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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Yong Li, Yanjun Huang and Xing Xu

Sensorless interior permanent magnet in-wheel motor (IPMIWM), as an exemplar of modular automation system, has attracted considerable interests in recent years. This paper…

118

Abstract

Purpose

Sensorless interior permanent magnet in-wheel motor (IPMIWM), as an exemplar of modular automation system, has attracted considerable interests in recent years. This paper aims to investigate a novel hybrid control approach for the sensorless IPMIWM from a cyber-physical systems (CPS) perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The control approach is presented based on the hybrid dynamical theory. In the standstill-low (S-L) speed, the rotor position/speed signal is estimated by the method of the high frequency (HF) voltage signal injection. The least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) is used to acquire the rotor position/speed signal in medium-high (M-H) speed operation. Hybrid automata model of the IPMIWM is established due to its hybrid dynamic characteristics in wide speed range. A hybrid state observer (HSO), including a discrete state observer (DSO) and a continuous state observer (CSO), is designed for rotor position/speed estimation of the IPMIWM.

Findings

The hardware-in-the-loop testing based on dSPACE is carried out on the test bench. Experimental investigations demonstrate the hybrid control approach can not only identify the rotor position/speed signal with a certain load but also be able to reject the load disturbance. The reliability and the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid control approach were verified.

Originality/value

The proposed hybrid control approach for the sensorless IPMIWM promotes the deep combination and coordination of sensorless IPMIWM drive system. It also theoretically supports and extends the development of the hybrid control of the highly integrated modular automation system.

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2011

Elena A. Lomonova, Evgeny Kazmin, Yang Tang and Johannes J.H. Paulides

Today's brushless permanent magnet (PM) drive systems usually adopt motors including the advancements in magnet technology, e.g. better thermal characteristics and higher…

Abstract

Purpose

Today's brushless permanent magnet (PM) drive systems usually adopt motors including the advancements in magnet technology, e.g. better thermal characteristics and higher magnetic strength. By this means, they become capable in the roughest applications yet maintain a high accuracy at competitive prices. These drive systems are not only appreciated for their high performance, but they are also advantageous for the applications requiring tough, dependable, and continuous‐duty operations, e.g. hybrid or complete electrical vehicles, extruders, wire drawers, winders, cranes, conveyors, and roll formers. The purpose of this paper is to provide an extended comparative study of the different motor configurations for the hybrid electric drive application, aiming at a compromise between high power density and extended speed capability.

Design/methodology/approach

To suit strict design requirements, such as the very limited volumetric envelope, high‐output power, wide constant power speed range, and pre‐selected in‐direct cooling system, the constraint variants of possible motor types are researched.

Findings

Considerably, high torque density and an extended speed range limit the options of PM rotor configurations for this motor design. The considered rotor configurations are the surface PM (SPM) and interior PM (IPM) types. The advantage of the (non‐salient) SPM configuration is its applicability with higher levels of magnetic flux densities without causing significant saturation in the rotor. On the other hand, an IPM rotor, which places the magnets in special rotor slots, open or closed (by saturation bridges), can operate on both the reluctance torque and the magnet alignment torque. This generally leads to a better performance in a wide speed range. However, this advantage can be eliminated by severe iron saturation resulting from the required high‐specific power.

Originality/value

The most appropriate rotor configuration will finally be selected between the two considered types, depending on detailed electromagnetic and thermal analysis. This paper usefully studies the correlation between the motor parameters required for high power density and field‐weakening performance.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Jubin Jacob, Johannes J.H. Paulides and Elena Lomonova

The purpose of this paper is to study the performance and efficiency of two different permanent magnet (PM) machine rotor configurations under magnetic core saturation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the performance and efficiency of two different permanent magnet (PM) machine rotor configurations under magnetic core saturation conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Since the accuracy of conventional analytical methods is limited under saturation conditions, a finite element model of the machine is built; which is used to predict the various losses over its operating range such as eddy current, hysteresis, copper and magnet losses. Using this model, the efficiency map of the machine is derived which is used to investigate its efficiency corresponding to a heavy vehicle drive cycle. The performance of two different rotor designs are studied and the efficiency of each design is compared under the considered drive cycle.

