Search results

1 – 10 of 44
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Holger Lausen, Ying Ding, Michael Stollberg, Dieter Fensel, Rubén Lara Hernández and Sung‐Kook Han

To present the state of the arts application of semantic web technologies in web portals and corresponding achievable improvements for identifying the potential

3542

Abstract

Purpose

To present the state of the arts application of semantic web technologies in web portals and corresponding achievable improvements for identifying the potential improvement made by semantic web technology.

Design/methodology/approach

An evaluation scheme is proposed to investigate various web portals that make use of semantic web technologies in order to identify their strengths and weaknesses. This scheme consists of three layers: information access, information processing and grounding technologies. Two academic portals and two commercial portals are selected based on the definition of semantic web portal. Detailed evaluation based on the proposed scheme is conducted on these four select portals.

Findings

Semantic web technologies can definitely increase the information consistency and the information processing quality of web portals by using ontologies to model portal structure and consensus knowledge. Furthermore, semantic web services will be acting as the key technologies to lift current portals to next level.

Originality/value

This paper proposes an elaborated evaluation method for investigating various portals. It reveals the current status of semantic web applications in web portals.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Prioritization of Failure Modes in Manufacturing Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-142-4

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2022

Mohammad Nazim Uddin

Shari’ah compliance has been a subject of debate to academics, Islamic scholars and practitioners since its inception in 1983. Besides a wide range of publications in…

Abstract

Purpose

Shari’ah compliance has been a subject of debate to academics, Islamic scholars and practitioners since its inception in 1983. Besides a wide range of publications in Shari’ah compliance, only a few studies have examined Shari’ah-compliant risks especially among the Islamic banks. This paper aims to investigate the factors of Shari’ah-compliant risks in Shari’ah compliance under the Shirkah-ul-milk (hire purchase) in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigation of Shari’ah compliant risks from both bankers and clients were gained via a structured questionnaire to acquire a better understanding of Islamic banking practices in Bangladesh. In analyzing the data, two empirical tests were used to draw inferences on Shari’ah-compliant risks–Shari’ah compliance relationship: the measurement model, a diagnostic test, was used to justify the reliability and validity of constructs, and the partial least squares structural equation modeling was applied to examine the hypotheses on the existent links between Shari’ah-compliant risks and Shari’ah compliance under Shirkahul-milk.

Findings

Unlike previous studies, the empirical evidence provides the pertinent attributes of Shari’ah-compliant risks, which are more significant in avoidance of the compliance of Shari’ah laws in banking operations. Such Shari’ah-compliant risks are significantly raised by various comprehensive, operational, environmental and distributional risks in banking that have failed to address fairness, justice and economic well-being at the transactional level.

Originality/value

A new empirical evidence focusing on the propagation of Shari’ah-compliant risks is preferred for effective Shari’ah compliance in operations as being an original structure of Islamic banks.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Debasish Nandy

Terrorism has historically been spawned by inequitable, unjust systems with inadequate democratic options to articulate popular aspirations and ensure conflict resolution…

Abstract

Terrorism has historically been spawned by inequitable, unjust systems with inadequate democratic options to articulate popular aspirations and ensure conflict resolution. The event of September 11, 2001 changed it all when terrorism hit the center of the increasingly globalized post-Cold War international system. The 9/11 incident has played as the role of a catalyst in initiating joint governmental policies to combat international terrorism both in India and the USA. After the incident, the former US President, George W. Bush, announced to the world community to fight against international terrorism collectively on the basis of a zero-tolerance policy. India has been the victim of cross-border terrorism promoted by Pakistan for a long time. India is the world’s largest democracy and one of its fastest-growing economics. Due to the recurrence of terrorist attacks, its security system and its socioeconomic structure have had to face tremendous pressure. Just after the 9/11 incident (attack on WTC) world’s largest (India) and oldest (USA) democracies have come closer to jointly fight against international terrorism. Both al-Qaida and the Taliban were the common enemies for Washington and New Delhi. At the governmental level, a number of policies and working groups have been organized by the two countries in order to diminish global terrorism. This chapter intends to explore the effects of joint governmental policies by India and the USA for combating international terrorism.

