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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2020

Anna V. Bodiako, Svetlana V. Ponomareva, Tatiana M. Rogulenko, Margarita V. Melnik and Viktor V. Gorlov

The purpose of the research is to develop scientific and methodological recommendations for indicative evaluation and systemic management of the professional and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the research is to develop scientific and methodological recommendations for indicative evaluation and systemic management of the professional and qualification potential of the digital society and to approbate them by the example of modern Russia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the proprietary algorithm of the creation and implementation of the professional and qualification potential of the digital society. Based on the new algorithm, a proprietary methodology of indicative evaluation of the professional and qualification potential of the digital society is developed.

Findings

The authors offer a complex of recommendations for systemic management of the professional and qualification potential of the digital society and their approbation by the example of Russia in 2020, which allow achieving high effectiveness of this management. The results of approbation of the proprietary methodology and recommendations by the example of Russia in 2020 showed that the professional and qualification potential of the digital society is rather high and well-balanced; it is normal but has perspectives for an increase. There is an imbalance, which is caused by the domination of the development of the education market over the market of labor and entrepreneurship. Based on this, managerial measures are recommended for the development of the professional and qualification potential of the digital society in Russia.

Originality/value

The offered algorithm sets the foundation of an expanded view of the studied process, according to which the professional and qualification potential of the digital society is not only limited by the educational market but also covers the labor market and entrepreneurship. This view is revolutionary for modern Russia. The advantages of the authors’ methodology of indicative evaluation of the professional and qualification potential of the digital society include the usage of the complete set of qualitative and quantitative indicators, delimitation of indicators as to the stages of the algorithm, and the improved matrix for treatment of the results.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 41 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

David Hay

The purpose of this paper is to examine issues at the frontiers of auditing research. After the global financial crisis and the earlier round of reforms, there are many…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine issues at the frontiers of auditing research. After the global financial crisis and the earlier round of reforms, there are many opportunities for research, some driven by current proposals for reforms and some by fundamental research issues. Research can contribute to the development of policy in response to current issues. Research can also be valuable in exploring issues raised in past research.

Design/methodology/approach

Issues that are currently of concern to regulators and for which research would be of value are reviewed, together with fundamental issues arising from previous research.

Findings

The introduction of independent regulation, increasing levels of globalization and increased attention to research by regulatory bodies have drawn attention to some research issues, especially auditors providing non-audit services, rotation of audit firms, joint audits and ways to provide increased competition. In addition, there are a number of areas in which there seems to be an obvious need for auditing research, but surprisingly little research is being done. These topics include the impact of higher-quality auditing in developing economies, and assurance for other entities such as charities and small companies. As more attention is now being given to auditing research, there are opportunities in established areas of research as well.

Originality/value

Research is starting to make a contribution in policy making with relation to auditing, but there is still a need for much more research. The paper provides guidance on areas where further research will be valuable.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Jui-Chin Chang and Huey-Lian Sun

This study aims to examine the reputation effect by assessing whether fraudulent financial reporting is associated with high board turnover and significant loss of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the reputation effect by assessing whether fraudulent financial reporting is associated with high board turnover and significant loss of directorship held by directors affiliated with fraud firms. Although the Sarbanes–Oxley Act (SOX) and major stock exchanges enhance board independence and formalize committee requirements, the new rules also create a high demand for qualified directors in the director labor market. Thus, this study further examines the change in the reputation effect of directors at fraud firms after SOX.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper intends to answer two research questions: Do directors suffer significant loss of reputation when firms are caught in fraudulent financial reporting schemes? Is the loss of reputation of directors at fraud firms affected by the regulation of SOX? To examine the reputation effect, this paper investigates the differences in director turnover and loss of directorships between fraud and non-fraud firms. To examine the regulation effect, this paper investigates the differences in director turnover and loss of directorships of directors at fraud firms by comparing non-fraud firms’ director turnover and directorship loss between the pre-SOX and post-SOX periods.