Findings

It has also been proved that the performance advantage due to reluctance torque in the v-shaped interior PM (IPM) machine is offset by its core steel saturation at higher current/torque levels. The magnitude of iron losses in the IPM is higher than that in the surface PM (SPM) machine, however, the magnet loss in the SPM is higher than in the IPM.

Originality/value

An investigation of the performance of the IPM design in comparison with the SPM∼design under magnetic saturation conditions is not known to the authors. Hence, in this paper, it will be determined if the assumed performance advantage of the IPM over the SPM still holds true under these conditions.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Javad Rahmani Fard and Mohammad Ardebili

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel axial field flux-switching machine with sandwiched permanent magnets. It is one of the most efficient machines which is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel axial field flux-switching machine with sandwiched permanent magnets. It is one of the most efficient machines which is appropriate for high-torque and low-speed direct-drive applications. The proposed model is equipped with an advanced phase-group concentrated-coil winding to obtain a unity displacement winding factor. Two configurations of the proposed motors with 6-stator-slot (S)/10-rotor-pole (P) and 12S/19P are investigated. These two structures are compared with optimized a conventional axial-field flux-switching permanent-magnet (CAFFSPM) machine. Unity displacement winding factor increases the back-EMF and electromagnetic torque. Moreover, the prototype 12S/19P motor is built to verify the design.

Design/methodology/approach

The torque equation is obtained and the dimensions of the two proposed motors are determined. Some specific design issues, including the stator/rotor pole sandwiching pole angle, the stator tooth angle and the rotor pole angle have been optimized to minimize the cogging torque while maintaining the high torque density by means of response surface methodology (RSM) and 3-D finite element model of the machine.

Findings

To improve the performance, especially at high torque density, low cogging torque and high level of fault-tolerant capability, the 12S/19P axial field flux-switching sandwiched permanent-magnet (AFFSSPM) motor is proposed. Based on the optimized design, a prototype of the 12S/19P AFFSSPM motor is fabricated and tested. It is found that the experimental results validate the 3-D finite element method (FEM) simulation results.

Originality/value

The AFFSSPM motor is one of the most efficient motors, but the 12S/19P AFFSSPM motor with sandwiched permanent magnet and unity displacement winding factor has not been specially reported to date. Thus, in this paper, the authors report on optimal design of a novel axial flux-switching sandwiched permanent-magnet machine for electric vehicles and fabricate a prototype of the 12S/19P AFFSSPM motor.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

M.F.J. Kremers, J.J.H. Paulides, T.E. Motoasca and E.A. Lomonova

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the performance of a proposed machine design for an in‐wheel motor with the required torque‐speed characteristic.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the performance of a proposed machine design for an in‐wheel motor with the required torque‐speed characteristic.

Design/methodology/approach

Calculation of the winding factor of the machine with the star of slots theory is performed first. The field weakening capability of the machine is investigated and the operating speed range is determined. The tooth contour modeling method for calculating the performance of the machine with a limited number of elements is introduced. The method is used to construct two models of different complexity and the results obtained with the models are compared with the results obtained by finite element models.

Findings

The 14 pole 12 slot in‐wheel PMSM discussed in this paper is able to meet the stringent performance requirements. The results obtained with the tooth contour models show good agreement with the results obtained with finite element models despite the limited number of elements. Increasing the number of elements in the model allows for modeling of armature reaction and increases the accuracy of the model.

Research limitations/implications

This work can be continued with investigating the possibilities to model the armature reaction more accurately.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a modeling method which accurately describes the performance of a PMSM with limited number of elements. With this method, the calculation procedure can be easily used for optimization of the machine design.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Yi-Chang Wu and Bo-Wei Lin

The electric motor and multi-speed transmission hub are essential components for an electric bicycle. Traditionally, these two devices have been designed and manufactured…

Abstract

Purpose

The electric motor and multi-speed transmission hub are essential components for an electric bicycle. Traditionally, these two devices have been designed and manufactured independently. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel electromechanical device that artfully integrates an exterior-rotor brushless permanent-magnet (BLPM) motor into a transmission hub to become a compact structural assembly.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel design that integrates a three-phase, 20-pole/18-slot exterior-rotor BLPM motor with a multi-speed transmission hub composed of a six-link, two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) compound planetary gear train (PGT) is presented in this study to overcome inherent drawbacks of existing designs. An analytical approach, based on fundamental circuits, is developed to synthesize the clutching sequences and numbers of teeth of all gears of the PGT.

