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Tax compliance involves complying with the tax rules and regulation, which encompasses the filing, reporting and payment of tax. The two aspects of tax non-compliance are…
Tax compliance involves complying with the tax rules and regulation, which encompasses the filing, reporting and payment of tax. The two aspects of tax non-compliance are tax evasion and tax avoidance. While the ethicality of tax evasion as an illegal act of reducing tax is clear, the consensus regarding the morality of tax avoidance as a legal act of minimizing tax is mixed. This chapter will discuss the ethical perspective of tax (non)compliance.
We approach this topic by discussing the two important terms of tax non-compliance namely tax evasion and tax avoidance from the ethical point of view. The tax evasion and tax avoidance were critically evaluated to justify whether it is ethical or not. The tax non-compliance is also associated to the corporate governance which if do effectively help to protect the interest of larger stakeholder.
In a nutshell, tax non-compliance such as tax avoidance and tax evasion is unethical act and these acts of non-compliance go against the spirit of contemporary corporate governance which sought to protect the interest of the stakeholders.
Tax non-compliance could enhance shareholders wealth (in terms of reduced tax); it affects the distribution of wealth (public benefits financed by tax revenues) among the society at large as another stakeholder affected by such act. Future research may be conduct to investigate this to the larger sample.
Firms should avoid engaging in non-compliance activities such as engaging in tax evasion and aggressive tax avoidance as part of its social obligation to the society in line with the spirit espoused in the contemporary corporate governance.
This paper argues that tax non-compliance is unethical and highlights the importance of having efficient corporate governance for larger stakeholder’s interest.
This study offers a Bourdieu-oriented analysis of the tax compliance practice for indigenous entrepreneurs in New Zealand. It examines the intersection of accounting and…
This study offers a Bourdieu-oriented analysis of the tax compliance practice for indigenous entrepreneurs in New Zealand. It examines the intersection of accounting and tax for Māori entrepreneurs and their relational interactions with the Inland Revenue Department (IRD)/state/Crown and accountants by considering the contextual factors of history, culture and society of Māori.
Qualitative research was adopted using face-to-face in-depth interviews with 34 participants and reviewing government documents. The authors analyse the tax compliance practice by drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital and habitus to conceptualise the tax field as a site of struggle for power and control by the IRD, accountants and indigenous entrepreneurs.
This study demonstrates how the tax field is structured as a game between tax reporting, taxpaying and monitoring functions. The position within the field is determined by the actor's access to the relevant capitals and habitus. It identifies how accounting, given its centrality to tax compliance, facilitates the power relations between the IRD, accountants and Māori entrepreneurs. The Eurocentric accounting-based tax reporting and the contextual factors illuminate how indigenous entrepreneurs are being dominated in the tax field. They experienced cultural dissonance with conflicting responsibilities when traversing the collectivistic indigenous and tax fields. Their collectivism involves sharing resources as they cherish whanaungatanga (relationship, kinship) and manaakitanga (kindness, generosity), which are at odds and are not valued in the tax field.
It is an empirical illustration of the connection between accounting, tax and power for indigenous taxpayers and their relationship with the IRD/Crown and accountants. It has practical implications for developing and enhancing tax compliance in jurisdictions with indigenous taxpayers. Such an understanding is helpful for policymakers, government, business agencies and the accounting professions when assisting, empowering and educating indigenous groups regarding tax compliance.
This paper responds to the call for accounting research with modern-day indigenous peoples rather than historical ones. The paper fills a gap in the accounting and tax literature by examining the tax compliance practice of indigenous small and medium enterprise (SME) entrepreneurs using Bourdieu's framework. It identifies how the role of accounting creates, maintains and reinforces power structures in the tax field. Tax/accounting reporting based on Eurocentric rules disempowers and alienates indigenous entrepreneurs. They misrecognise their actions in reproducing the existing power structures in the tax field due to deeply held historical and cultural factors about the fear of the Crown/state and their practice of rangitaratanga (esteeming authorities).
Virtually all of the completed research to date shows that taxpayer compliance costs are large and generally a multiple of the revenue authority’s administrative costs…
Virtually all of the completed research to date shows that taxpayer compliance costs are large and generally a multiple of the revenue authority’s administrative costs. Compliance costs have also been found to be capricious in their incidence and generally highly regressive. On the other hand, for some taxes (eg. Employer PAYE deductions), much of the research shows that larger firms derive a net economic benefit from enhanced cash flows. There is also perceived to be a fair correlation between high compliance costs and high non‐compliance. These findings and perceptions have led to government pressure in most developed countries to reduce compliance costs. This paper explores the likely impact of compliance costs in the UK as income tax self‐assessment is introduced, leaning on evidence from Australia, where self‐assessment is the standard.
This chapter investigates the effects of the corporate sector on the effectiveness of selected tax compliance instruments in the context of large corporate taxpayers…
This chapter investigates the effects of the corporate sector on the effectiveness of selected tax compliance instruments in the context of large corporate taxpayers belonging to the finance, manufacturing, and service sectors. Applying multilevel logit models based on real tax office and survey data from Bangladesh, it is found that the filing compliance of large corporate taxpayers is influenced by penalty, tax audit, and taxpayer services, while reporting compliance is influenced by tax audit, criminal prosecution, and tax simplification. In the case of payment compliance, two coercive instruments – penalty and tax audit – have been found to be statistically significant. However, when sector characteristics are considered, the extent of the influence of these instruments, and, in some cases, their statistical significance changes. This suggests that the effectiveness of tax compliance instruments, among other things, largely depends on the sector affiliation of corporate taxpayers. Overall, this study establishes that corporate sector plays an important role in the effectiveness of tax compliance instruments, with the caveat that findings might be different if working definitions of the study variables were measured differently.
