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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2017

Mohammad Nurunnabi

This study investigates the tax evasion practices in a lower-middle income economy in South Asia, with specific reference to Bangladesh (which is the only economy within…

Abstract

This study investigates the tax evasion practices in a lower-middle income economy in South Asia, with specific reference to Bangladesh (which is the only economy within South Asia that had consistent 6% and above gross domestic product (GDP) growth from 2011 to 2013). This study adopted mixed methodology (documentary analyses and a focus group interviews with 20 participants) to reach the overall objective of the research. Using Hofstede et al.’s (2010) cultural theory, the contribution of the study is that the cultural dimension itself cannot correspond to the causes of tax evasion, the other institutional factors (e.g., political connectedness in both private and public sectors, multinational companies (MNC)’s role and corruption, and a lack of public sector accountability and enforcement) are needed to complement the causes of tax evasion. The second major contribution is that Hofstede’s last two dimensions (i.e., short-term and restraint society) can correspond to the preliminary four dimensions (i.e., uncertainty avoidance (UA), masculinity, power distance (PD), and individualism). A restraint society such as Bangladesh is short-term oriented and has established corruption norms and secretive culture. There is also a perception by corporate business that the tax system as unfair and this has major consequences for the poor and the level of trust between the tax authorities and the taxpayers. This study also questions Hofstede’s model application in other developing economies with military and democracy political regimes. The major policy implications include Income Tax Ordinance, the reform of tax administration and enforcement. The novelty of this study rests in the fact that the findings may well inform local and international policymakers (e.g., World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Asian Development Bank (ADB)) regarding how to tackle tax evasion practices in lower-middle income economies like Bangladesh. Further, it fills a gap in the literature exploring tax evasion in a lower-middle income economy – in this case, Bangladesh.

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2002

Dilip Kumar Sen and Swapan Kumar Bala

The present paper is a brief study on the modus operandi of the existing income tax audit in Bangladesh. This study centres around: meaning of tax audit; need for tax…

Abstract

The present paper is a brief study on the modus operandi of the existing income tax audit in Bangladesh. This study centres around: meaning of tax audit; need for tax audit; certain conceptual issues of tax audit; existing scenario of tax audit in Bangladesh, focusing on tax system, tax audit practice, tax audit ambit, tax auditor, tax audit report, existing extent of assessment under tax audit net; and then draws a concluding line with a few recommendations. The paper reflects that the present extent of tax audit practice of Bangladesh is extremely negligible. This paper’s policy prescriptions, if followed, will hopefully provide a great boost in expanding tax audit net, which is much needed for improvement of the internal resource mobilisation in the country.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 17 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Mohammad Nurunnabi

Tax evasion in developing countries is widespread. However, little attention has been paid to tax evasion in developing countries. This chapter addresses two research…

Abstract

Tax evasion in developing countries is widespread. However, little attention has been paid to tax evasion in developing countries. This chapter addresses two research questions: RQ1: What are the determinants of tax evasion of Bangladesh? and RQ2: How do the interests of state actors influence tax evasion? The study focused on a developing country with reference to Bangladesh. This is because Bangladesh exhibits one of the smallest tax to GDP ratios in the world. Using quantitative and qualitative interviews, this chapter sheds light on the impact of state actor(s) role on tax evasion over the period 1981–2014. The state actor(s) failed to institutionalize the norms due to political influence. Results provide evidence that lack of enforcement increases tax evasion. The chapter provides a theoretical framework to study determinants of tax evasion.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Robert Beale and Howard Davey

Since 1995, the financial reports of New Zealand entities have been legally required to disclose a measure of comprehensive income known as Total Recognised Revenues and…

Abstract

Since 1995, the financial reports of New Zealand entities have been legally required to disclose a measure of comprehensive income known as Total Recognised Revenues and Expenses (TRRE). Financial analysts and members of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand were surveyed between 1994 and 1996 to investigate their views on whether TRRE is useful for financial analysis, making economic decisions, and whether it is a useful addition to the financial reports. The findings provided a reasonable level of support for the view that TRRE is useful for financial analysis, such as assessing return on investment. However, there were strong reservations over whether it is useful to use TRRE as a basis for determining remuneration packages for top management, or for predicting cash flows. Overall, there was strong support for the view that TRRE provides information that assists with making economic decisions, and that it is a useful addition to the financial reports.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Noore Alam Siddiquee

Since 2009, e-government has been high on governmental agenda in Bangladesh. Seen as a vehicle for improving governance and service delivery, it is also presented as a key…

Abstract

Purpose

Since 2009, e-government has been high on governmental agenda in Bangladesh. Seen as a vehicle for improving governance and service delivery, it is also presented as a key to fighting poverty and achieving the millennium development goals. Thus, the goals of e-government remain broad and ambitious. Can a developing country such as Bangladesh realize its e-government vision? The purpose of this paper is to explore this and other related questions seeking to draw lessons that the Bangladesh experience may offer.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws primarily on secondary information, complemented by primary data gathered from various sources. In addition to an extensive review of secondary sources, necessary information was derived from websites of relevant government departments/agencies and through interviews and conversations with selected government officials having intimate knowledge on e-government projects at the field and local levels.

Findings

The paper demonstrates the ways in which various e-initiatives have transformed traditional administrative systems and practices, notwithstanding the nation’s limited overall e-development. It also shows how e-innovations have helped tackle some complex challenges, thereby adding to convenience and benefits to service users. A major conclusion of the paper is that although e-government is yet to make a breakthrough in governance and service delivery, it has set the wheels of change in motion.

