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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Grzegorz Ombach

An electrical revolution in the automotive sector was decided on at the end of 2008, when the European Parliament passed legislation of lower CO2 emissions of new cars…

Abstract

Purpose

An electrical revolution in the automotive sector was decided on at the end of 2008, when the European Parliament passed legislation of lower CO2 emissions of new cars. This causes and forces the development of alternative concepts of propulsion systems and alternative fuels. These new trends of propulsion technologies such as hybrid and pure electric drive will have an impact on the entire design of cars. The purpose of this paper is to present an evolution of selected fractional horsepower electrical drives used in cars. Analysis of electromechanical components can be divided into two groups: the first one contains the currently used subsystems, e.g. electric power steering system, engine cooling systems, etc.; and the second one presents the development of new components, e.g. electric air‐conditioning compressor and other by‐wire technologies. Additionally, the development and trends of new materials and technologies used in electrical drives for the automotive industry are presented.

Design/methodology/approach

Performed analysis based on a review of the literature and the author's own research and experience in the area of electromechanical systems for automotive applications. During motor design, computer numerical simulation method, CAD and experiment were used. The development perspectives in the area of electromechanical systems in automotive area are presented. Additionally, the evolution of fractional horse power electric motors, with the influence of new developments in the area of electric vehicles, are analysed and presented.

Findings

The presented analysis shows that a change of technology from brush type motors into brushless is inevitable. Additionally, further miniaturization will be conducted using a higher energy permanent magnet. Furthermore, an increase of efficiency will be achieved by increasing the voltage level from 12 V to 48 V or even higher, e.g. 120 V.

Originality/value

This is the first paper, where, in a comprehensive way, developments of fractional horse power electromechanical systems for electric and hybrid vehicles are presented. The results of this paper can be utilized during the creation of the products' road‐maps in this area.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Yi-Chang Wu and Bo-Wei Lin

The electric motor and multi-speed transmission hub are essential components for an electric bicycle. Traditionally, these two devices have been designed and manufactured…

Abstract

Purpose

The electric motor and multi-speed transmission hub are essential components for an electric bicycle. Traditionally, these two devices have been designed and manufactured independently. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel electromechanical device that artfully integrates an exterior-rotor brushless permanent-magnet (BLPM) motor into a transmission hub to become a compact structural assembly.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel design that integrates a three-phase, 20-pole/18-slot exterior-rotor BLPM motor with a multi-speed transmission hub composed of a six-link, two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) compound planetary gear train (PGT) is presented in this study to overcome inherent drawbacks of existing designs. An analytical approach, based on fundamental circuits, is developed to synthesize the clutching sequences and numbers of teeth of all gears of the PGT.

Findings

The integrated device provides six forward speeds, including two underdrives, two direct drives, and two overdrives, as well as two drive modes: the motor-drive mode and the human-drive mode, for electric bicycles. The main feature of the proposed design is the spur gear teeth merged with the pole shoes of the stator to dramatically minimize the detent torque, which is an oscillatory torque that always induces vibration and acoustic noise of the BLPM motor.

Originality/value

The gear teeth on the pole shoes of the stator provide functions not only for transmission, but also act as dummy slots for adjusting the magnetostatic field of the BLPM motor to effectively reduce the detent torque. The peak value of the detent torque of the integrated design is only 9 percent of the original BLPM motor with identical magnet properties and motor dimensions. Such a feature is contributive in suppressing the vibration and acoustic noise of the electric bicycle's BLPM motor. A BLPM motor rated at 310 W and 250 r/min for the integrated device is presented and analyzed by using the commercial finite-element package Ansoft/Maxwell 2D Field Simulator.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

P.Di Barba

Introduces papers from this area of expertise from the ISEF 1999 Proceedings. States the goal herein is one of identifying devices or systems able to provide prescribed…

Abstract

Introduces papers from this area of expertise from the ISEF 1999 Proceedings. States the goal herein is one of identifying devices or systems able to provide prescribed performance. Notes that 18 papers from the Symposium are grouped in the area of automated optimal design. Describes the main challenges that condition computational electromagnetism’s future development. Concludes by itemizing the range of applications from small activators to optimization of induction heating systems in this third chapter.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2019

Adrian Młot and Marian Łukaniszyn

Analysis of test data monitored for a number of electric machines from the low volume production line can lead to useful conclusions. The purpose of this paper is to trace…

Abstract

Purpose

Analysis of test data monitored for a number of electric machines from the low volume production line can lead to useful conclusions. The purpose of this paper is to trace the machine performance to find quality-related issues and/or identify assembly process ones. In this paper, the monitoring of experimental data is related to the axial flux motor (AFM) used in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and in electric vehicle (EV) traction motors in the global automobile market.

