasing importance of corporate social responsibility principles in today’s business practices. However, it also emphasises the need of reinforcing these principles with either regional or universalistic legal approaches to tackle TNCs’ misconduct in the international arena.

Practical implications

This paper suggests that by establishing and enforcing international business laws, increasingly aligned with ethical principles, the gap between ethics and legislation can be consistently bridged. Hence, TNCs’ behaviour could be more efficiently controlled.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on modern economic globalisation by providing a comprehensive and integrative perspective on TNCs’ behaviour, accounting for the interplay of socio-ethical, legal and business principles.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Carol MacPhail, Riza Emekter and Benjamas Jirasakuldech

Bonus depreciation was enacted by the United States Congress and signed into law in 2002 largely in response to the economic malaise that engulfed the U.S. economy after…

Abstract

Bonus depreciation was enacted by the United States Congress and signed into law in 2002 largely in response to the economic malaise that engulfed the U.S. economy after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. We investigate whether bonus depreciation, a capital asset expensing allowance under the U.S. federal income tax code, impacts the level of business investment in property, plant, and equipment in the time periods that followed 9-11 in comparison to other earlier time periods. Based on the empirical evidence, the bonus depreciation policy has a positive effect on capital expenditures only in the period in which this policy was legislatively anticipated, specifically the period spanning the last quarter of 2001 and the first quarter of 2002. Otherwise, we find no significant increase in capital expenditures during the period that this special depreciation provision policy is initially in place from 2002 to 2005. Although bonus depreciation is re-enacted in response to the fiscal distress and recession that began in 2007, capital expenditures actually decline during the recovery era, a period following the post-2008 subprime mortgage crisis. Though Congress continues to temporarily re-enact bonus depreciation on an annual basis through December 31, 2014, there is no strong evidence that capital investment is positively impacted. Instead, the empirical results show that factors that positively affect the level of companies’ capital expenditures include capital intensity, cost of capital, amount of cash holdings, changes in sales and loans. Our empirical results invite the question of Congress’ intended goal in re-instating bonus depreciation for 2015 through 2019.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-524-5

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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2017

Mohammad Nurunnabi

This study investigates the tax evasion practices in a lower-middle income economy in South Asia, with specific reference to Bangladesh (which is the only economy within…

Abstract

This study investigates the tax evasion practices in a lower-middle income economy in South Asia, with specific reference to Bangladesh (which is the only economy within South Asia that had consistent 6% and above gross domestic product (GDP) growth from 2011 to 2013). This study adopted mixed methodology (documentary analyses and a focus group interviews with 20 participants) to reach the overall objective of the research. Using Hofstede et al.’s (2010) cultural theory, the contribution of the study is that the cultural dimension itself cannot correspond to the causes of tax evasion, the other institutional factors (e.g., political connectedness in both private and public sectors, multinational companies (MNC)’s role and corruption, and a lack of public sector accountability and enforcement) are needed to complement the causes of tax evasion. The second major contribution is that Hofstede’s last two dimensions (i.e., short-term and restraint society) can correspond to the preliminary four dimensions (i.e., uncertainty avoidance (UA), masculinity, power distance (PD), and individualism). A restraint society such as Bangladesh is short-term oriented and has established corruption norms and secretive culture. There is also a perception by corporate business that the tax system as unfair and this has major consequences for the poor and the level of trust between the tax authorities and the taxpayers. This study also questions Hofstede’s model application in other developing economies with military and democracy political regimes. The major policy implications include Income Tax Ordinance, the reform of tax administration and enforcement. The novelty of this study rests in the fact that the findings may well inform local and international policymakers (e.g., World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Asian Development Bank (ADB)) regarding how to tackle tax evasion practices in lower-middle income economies like Bangladesh. Further, it fills a gap in the literature exploring tax evasion in a lower-middle income economy – in this case, Bangladesh.

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2020

Alex A.T. Rathke, Amaury José Rezende and Christoph Watrin

This study investigates the impact of different transfer pricing rules on tax-induced profit shifting. Existing studies create different enforcement rankings of countries…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the impact of different transfer pricing rules on tax-induced profit shifting. Existing studies create different enforcement rankings of countries based on specific transfer pricing provisions on the assumption that larger penalties and more extensive information requirements imply higher tax enforcement. This assumption carries limitations related to the impact of transfer pricing rules in different countries and to the interaction of different tax rules. Instead, the authors propose a nonordered segregation of groups of countries with different transfer pricing rules, and they empirically investigate the impact of these transfer pricing rules on the profit-shifting behavior of firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply the hierarchical clustering method to analyze 57 observable quantitative and qualitative characteristics of transfer pricing rules of each country. This approach allows the creation of groups of countries based on a comprehensive set of regulatory characteristics, to investigate evidence of profit shifting for each of these separate groups. Profit-shifting behavior is measured by the variation in the volume of import and export transactions between local firms and related parties located in other countries.

Findings

The results indicate that firms have a higher volume of intrafirm transactions with related parties located in countries with a lower tax rate. This result is consistent with the profit-shifting hypothesis. Moreover, the results show that relevant differences in transfer pricing rules across countries produce different effects on the volume of intrafirm transactions. The authors observe that the existence of domestic transfer pricing rules that override the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines may inhibit profit shifting. In addition, the results suggest that the OECD guidelines may facilitate profit shifting. Overall, it is observed that some transfer pricing rules may be more effective than others in curbing profit shifting and that firms are still able to manipulate transfer prices under some tax rules.

Research limitations/implications

(1) The authors focus on the Brazilian context, which provides a suitable set of profit-shifting incentives for the analysis, since it combines an extreme corporate tax rate, a highly complex tax system, and a unique set of transfer pricing rules. (2) Profit-shifting behavior is captured by the volume of intrafirm transactions. The authors would prefer to observe the transfer price directly; however, this information is not disclosed by firms, for it may represent a limitation to the investigation. Nonetheless, theory shows that the profit-shifting behavior is reflected by the manipulation of both transfer prices and intra-firm outputs.

Practical implications

The authors find that the volume of intrafirm transactions may decrease or increase, depending on the transfer pricing system of the foreign country (including the tax-differential effect). It suggests that some transfer pricing rules are more effective than others in curtailing the profit-shifting behavior and that firms are still able to find vulnerabilities in current rules and take advantage of them in deploying a profit-shifting strategy.

Social implications

Results provide knowledge about how key differences on transfer pricing rules across countries influence the profit-shifting behavior. The results of the study may have valuable application in solving regulatory mismatches, to eliminate blind spots in transfer pricing rules and thus to contribute to the current review of OECD guidelines and to the global tax reset movement.

Originality/value

Recent studies suggest that if tax-avoidance incentives are somewhat weak, it becomes difficult to observe the shifting behavior of firms. The puzzle is to check whether profit shifting is nonexistent under weak incentives or whether this is a matter of methodological limitations. The authors’ analysis is applied to a complex tax background with strong profit-shifting incentives; thus, it allows the authors to obtain robust evidences of the shifting behavior and the effect of different transfer pricing rules.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

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