Practical implications

E-government must be seen as a long term project, it must attract high-level political support and it requires fruitful collaboration between the public, private and non-governmental actors.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the limited knowledge in the field. Lessons learned from the Bangladesh experience have much relevance to other developing countries with similar socioeconomic circumstances. The policymakers and practitioners are expected to benefit from the insights of the paper.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

S.M. Solaiman

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that granting general amnesty to thousands of black-money holders in Bangladesh has failed to make any positive impact on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that granting general amnesty to thousands of black-money holders in Bangladesh has failed to make any positive impact on the development of its securities market. Rather, such a move or mercy by the successive governments over the years has basically increased corruption in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

The article relies on both primary and secondary materials. An archival analysis of the materials has been carried out in this research.

Findings

The major findings are that whitening black money is legally flawed, morally indefensible and economically unsound; the ultimate outcome of the whitening opportunity appears to be the protection of corruption, the prevention of which is imperative for the sustainable development of the national economy of Bangladesh; and no credible evidence has been found to support the underlying assumption that this immunity offered over the past four decades has benefited the economy.

Originality/value

Its originality is evident in the analysis of the materials in a cohesive way to prove a hypothesis that the immunity granted to the black-money holders has been a flawed initiative of the successive governments of Bangladesh to increase investment.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Book part
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Abstract

Details

Corruption in the Public Sector: An International Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-643-3

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2020

Mahmud Al Masum and Lee D. Parker

While the world-wide adoption of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) aims to eliminate differences in national accounting standards between countries, the…

Abstract

Purpose

While the world-wide adoption of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) aims to eliminate differences in national accounting standards between countries, the socio-political institutions surrounding financial reporting practices remain localised. This paper aims to penetrate and reveal the manner in which local national context, stakeholder intentions and financial reporting practices can moderate the compliance with IFRS in a developing country.

Design/methodology/approach

An interview-based qualitative research framework was used to analyse the experience and attitudes of accountants, auditors and financial reporting regulators during a passage of accounting reform initiatives.

Findings

This paper provides a critical analysis of the financial reporting practices of a developing country that has ostensibly implemented accounting reforms prescribed by the World Bank. It has revealed the key firm- and field-level logics that are experienced and managed by regulators and corporate managers in their approaches to financial reporting and accountability. The World Bank-led accounting reform can be constrained by a complex mix of institutional logics originating from market and corporate structures, networks of institutionalised family and political relationships, professional and regulatory structure and resourcing limitations and cultural business conventions. This paper provides evidence of firm- and field-level logics that contest and influence the emergence of a financial reporting oversight body and lead to highly variable compliance with international accounting standards.

Originality/value

This paper aims to extend our knowledge beyond broad national-level elements of institutional orders. It presents a more penetrating examination of the existence and contestation of logics originating from various local and global actors and interests. It presents a theoretical mapping of institutional logics, which operate in international and local settings and also encompass firm- and field-level imperatives. Any effort to understand and improve accounting practices of a developing country need to consider the power, contestation and influence of multiple logics operating in its institutional environment.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

S.M. Solaiman

The main purpose of this paper is to critically examine the impact of black money whitening opportunity on the Bangladesh housing market and its ramifications for honest…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to critically examine the impact of black money whitening opportunity on the Bangladesh housing market and its ramifications for honest taxpayers and criminal conduct of the people in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper relies on both primary and secondary materials and carries out an archival analysis of the resources available in libraries and online databases.

Findings

It demonstrates that black money whitening opportunity has failed to create additional demands for housing property, rather it encourages money laundering, corruption and other criminal activities. Hence, a set of specific recommendations have been submitted to effectively deal with the prevention of generation of black money instead of allowing them to be invested in properties with impunity.

Research limitations/implications

The discussions are concentrated on the legality of offering amnesty to black money holders and the impact of such indemnities on the housing market in Bangladesh; hence, it does not consider impacts on other economic sectors. It is expected that the publication of this paper will stimulate the government of Bangladesh to discontinue the disputed amnesty in Bangladesh, and other nations having similar problems with black money will be encouraged to follow suit.

Practical implications

It is anticipated that the implementation of the recommendations furnished in this paper will contribute to significantly decreasing money laundering, corruption and other offences involving money in Bangladesh and in other countries.

Social implications

Prevention of corruption and other financial crimes.

Originality/value

This paper represents its originality in its critical analysis of frequent offerings of the opportunity for whitening black money and their unfair impacts on honest taxpayers and resultant stimulation for engaging in money laundering, corruption and other felonies. It evidently justifies the assumption that such amnesties to wrongdoers are contrary to the national constitution, anti-corruption and anti-money laundering legislation and they wound the sense of ethical behaviour of human beings. Moreover, it proves the hypothesis that such opportunities being offered to black money holders have no positive contribution towards creating additional demands in the country’s property markets.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Book part
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Habib Zafarullah and Ahmed Shafiqul Huque

Corruption is ubiquitous, deeply rooted in Bangladesh’s socio-political fabric. Over the past two decades, the phenomenon has reached to an extent that it is now…

Abstract

Corruption is ubiquitous, deeply rooted in Bangladesh’s socio-political fabric. Over the past two decades, the phenomenon has reached to an extent that it is now inescapable and almost impossible to eradicate. Successive governments have tried several measures to combat corruption without much success. This chapter will probe into the nature and extent of corruption in Bangladesh from a wider perspective and consider some of the underlying historical, social, cultural, political, economic, and administrative reasons for the pervasive malfeasance in the public sector. It will evaluate the effectiveness of anti-corruption laws, and the strategies followed by institutions meant to fight corruption.

Details

Corruption in the Public Sector: An International Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-643-3

Keywords

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