Findings

The integrated device provides six forward speeds, including two underdrives, two direct drives, and two overdrives, as well as two drive modes: the motor-drive mode and the human-drive mode, for electric bicycles. The main feature of the proposed design is the spur gear teeth merged with the pole shoes of the stator to dramatically minimize the detent torque, which is an oscillatory torque that always induces vibration and acoustic noise of the BLPM motor.

Originality/value

The gear teeth on the pole shoes of the stator provide functions not only for transmission, but also act as dummy slots for adjusting the magnetostatic field of the BLPM motor to effectively reduce the detent torque. The peak value of the detent torque of the integrated design is only 9 percent of the original BLPM motor with identical magnet properties and motor dimensions. Such a feature is contributive in suppressing the vibration and acoustic noise of the electric bicycle's BLPM motor. A BLPM motor rated at 310 W and 250 r/min for the integrated device is presented and analyzed by using the commercial finite-element package Ansoft/Maxwell 2D Field Simulator.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2011

Wei‐Zhong Fei, Jian‐Xin Shen, Can‐Fei Wang and Patrick Chi‐Kwong Luk

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new outer‐rotor permanentmagnet flux‐switching machine (ORPMFSM) for electric vehicle (EV) in‐wheel propulsion. The paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new outer‐rotor permanentmagnet flux‐switching machine (ORPMFSM) for electric vehicle (EV) in‐wheel propulsion. The paper documents both the design procedure and performance investigation of this novel machine.

Design/methodology/approach

The topology and preliminary sizing equations of the ORPMFSM are introduced. The rotor poles are optimized, whilst the machine losses are particularly investigated, using 2‐D finite element analysis (FEA).

Findings

An ORPMFSM, with 12 stator poles and 22 rotor poles, is most suitable for the proposed EV application. The analytical sizing equations are quite efficient with a sufficient accuracy for the preliminary design. The optimal rotor pole width from the FEA results is nearly 1.3 times the original value which was proposed in early literatures. The efficiency of the proposed machine under rated load is slightly low, as a result of significant eddy current losses in the permanent magnets. The losses can be effectively suppressed with the technique of magnet segmenting. The predicted outstanding performance implies that by adopting magnet segmentation the proposed machine is a leading contender for EV direct drives.

Originality/value

The outer‐rotor structure of PMFSM was not addressed in early literatures. This paper provides designers with the technical background and an alternative candidate for the EV propulsion.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Athanasios Sarigiannidis, Minos Beniakar and Antonios Kladas

This paper aims to introduce a computationally efficient hybrid analytical–finite element (FE) methodology for loss evaluation in electric vehicle (EV) permanent magnet

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce a computationally efficient hybrid analytical–finite element (FE) methodology for loss evaluation in electric vehicle (EV) permanent magnet (PM) traction motor applications. In this class of problems, eddy current losses in PMs and iron laminations constitute an important part of overall drive losses, representing a key design target.

Design/methodology/approach

Both surface mounted permanent magnet (SMPM) and double-layer interior permanent magnet (IPM) motor topologies are considered. The PM eddy losses are calculated by using analytical solutions and Fourier harmonic decomposition. The boundary conditions are based on slot opening magnetic field strength tangential component in the air gap in the SMPM topology case, whereas the numerically evaluated normal flux density variation on the surface of the outer PM is implemented in the IPM case. Combined analytical–loss evaluation technique has been verified by comparing its results to a transient magnetodynamic two-dimensional FE model ones.