Findings

Consistent with the reputation effect, this paper found that director turnover at fraud firms is significantly higher than that at non-fraud firms. It also found that the loss of directorships of directors at fraud firms is not significantly higher, which is consistent with findings of some prior research. The paper also investigates whether this reputation effect has changed after SOX but found no significant difference in the reputation effect at fraud firms. In conjunction with prior research that finds an increased demand for qualified directors in the labor market after SOX, the results imply that this shortage of qualified directors does not help fraud firms discipline directors after SOX.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are limited by the sample selection of only the initial litigation of US firms which are charged of fraudulent financial reporting. The findings suggest that SOX creates an increased demand for qualified directors, and consequently results in a shortage of qualified directors in the post-SOX labor market. The shortage of qualified directors slows the director turnover and weakens firms’ ability to replace culpable directors. Future research is needed on how governance practices might contribute to the lack of turnover among board members and how to promote ongoing overhauls of boards.

Practical implications

The decision process for removing a director is complicated and lacks transparency. Shareholders often do not know the real reason for a director’s departure from the board. To increase the accountability of individual directors and information transparency, new rules are needed for the disclosure of evaluations of individual directors’ governance effectiveness.

Originality/value

Survey of previous studies (Helland, 2006; Srinivasan, 2005; Fich and Shivdasani, 2007) indicates mixed evidence on reputation effect and no evidence so far on the SOX regulation effect. This study fills the gap by extending the findings of prior research to investigate the reputation effect along with the regulation effect of SOX at fraud firms. Different from findings of some previous studies (Helland, 2006; Fich and Shivdasani, 2007), this paper provides evidence consistent with the reputation effect. It also provides new evidence on the unintended consequences of SOX on director turnover.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Paul Dunn, Zhongzhi He, Samir Trabelsi and Zhimin (Jimmy) Yu

The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that contribute to technology firms paying higher compensation than non-technology firms, and why the mix of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that contribute to technology firms paying higher compensation than non-technology firms, and why the mix of compensation at technology firms is different than the compensation packages at non-technology firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This research used a sample of 1,009 firm-year observations for the five-year period from 2001 to 2005 and random-effects regression models.

Findings

It was found that the total compensation paid to the CEOs of technology firms is higher than the total compensation paid to the CEOs of non-technology firms, and that the value of the stock options granted to the former is greater than the value of the stock options granted to the latter.

Research limitations/implications

The results are largely consistent with the labour market efficiency perspective. The higher compensation paid to CEOs in technology firms seems to be commensurate with the higher compensation risk that CEOs in technology firms bear.

Practical implications

Compensation designers should consider both the benefits and costs of granting stock and stock options to executives. An increased portion of stock options definitely aligns the interests of shareholders and CEOs together, and could maximize the retentive effect if CEOs have a significant amount of their wealth in unvested in-the-money options.

Social implications

Consistent with the literature, a CEO could earn much higher pay if he or she also serves as the chair of the board of directors. Practically, firms do not require all governance mechanisms. They just require one set of suitable governance mechanisms.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to investigate factors that contribute to technology firms paying higher compensation than non-technology firms, and that do explain why the mix of compensation at technology firms is different than the compensation packages at non-technology firms.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2019

Luca Moretti, Martin Mayerl, Samuel Muehlemann, Peter Schlögl and Stefan C. Wolter

The purpose of this paper is to compare a firm’s net cost and post-apprenticeship benefits of providing apprenticeship training in Austria and Switzerland: two countries…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare a firm’s net cost and post-apprenticeship benefits of providing apprenticeship training in Austria and Switzerland: two countries with many similarities but some critical institutional differences.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on detailed workplace data with information on the costs and benefits of apprenticeship training, as well as on hiring costs for skilled workers from the external labour market. The authors use nearest-neighbour matching models to compare Austrian firms with similar Swiss firms based on observable characteristics.

Findings

On average, a Swiss firm generates an annual net benefit of €3,400 from training an apprentice, whereas a firm in Austria incurs net costs of €4,200. The impetus for this difference is largely a higher relative apprentice pay in Austria. However, compared with Swiss firms, Austrian firms generate a higher post-training return by retaining a higher share of apprentices and savings on future hiring costs.