Design/methodology/approach

Extensive data analyses raised questions like what could be the causes of possible performance deterioration of the AFM and how many electric motors may not pass requirements during operation tests. In small and medium research units of AFM for HEV or EV, engineers came across a number of serious issues that must be resolved. A number of issues can be eliminated by implementing methods for reducing the number of failing AFMs. For example, improving the motor assembly precision leads to reduction of the machine parameters deterioration.

Findings

Assembly tolerances on electric motor characteristics should be investigated during motor design. The presented measurements can be usable and can point out the weakest parts of the motor that can be a reason for the reduced efficiency and/or lifetime of the AFM. Additionally, the paper is addressed to electric motor engineers designing and/or investigating electric AFMs.

Originality/value

Performance of AFM was monitored for a number of identical motors from low volume production line. All tested motors were operated continuously for a long period of time and the tests were repeated every few weeks for half a year to check the reliability of motor design and indicate how much the motor parameters may change. The final results point how many motors fail the requirements of motor performance. A few batches of AFM were selected for testing. Each batch represents a different size (nominal power) of the same type of AFM.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Massimo Barcaro and Nicola Bianchi

The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the design issues of permanent magnet machines for the hybrid electric and plug‐in electric vehicles, including railway…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the design issues of permanent magnet machines for the hybrid electric and plug‐in electric vehicles, including railway traction and naval propulsion.

Design/methodology/approach

Focus is given on both synchronous permanent magnet and reluctance machines. An overview of the design rules are provided, covering the topics of: fractional‐slot windings, fault‐tolerant configurations, flux‐weakening capability, and torque quality.

Findings

The peculiarities of these machines and the advanced design considerations to fit the automotive requirements are analyzed.

Originality/value

The paper includes a wide description of innovative electrical machines for electric vehicles, including not only the traction capability, but also analysis of features as weight reduction, torque ripple reduction, increase of fault tolerance, and so on.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Sathishkumar Kaliyavarathan and Sivakumaran T.S.

The purpose of this paper is to study the development of novel multiphase induction motor (MPIM) with copper die cast rotor in the drive system of electric propulsion…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the development of novel multiphase induction motor (MPIM) with copper die cast rotor in the drive system of electric propulsion vehicles (EPV). It is estimated that the manufacturers are concerned about high torque,Efficiency, motor life, energy conservation and high thermal tolerance. To ensure maximum torque and efficiency with multiphase winding and copper die cast technology to increasing high thermal tolerance, life, energy conversations. On other hand, it is very important of EPV application.

Design/methodology/approach

The focus of the investigation is threefold: the modified method carried out on MPIM both stator and rotor can overcome the current scenario problem facing by electric vehicles manufacture and developed perfect suitable electric motor for EPV applications. The design and simulation carried out finite element method (FEM) that was more accurate calculations. Finally developed prototype model of MPIM with copper die cast are discussed with conventional three phase Die casting Induction motor.

Findings

The paper confirmed the multiphase copper die-cast rotor induction motor (MDCrIM) is providing better performance than conventional motor. Proposed motor can bring additional advantage like heat tolerances, long life and energy conversations.

Originality/value

The experiments confirmed the MDCIM suitable for EPV Applications. The modified MDCIM of both stator and rotor are giving better result and good performance compared to conventional method.

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Goga Vladimir Cvetkovski, Lidija Petkovska and Paul Lefley

The purpose of this paper is to perform an optimal design of a single-phase permanent magnet brushless DC motor (SPBLDCM) by using efficiency of the motor as an objective…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to perform an optimal design of a single-phase permanent magnet brushless DC motor (SPBLDCM) by using efficiency of the motor as an objective function. In the design procedure of the motor, a cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is used as an optimization tool.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purpose of this research work, a computer program for optimal design of electrical machines based on the CS optimization has been developed. Based on the design characteristics of SPBLDCM, some of the motor parameters are chosen to be constant and others variable. A comparative analysis of the initial motor model and the CS model based on the value of the objective function, as well as the values of the optimization parameters, is performed and presented.

Findings

Based on the comparative data analysis of both motor models, it can be concluded that the main objective of the optimization is realized, and it is achieved by an improvement of the efficiency of the motor.

Practical implications

The optimal design approach of SPBLDCM presented in this research work can be also implemented on other electrical machines and devices using the same or even other objective functions.