Findings

The proposed loss evaluation technique calculated the total power losses for various operating conditions with low computational cost, illustrating the relative advantages and drawbacks of each motor topology along a typical EV operating cycle. The accuracy of the method was comparable to transient FE loss evaluation models, particularly around nominal speed.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is based on the development of a fast and accurate PM eddy loss model for both SMPM and IPM motor topologies for traction applications, combining effectively both analytical and FE techniques.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2011

Zi‐Qiang Zhu

Fractional slot permanent magnet (PM) brushless machines having concentrated non‐overlapping windings have been the subject of research over last few years. They have…

1441

Abstract

Purpose

Fractional slot permanent magnet (PM) brushless machines having concentrated non‐overlapping windings have been the subject of research over last few years. They have already been employed in the commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) due to high‐torque density, high efficiency, low‐torque ripple, good flux‐weakening and fault‐tolerance performance. The purpose of this paper is to overview recent development and research challenges in such machines in terms of various structural and design features for electric vehicle (EV)/HEV applications.

Design/methodology/approach

In the paper, fractional slot PM brushless machines are overviewed according to the following main and sub‐topics: first, machine topologies: slot and pole number combinations, all and alternate teeth wound (double‐ and single‐layer windings), unequal tooth structure, modular stator, interior magnet rotor; second, machine parameters and control performance: winding inductances, flux‐weakening capability, fault‐tolerant performance; and third, parasitic effects: cogging torque, iron loss, rotor eddy current loss, unbalanced magnetic force, acoustic noise and vibration.

Findings

Many fractional slot PM machine topologies exist. Owing to rich mmf harmonics, fractional slot PM brushless machines exhibit relatively high rotor eddy current loss, potentially high unbalanced magnetic force and acoustic noise and vibration, while the reluctance torque component is relatively low or even negligible when an interior PM rotor is employed.

Originality/value

This is the first overview paper which systematically reviews the recent development and research challenges in fractional‐slot PM machines. It summarizes their various structural and design features for EV/HEV applications.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Hongbo Qiu, Wenfei Yu, Bingxia Tang, Weili Li, Cunxiang Yang and Yanfeng Wang

Taking a 2,000 r/min 10 kW permanent magnet motor as an example, the purpose of this paper is to study the influence of driving modes on the performance of permanent magnet

Abstract

Purpose

Taking a 2,000 r/min 10 kW permanent magnet motor as an example, the purpose of this paper is to study the influence of driving modes on the performance of permanent magnet motor at limit conditions, and researched the variation mechanism of motor performance influenced by different driving modes.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-dimensional electromagnetic field model of the permanent magnet motor was established, and a rectangular-wave driving circuit was built. By using the finite element method, the electromagnetic field, current, harmonic content and eddy current loss were calculated when the motor operated at rated load and limit load. On the basis of the motor loss calculation, the temperature field of the motor operating at rated condition and limit condition was researched, and the factors that influence motor limit overload capacity were analyzed. By analyzing the motor loss variation at different load conditions, the change mechanism of the motor temperature field was determined further. Combined with the related experiments, the correctness of the above analysis was verified.

Findings

Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) driven by sine wave is better compared with brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) driven by rectangular wave in reducing the magnetic field harmonics, motor losses and optimizing the temperature distribution in the motor. The method driven by sine wave could improve the motor output performance including the motor efficiency and the motor overload capacity. The winding temperature is the most important factor that limits the output capability of PMSM operating for a long time. However, because of the large rotor eddy current losses, the permanent magnet temperature is the most important factor that limits the output capability of BLDCM operating for a long time.

Practical implications

The influence of driving modes on the motor magnetic field, losses and temperature distribution, efficiency and overload capacity was determined, and the influence mechanism was also analyzed. Combined with the analysis of the electromagnetic and temperature fields, the advantages of different driving modes were presented. This study could provide an important basis for the design of permanent magnet motors with different driving modes, and it also provides reference for the application of permanent magnet motor.

Originality/value

This paper presents the influence of driving modes on permanent magnet motors. The limit output capacity of the motor with different driving modes was studied, and the key factors limiting the motor output capability were obtained.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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