Details

The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2022

Emre Kuvvet

The purpose of this study is to examine whether foreign firms pay disproportionately higher monetary penalties after controlling for factors that affect the sanctioning of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine whether foreign firms pay disproportionately higher monetary penalties after controlling for factors that affect the sanctioning of the firm.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a cross-sectional data analysis has been used to examine the enforcement actions of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) against all private and public companies from 1978 to 2019.

Findings

The findings indicate that that foreign firms pay disproportionately higher monetary penalties than domestic firms after controlling for factors that affect the sanctioning of firms. On average, foreign firms pay $43.3m more to the US government than US firms pay. This is a considerable difference in monetary penalties and equal to 68.95% of the average monetary penalty.

Originality/value

This paper shows that the US government treats US firms more favorably than foreign firms in monetary sanctions. Because the FCPA is not applied equally, this is contrary to US government guidelines and to the rule of law. The government needs to reconsider the consequences of imposing disproportionately higher penalties on foreign firms. Given the lack of judicial scrutiny of the FCPA settlement amounts against foreign firms, prosecutorial harshness against them can be remedied by amending the FCPA to eliminate the unequal treatment of foreign entities.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Bappaditya Biswas and Ashish Kumar Sana

Terrorism finance (TF) has been aptly termed as the lifeblood of terrorism. TF provides funds for terrorist activities. Terrorists mobilize funds by using the formal…

Abstract

Terrorism finance (TF) has been aptly termed as the lifeblood of terrorism. TF provides funds for terrorist activities. Terrorists mobilize funds by using the formal banking system, informal value-transfer systems, hawalas, Hundis, and the oldest method of asset transfer. They may raise funds from legitimate sources, such as personal donations and profits from businesses and charitable organizations, as well as from criminal sources, like the drug trade, the smuggling of weapons and other goods, fraud, kidnapping, and extortion. Countering the financing of terrorism is a far greater challenge throughout the world. The objectives of the chapter are as follows: (1) to identify the different sources of terrorism financing, (2) to analyze various ways of moving terrorism funds globally, and (3) to examine the initiatives taken to counter terrorism financing.

Details

The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Nidhi Chowdhary and Sourav Kumar Das

The threat of terrorism is not just limited to a particular nation, rather it has affected the economies of several developed and developing nations. In this study, we…

Abstract

The threat of terrorism is not just limited to a particular nation, rather it has affected the economies of several developed and developing nations. In this study, we have tried to analyze how terrorism has been sought to be tackled and how it can be tackled. In this context, we present the extent to which the method adopted by the USA after the 9/11 attacks, which is popularly called the Global War on Terror (GWOT), has been successful in eliminating terrorism from the world. Only qualitative methodology has been used in this chapter, and most of it has been derived from secondary sources. Through this study, we seek to show that the successes of GWOT have been limited in nature, in spite of tall claims. In fact, what the US has achieved by GWOT in the name of success is the killing of the leaders of some terrorist organizations, successful disruption of their sanctuaries, passing several legislations in order to launch counterterrorism operations, and the freezing the finances of these terrorist organizations by banning some of their charity-based organizations. This chapter lists the gains obtained as a result of GWOT and also highlights what may be called the failures of this global endeavor. Such a proposition aims at showing why GWOT is not only but possibly the best solution to eradicate terrorism. The unexpected outcomes, however, have been many, not only for terrorism but also for international politics, thereby impacting international organizations and also the third-world nations.

Details

The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2021

Abdul Rashid, Farooq Ahmad, Sarir Ud Din and Shar Zaman

This paper aims to explore the impact of corruption (CP) on income inequality (IN) by considering the size of informal sector (IFS) at different levels of percentiles.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the impact of corruption (CP) on income inequality (IN) by considering the size of informal sector (IFS) at different levels of percentiles.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a panel quantile regression approach for a sample of 50 developing countries. The study also applies panel co-integration (Kao residual co-integration test) in order to examine the long-run relationship between CP and IN.

Findings

This paper using a panel quantile regression approach shows that the high incidence of IFS in an economy marginalizes CP's positive effect because it works as a source of poor peoples' livelihood and skillful individuals. The spread of IFSs in the developing economies may raise earnings among groups and individuals who remain unemployed. Moreover, the results show that CP creates asymmetry in income distribution; fascinatingly, the asymmetric income distribution is high when CP is at higher percentiles.

