Search results

1 – 10 of over 12000
Article
Publication date: 19 May 2022

Sanghoon Lee, Yosheph Yang and Jae Gang Kim

The Fay and Riddell (F–R) formula is an empirical equation for estimating the stagnation-point heat flux on noncatalytic and fully catalytic surfaces, based on an…

Abstract

Purpose

The Fay and Riddell (F–R) formula is an empirical equation for estimating the stagnation-point heat flux on noncatalytic and fully catalytic surfaces, based on an assumption of equilibrium. Because of its simplicity, the F–R has been used extensively for reentry flight design as well as ground test facility applications. This study aims to investigate the uncertainties of the F-R formula by considering velocity gradient, chemical species at the boundary layer edge, and the thermochemical nonequilibrium (NEQ) behind the shock layer under various hypersonic NEQ flow environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The stagnation-point heat flux calculated with the F–R formula was evaluated by comparison with thermochemical NEQ calculations and existing flight experimental values.

Findings

The comparisons showed that the F–R underestimated the noncatalytic heat flux, because of the chemical composition at the surface. However, for fully catalytic heat flux, the F–R results were similar to values of surface heat flux from thermochemical NEQ calculations, because the F–R formula overestimates the diffusive heat flux. When compared with the surface heat flux results obtained from flight experimental data, the F–R overestimated the fully catalytic heat flux. The error was 50% at most.

Originality/value

The results provided guidelines for the F–R calculations under hypersonic flight conditions and for determining the approximate error range for noncatalytic and fully catalytic surfaces.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

M.A. Nasta, G.R. Hill and D. Campbell

The filterable particles found in electronic solder fluxes vary considerably in both concentration and chemistry. Four fluxes from three manufacturers were examined…

Abstract

The filterable particles found in electronic solder fluxes vary considerably in both concentration and chemistry. Four fluxes from three manufacturers were examined, including both rosin fluxes and mildly activated resin fluxes. Individual particles were examined by optical light microscopy (OLM) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). Finally, an automated SEM/EDX system was used to collect and summarise information about the size and chemistry of a hundred or more particles from each flux. The number of particles per microgram of flux was found to vary by two orders of magnitude (0.004 to 0.4 per μg). The particle diameters ranged from 0.2–20 μm with averages of 1–3 μm. A large fraction of the particles (33–75% by number) were organic substances not soluble in the flux. The bulk of the inorganic particles were composed of sulphates, silicates and metal oxides. Thus, some solder fluxes may be introducing several contaminant particles into each solder contact. These contaminants may affect the quality of the solder joint depending on particle size and composition.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Zhao Haisen, Liu Xiaofang, Cui Xueshen and Luo Yingli

The purpose of the paper is to study the influence of rotational flux on local core losses of the motors, which is difficult to distinguish the iron losses caused by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to study the influence of rotational flux on local core losses of the motors, which is difficult to distinguish the iron losses caused by rotational flux in certain electric machines through experiment. Therefore, time-stepping finite element method (T-S FEM) is used to consider the rotational flux and to predict the local core losses.

Design/methodology/approach

Time-stepping finite element method.

Findings

It is found that, in stator side, rotational flux mainly exists in tooth root and yoke area near the bottom of stator slot, those area is about 45 percent of total stator core area; in rotor side, due to slot harmonic field, the rotational flux mainly exists in the tip of tooth.

Originality/value

Through analyzing the magnetization characteristics at different positions in stator and rotor cores by T-S FEM, the influence of rotational flux on local core losses of AC electric machines is studied.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 33 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

C. Ramirez and K.‐S. Lei

The reliability and corrosivity of two VOC ‐ free, no‐cleanfluxes (C and D) were assessed using traditional test method such as copper mirror and copper corrosiontests…

365

Abstract

The reliability and corrosivity of two VOC ‐ free, no‐clean fluxes (C and D) were assessed using traditional test method such as copper mirror and copper corrosion tests. Modified surface insulation resistance (SIR) tests using coupons fluxed with various methods were performed in 50°C/90%RH environmental conditions. Printed circuit boards and assemblies were fluxed and exposed to a 50°C/90%RH chamber to assess long‐term reliability. To evaluate the corrosion rates of copper and solder sheets in as‐ received liquid fluxes, electrochemical polarisation measurements were employed. These showed that the corrosion rate of copper in flux D is 100 times higher than that in flux C. These quantitative data agreed with the qualitative copper mirror test results, i,e, flux C passed and flux D failed the test. However, both flux residues were found to corrode copper traces underneath the solder mask and copper pads on the PCB after three weeks in a 50°C/90% RH environment chamber. Large amounts of blue/green corrosion products were observed on the bare copper SIR coupons within seven days when using either flux; and SIR values were below the required 108 ohms. Based on the test results, neither flux was qualified for no‐clean processes because of the issues with corrosion. The corrosiveness of the VOC‐ free, no‐ clean flux residue is believed to be due to the activator packages used.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1988

G. Becker, A. Biverstedt and A. Tolvgård

The development of a new type of flux—the surfactant flux—is described. This flux is applied in a very thin layer and must be totally dry before soldering. It is not…

Abstract

The development of a new type of flux—the surfactant flux—is described. This flux is applied in a very thin layer and must be totally dry before soldering. It is not necessary to clean PWBs after soldering for functional or aesthetic reasons. Even the results of the surface insulation resistance (SIR) test suggest no need for cleaning. The flux allows a very high soldering speed, at least double that of normal fluxes. Thus the heat input into the materials involved is minimised, with the consequence of less damage. It is not the chemicals which make the flux highly active but the concept. This new concept makes it possible to design non or low corrosive fluxes in a wide range for purposes where highly corrosive fluxes must be used today.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Marek Koscielski and Janusz Sitek

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the properties of new compositions of fluxes for selective soldering on lead-free solder joints quality and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the properties of new compositions of fluxes for selective soldering on lead-free solder joints quality and microstructures as well as showing which flux properties are the most important.