Practical implications

The authors demonstrate that apprenticeship systems can exist under different institutional environments. For countries currently in the process of establishing or expanding apprenticeship systems, the comparative analysis clearly shows that policymakers should consider more than just one country’s particular apprenticeship model.

Originality/value

The authors provide a first comparative analysis between two apprenticeship countries that empirically assesses a firm’s costs and benefits of training during an apprenticeship programme and also provides a monetary value of a particular type of post-training benefits that firms can generate by retaining former apprentices as skilled workers (i.e. savings in future hiring costs for skilled workers).

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Marilyn E. Barnes

Libraries need to develop information processing systems for evaluation, budgeting, planning, and operations. Electronic spreadsheets lend themselves to a variety of…

Abstract

Libraries need to develop information processing systems for evaluation, budgeting, planning, and operations. Electronic spreadsheets lend themselves to a variety of applications, but are time‐consuming to create. A model template and macros that can be used in many different types of library data analysis have been developed here. The procedures demonstrated here can build an essential set of tools for meeting fundamental goals of administrative efficiency, effective use of library resources, staff motivation, and rational policy making.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Judith Liu

This chapter estimates the impact of a transitory reduction in hours during physicians' early career on their long-term labor supply, using the work-hour regulations on…

Abstract

This chapter estimates the impact of a transitory reduction in hours during physicians' early career on their long-term labor supply, using the work-hour regulations on medical residents as the source of exogenous variation. The results show that exposure to the regulations significantly decreases practicing physicians' labor supply by about 4 hours per week on average, with female physicians being more responsive to a given reduction in early career hours. Distributional results using a changes-in-changes model confirm that the regulations primarily affect the upper end of the work-hour distribution. To reveal potential mechanisms of these effects, this study finds that the reform increases the probabilities of marriage and having a child, as well as the total number of children, for female physicians. In contrast, it does not have a significant impact on marriage and fertility outcomes for male physicians. These findings provide a better understanding of physicians' hours of work in response to the reform over time and the role of gender with respect to labor supply behavior and family formation decisions.

Details

Change at Home, in the Labor Market, and On the Job
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-933-5

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2017

Arnaud Chevalier

Employers regularly complain of a shortage of qualified scientists and advocate that to remain competitive more scientists need to be trained. However, using a survey of…

Abstract

Employers regularly complain of a shortage of qualified scientists and advocate that to remain competitive more scientists need to be trained. However, using a survey of graduates from British universities, I report that 3 years after graduation less than 50% of graduates from science subjects are working in a scientific occupation.

Accounting for selection into major and occupation type, I estimate the wages of graduates and report that the wage premium of science graduates only occurs when these graduates are matched to a scientific occupation – and not because science skills are in demand in all occupations. I also provide additional evidence to assess whether science graduates are pushed or pulled into non-scientific occupations. Altogether, the evidence does not support the claim that science graduates are pulled by better conditions, financial or otherwise, into non-scientific jobs.

Details

Skill Mismatch in Labor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-377-7

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

H. Frank Cervone

Informatics work introduces information professionals to taxonomies and other classification systems outside the boundaries of traditional bibliographic systems. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Informatics work introduces information professionals to taxonomies and other classification systems outside the boundaries of traditional bibliographic systems. This paper aims to provide an overview of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) for informaticians and information professionals who may not have worked with the system previously.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the author reviews the purpose, history, current use and future trends of the ICD classification system.

Findings

ICD is used globally as a standard vocabulary for medical diagnoses and, in the USA, for medical procedures in hospitals. Understanding the classification system is vital to working with clinical medical data.

Originality/value

The ICD classification system is not commonly used by information professionals. This paper provides a brief overview that will familiarize the information professional with the standard and its uses related to medical practice.

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Book part
Publication date: 2 February 2000

Kenneth Burdett and Melvyn G. Coles

Abstract

Details

Panel Data and Structural Labour Market Models
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44450-319-0

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