Originality/value

An optimization technique using CS as an optimization tool has been developed and applied in the design procedure of SPBLDCM. According to the results, it can be concluded that the CS algorithm is a suitable tool for design optimization of SPBLDCM and electromagnetic devices in general. The quality of the CS model has been proved through the data analysis of the initial and optimized solution. The quality of the CS solution has been also proved by comparative analysis of the two motor models using FEM as a performance analysis tool.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2019

Mariusz Baranski

This paper aims to elaborate the method and algorithm for the analysis of the influence of high temperature on electric and thermal properties of the materials, as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to elaborate the method and algorithm for the analysis of the influence of high temperature on electric and thermal properties of the materials, as well as thermal phenomena process.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents specially author’s software for the transient finite element analysis of coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in a squirrel cage induction motor. The numerical implementation is based on finite element method and step-by-step algorithm. The nonlinearity of a magnetic circuit, the dependence of electric and thermal parameters on temperature, the movement of a rotor and skewed rotor bars have been taken into account. To verify the developed algorithm and software, the influence of high ambient temperature on selected electromagnetic and thermal parameters of the induction motor was examined.

Findings

The results of simulations compared with measurements confirm the adequacy of this approach to the analysis of coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems.

Research limitations/implications

3D effects have only been taken into account when using quasi-3D techniques (e.g. the multi-slice for skewed rotor slots).

Practical implications

The author’s software developed can be useful in the analysis and design of squirrel cage motors, especially motors working in high ambient temperature.

Originality/value

The paper offers appropriate author’s software for the transient and steady-state analysis of coupled electromagnetic and thermal problems in squirrel cage motors with skewed slots.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2007

Abdessattar Guermazi, Bassem El Badsi, Mourad Masmoudi and Ahmed Masmoudi

This paper seeks to discuss the implementation of the rotor flux oriented control (RFOC) in a four‐switch three‐phase inverter (FSTPI)‐fed induction motor drive.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to discuss the implementation of the rotor flux oriented control (RFOC) in a four‐switch three‐phase inverter (FSTPI)‐fed induction motor drive.

Design/methodology/approach

The implementation is achieved considering a current regulation of the FSTPI. Such a regulation is done thanks to bang‐bang regulators. As far as the FSTPI is fed by a battery pack, the paper considers an electrical equivalent circuit of such a power supply.

Findings

Simulation works, carried out considering the case of an ideal model of the battery pack and the case where the electrical equivalent circuit of the battery pack is taken into account, have shown that the drive dynamic performance are practically the same. Furthermore, and in order to highlight the performance of the induction motor fed by a FSTPI, these are compared with those obtained with the induction motor fed by a conventional six‐switch three‐phase inverter (SSTPI), considering both models of the battery pack. It has been found that the drive offers almost the same dynamic and steady‐state performance.

Research limitations/implications

The work should be extended by an experimental validation of the simulation results.

Practical implications

The established results open up crucial benefits from the point of view of cost‐effectiveness and volume‐compactness improvements of induction motor drives especially in large‐scale industries such as the automotive one where electric and hybrid propulsion systems are currently regarded as an interesting alternative to substitute or to assist the thermal propulsion systems.

Originality/value

The implementation of the RFOC in FSTPI‐fed induction motor drives is feasible and exhibits almost the same performance as those obtained by conventional SSTPI‐fed induction motor drives under the same control strategies.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Moez Abassi, Omar Khlaief, Oussama Saadaoui, Abdelkader Chaari and Mohamed Boussak

Electric vehicles (EVs) require uninterrupted and safe conditions during operations. Therefore, the diagnostic of power devices and electric motor faults are needed to…

Abstract

Purpose

Electric vehicles (EVs) require uninterrupted and safe conditions during operations. Therefore, the diagnostic of power devices and electric motor faults are needed to improve the availability of the system. Hence, fault-tolerant control (FTC), which combines switch fault detection, hardware redundancy and post-fault control, is used. This paper aims to propose an accurate open-phase fault detection and FTC of a direct torque control permanent magnet synchronous motor electrical vehicles by using discrete Fourier-transform phase method.

Design/methodology/approach

The main idea is to propose detection and identification of open-phase fault (faulty leg) among three phases voltage source invertor (VSI)-fed permanent magnet synchronous motor drives. Once the faulty leg is detected and isolated, a redundant phase leg insertion, shared by a three-phase VSI, is done by using independent bidirectional TRIAC switches to conduct FTC system. This accurate fault detection significantly improves system availability and reliability. The proposed method of open-phase fault detection and identification is based only on stator phase current measurement.

Findings

A novel method is proposed with experimental validation for fault detection, isolation and FTC for a three-phase VSI-fed permanent magnet synchronous motor.

Originality/value

The novel discrete Fourier-transform phase method is proposed to detect an open phase based on the measurement in real time of the instantaneous phase of stator current components in the stationary frame. The experimental implementation is carried out on powerful dSpace DS1104 controller board based on the digital signal processor TMS320F240. The validity of the proposed method has been experimentally verified.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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