This brief paper discusses the relevance of conducting surveys that measure individuals’ attitudes for understanding fiscal behaviour. While many surveys assess…
This brief paper discusses the relevance of conducting surveys that measure individuals’ attitudes for understanding fiscal behaviour. While many surveys assess individuals’ attitudes towards paying taxes (e.g. by asking them to what extent they believe tax evasion is ever justified), it is less clear whether individuals’ responses to such survey questions are indicative of the way they would behave in reality. The paper presents a discussion of the way attitudes have been assessed in tax surveys and assesses existing evidence to support a link between these attitude measures and actual compliance behaviour. The paper suggests several avenues to improve the predictive value of attitude measures, such as increasing the specificity of measures, using evaluation scales or mitigating social desirability biases. A series of recommendations are made for measuring attitudes and interpreting attitude surveys for the use of researchers planning to conduct survey work, as well as for the use of findings from taxpayer surveys in the design of tax policy and administration.
This study examines the determinants of enforced tax compliance behavior of Malaysian citizens where trust in tax authorities is assumed to be a mediator. Quota sampling…
This study examines the determinants of enforced tax compliance behavior of Malaysian citizens where trust in tax authorities is assumed to be a mediator. Quota sampling method was used to select a sample of 340 participants to participate in a survey. A two-step structural equation modeling (SEM) process was adopted to test a framework comprising 13 hypotheses. Model fit was initially measured using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) while model specification was applied in the second stage to test the structural relationship. The mediating effects of trust in tax authorities were tested via Baron and Kenny (1986) approach, bootstrapping, and AMOS AxB estimand. The findings confirmed that trust in government, trust in tax administrator, power of Inland Revenue Board of Malaysia, and awareness influence enforced compliance. However, tax morale and tax amoral behaviors do not influence enforced compliance. The findings suggest that citizens would fulfill their tax responsibilities if they believe that tax authorities are effective in tax administration. Trust in government fosters trust in the tax authorities. This study contributes to existing literature by confirming the factors that affect enforced tax compliance.
This paper investigates how individuals determine their tax morale levels and tax compliance decisions. Using a questionnaire survey and a multivariate tests procedure…
This paper investigates how individuals determine their tax morale levels and tax compliance decisions. Using a questionnaire survey and a multivariate tests procedure, the paper revealed that tax evasion is morally acceptable in Jordan under some circumstances, indeed there could be an affirmative duty to evade taxes since the government is perceived to be highly corrupted. The findings also show that while the extent of the governmental corruption has a positive (negative) effect on tax non-compliance (tax morale), the efficient expenditure of governmental tax revenues has a negative (positive) impact on tax non-compliance (tax morale). The individuals’ tax non-compliance decisions are likewise positively affected by the tax rates and by the taxation system’s being perceived as unjust, but decline with the increase of audit rates and the subsequent penalty rates. The degree and effectiveness of these determinants are dependent on the individual’s level of risk aversion, financial constraints and the surrounding referent groups. The results also confirm that individual factors play a significant role in determining the level of tax morale. Overall, the tax morale level and the compliance decision of an individual are greatly influenced by gender, age, educational level, occupational status and religious background.
Most governments around the world rely heavily on tax revenue to fund not only their recurrent expenditure but also their long-term development goals. There is some…
Most governments around the world rely heavily on tax revenue to fund not only their recurrent expenditure but also their long-term development goals. There is some evidence suggesting that tax evasion in Vietnam has, over the years, been on the rise in terms of number, scale and degree of sophistication. It may thus be beneficial to understand the extent to which various relevant psychological factors interact to influence the tax compliance of Vietnamese taxpayers. This chapter attempts to quantify the effects of taxpayer's emotion, trust and perception on their tax compliance in Vietnam. It adopts a positivist research framework, a quantitative research method and primary data collection. First, a simple, theoretical model in which emotion and trust affect tax compliance both directly and indirectly through perception as a mediating variable, is constructed. The Baron−Kenny method is then applied to the data collected from an e-survey to test various hypotheses derived from the devised theoretical model. The results show that taxpayer's perception positively and significantly influences tax compliance whereas emotion and trust exert significant and positive effects on tax compliance both directly and indirectly (via perception). The findings suggest that voluntary tax compliance in Vietnam can be improved through better tax administration services, more fiscal policy accountability and pro-active tax socialization.
This research systematically reviewed studies on tax compliance based on five determinants consisting of tax services, trust in government, personal norm, social norm and…
This research systematically reviewed studies on tax compliance based on five determinants consisting of tax services, trust in government, personal norm, social norm and religiosity.
The research used a vote-counting method to synthesize 279 studies consisting of 160 empirical studies and 119 non-empirical studies conducted from 1946 until 2017.
The research has made a relatively robust conclusion related to the impacts of determinant factors on tax compliance. Tax service and trust in government are the most critical factors to increase tax compliance. Personal norm, social norm and religiosity encourage tax compliance, yet the influence is not as strong as expected.
This research suggests that improving tax service and government trust are more effective and relatively easier to implement than developing the taxpayers' positive behaviors.
Several studies conducted to synthesize the impacts of determinant factors on tax compliance were only limited to the empirical research which provided sufficient statistical data. On the other hand, there were many substantial research types discussing tax compliance without involving statistical numbers. The facts have distorted the complete picture of tax compliance. Recently, no synthesis studies have comprehensively combined and compared the empirical with non-empirical research based on the related theories. Thus, the synthesis studies that discuss tax compliance based on non-deterrence approach are still limited.