Design/methodology/approach

The three different types of fluxes were tested, which differed in composition, solids content, amount and type of activators added. The selective soldering process was done with the use of lead-free solder SAC 305. The test boards had two coatings SnCu (HASL) or Au/Ni. Basic chemical and physical properties of fluxes were examined according to the relevant standards. Different types of components from the bulky ones, demanding more heat, to the smaller ones were used during the assembly process. AOI and X-ray analyses as well as cross-sections and SEM analyses were utilized to deeply assess the quality and microstructure of the investigated solder joints.

Findings

The results showed that information about density or static activity of flux is not enough for correct flux assessment. The dynamic activity of flux measured by wetting balance method is the best for this, especially in the case when there is short soldering time and heat transfer is hindered. The quality and the microstructure of lead-free solder joints are related not only with wetting properties of the flux used for soldering but also with other properties like solids content in a flux.

Research limitations/implications

It is suggested that further studies are necessary for the confirmation of the practical application, especially of the reliability properties of the joints obtained with the use of the elaborated fluxes.

Originality/value

The results showed that type of flux (ORL or ROL) as well as minor changes in their dynamic activity and solids content might have significant influence on quality of solder joints and their microstructure. It was noted that selective soldering is demanding technique and optimization of soldering process for different type of components and fluxes is important.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

M.E. Jozefowicz and N.‐C. Lee

The IPC‐SF‐818 surface insulation resistance (SIR) test data taken with the use of a variety of halide‐free, no‐clean fluxes are analysed against Bellcore TR‐NWT‐000078…

Abstract

The IPC‐SF‐818 surface insulation resistance (SIR) test data taken with the use of a variety of halide‐free, no‐clean fluxes are analysed against Bellcore TR‐NWT‐000078 electromigration (EM) test data. Neither test results show correlation with bulk flux resistivity, flux water extract resistivity, flux residue moisture pick‐up, and flux corrosivity without bias. However, in the case of rosin fluxes, the insulation resistance behaviour in both SIR and EM tests is a function of the pH value of fluxes. This phenomenon is more significant in the SIR test. In the case of low‐residue, no‐clean fluxes, only the SIR test displays such a pH dependent relationship. Data suggest that the 50 volts bias voltage used in the SIR test may be responsible for this, and can be explained with a high‐bias‐voltage‐induced electrolysis mechanism which is further promoted by a high pH environment. This failure mechanism is absent in the EM test which utilises 10 volts bias voltage, and probably will not occur under the normal 5 volts application conditions. Overall, the SIR test seems to be more stringent while the EM test appears to be more realistic.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

G.J. Andrews

‘No clean’ fluxes (NCFs) have been in existence for a few years now. The initial claimed advantages of these fluxes were that post flow soldering cleaning would not be…

Abstract

‘No clean’ fluxes (NCFs) have been in existence for a few years now. The initial claimed advantages of these fluxes were that post flow soldering cleaning would not be required, therefore a substantial cost‐reduction could be obtained in terms of no cleaning plant or cleaning solvent being necessary, and a consequent reduction in floor space requirements. Latterly, the restrictions to be placed on the manufacture of CFCs (the major flux cleaning solvent) via the Montreal Protocol have given these NCFs a much higher level of prominence. The advantages claimed for NCFs are very attractive; however, the fluxes represent a considerable technology shift from the conventional high solids rosin type fluxes which have been successfully used for many years. Probably the most important questions to be raised when considering their use are: ‘Will any remaining residue be corrosive and will the long‐term reliability of the printed circuit boards be affected?’ This paper sets out to address the following issues: (a) A definition of corrosion and long‐term reliability and what it means in practical terms, (b) an understanding of the basic formulation of NCFs and (c) evaluation and selection of test methods to establish confidence that corrosion and reduction in long‐term reliability, as described in (a), will not occur.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1999

Christopher Hunt and Ling Zou

The surface insulation resistance (SIR) test has traditionally been performed by taking measurements at certain points during a seven‐day test under well established…

Abstract

The surface insulation resistance (SIR) test has traditionally been performed by taking measurements at certain points during a seven‐day test under well established environmental conditions. The work reported here explores the influence of test temperature and humidity when using a typical resin flux, a weak organic flux and glycol based fluxes when sampling SIR patterns every ten minutes. Results indicate that some fluxes are very sensitive to the test temperature, with volatilisation of flux residues an important issue. The frequent monitoring of the results also permitted the detection of dendrites during the SIR test. The results clearly show the importance of selecting the correct testing conditions and the benefit of frequent monitoring.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

F. Sjoukes

In the hot dip galvanizing process two different fluxes are used to remove the zinc oxide layer, always present on the liquid zinc surface. When this oxide layer, which…

Abstract

In the hot dip galvanizing process two different fluxes are used to remove the zinc oxide layer, always present on the liquid zinc surface. When this oxide layer, which contains also aluminium oxide, is dragged into the zinc by the articles, interfering the reaction zinc‐iron. In former days a flux floating on a part of the liquid zinc surface was rather common, at present this wet flux is almost completely replaced by the dry galvanizing process. Since the chemical reactions taking place in the wet flux, partly take place in the flux for dry galvanizing too, first this wet flux will be discussed in brief.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

1 – 10 of over 12000