Research limitations/implications

Due to non-availability of IFS, we restrict our analysis up to 50 developing countries.

Practical implications

CP devastates the effectiveness of institutions over time. Therefore, the government should have to take bold steps to reduce CP in society. Another policy implication of this study is that the government should reduce CP to decrease IN in less developing countries. Moreover, to increase the net base, the authorities need to bring IFS under the umbrella of regulation to avoid inequality in society. In developing economies, a higher part of labor force is related to IFS; therefore, our findings suggest a dire need to reduce labor exploitation in IFS. The policymakers can reduce labor exploitation by reducing the size of IFS, which ultimately reduces IN.

Social implications

On the basis of the authors’ findings, this paper further suggests that it is mandatory for government to reduce CP in order to reduce IN. Moreover, to reduce IN, one needs to reduce the size of IFS.

Originality/value

This study is unique as it is the first that examined the role of IFS in establishing the effect of CP on IN for developing countries at different percentiles.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 September 2021

Maria Oliva

According to the INTERPOL definition, money laundering is: “any act or attempted act to conceal or disguise the identity of illegally obtained proceeds so that they appear…

Abstract

Purpose

According to the INTERPOL definition, money laundering is: “any act or attempted act to conceal or disguise the identity of illegally obtained proceeds so that they appear to have originated from legitimate sources”. Along this line, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the link amongst money laundering, mafia and food activities, in the Italian provinces.

Design/methodology/approach

By using annual data over the period 2010 to 2018, the author estimates balanced panel data using the instrumental variables approach. The analysis includes both fixed and random effects, as well as robustness checks.

Findings

The main findings of this paper reveal that, in most Italian provinces, money launderers are deterred by the probability of being identified. In particular, the deterrent action of police and investigative forces seems to be very effective. Moreover, the results of the empirical analysis show that mafia-type organisations and food activities are positively correlated with money laundering.

Originality/value

This paper aims to provide a specific study on the link between apparently legal activities (food and beverage) and money laundering; a link that has so far been analysed mainly on a theoretical level. Moreover, it provides several insights in terms of policy implications.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Gabriel Caldas Montes and Gabriel Oliveira Lins

Due to the high levels of crime in Rio de Janeiro, the purpose of this paper is twofold. The first one is to analyze the effects of deterrence variables (such as the…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the high levels of crime in Rio de Janeiro, the purpose of this paper is twofold. The first one is to analyze the effects of deterrence variables (such as the adoption of Pacifying Police Units (UPPs) and incarcerations) on violence in the municipalities of the State of Rio de Janeiro, as well as to verify the existence of “revenge effect.” The second is to analyze the effects of socio-economic development on violence, using development indicators.

Design/methodology/approach

Besides usual OLS method for panel data analysis, the study makes use of dynamic panel data framework through D-GMM and S-GMM. The estimates are based on a sample of 82 municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, and the period runs from 2003 to 2013. As dependent variables, the estimates use violent deaths (i.e. aggregation of intentional homicides and armed robberies followed by death) and homicides resulting from opposition to police intervention (i.e. civilians killed as a result of police actions against criminals – “opposition deaths”).

Findings

The estimates indicate that incarceration presents marginal capacity to reduce violence. Regarding the findings for the adoption of UPPs, the evidence suggests that this project increased violence and, therefore, the possibility of displacement of violence to other regions of the State. With respect to the effect of police deaths over violence, the results are unprecedented and suggest the existence of a “revenge effect.” Besides, the study points to the importance of socio-economic development to reduce violence.

Originality/value

Once the study analyzes the effects of incarceration and UPPs, it contributes to the literature by providing new evidence on the ability of anti-crime policies of reducing (or not) violence. In addition, when considering the death of policemen in the estimates, the study shows an unprecedented way, the effect that these deaths cause over violence (the so-called “revenge effect”). Moreover, the study considers the impacts of the development of employment and income, health and education on violence. When analyzing these development indicators, the study contributes with the literature that looks for non-police alternatives to control crime.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

1 – 10 of 44