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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2020

Wu Wei and Hui Ni

The purpose of this paper is to study the operation mechanism of the ecosystem of crowd innovation space. Though the crowd innovation space is a new product of China's…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the operation mechanism of the ecosystem of crowd innovation space. Though the crowd innovation space is a new product of China's innovation-driven strategy, there are some barriers in operation. So, this problem is worthy of study.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, data were obtained through four-month field investigation and semistructured interview, then classified and analyzed through grounded theory, because grounded theory is conducive to the exploration and discovery of new theories.

Findings

This study finds that the relationship between makerspace and entrepreneurs is strong social relational embeddedness. The relationship between crowd innovation space and governments and investment institutions is economic relational embeddedness. Under these social network ties, entrepreneurs, crowd innovation space, social investment institutions and so on can interact directly with each other to different degrees, carry out value cocreation activities and improve the benefits of all elements in the ecosystem and the ecosystem itself.

Originality/value

This study researches the operation mechanism of crowd innovation space ecosystem and identifies the ties between various elements in the ecosystem on the perspective of social network, which is conducive to improve the self-generating capacity of crowd innovation space and enhance the success rate of entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Industry-University Collaboration, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-357X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Ting Yuan, Min-da Zhang, Jia-hui Ni, Ya-xuan Chen and Fei Geng

The purpose of this paper is to compare corrosion behavior of a modified multilayer material with Cu before and after brazing process.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare corrosion behavior of a modified multilayer material with Cu before and after brazing process.

Design/methodology/approach

Sea water acidified accelerated tests (SWAATs), potentiodynamic polarization tests and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the corrosion behavior and macro/micro structures. Results indicate that the corrosion mechanisms of the sheets before and after brazing process are completely different.

Findings

The un-brazed material is uniform corrosion, while the brazed material has a high sensitivity to localized corrosion and loses cathodic protection to the core. It is found that brazing process causes copper transition from the core alloy into eutectic phases in the cladding, leading to higher Ecorr and different potential distribution compared with those of un-brazed materials.

Originality/value

For the modified multilayer material after brazing, there are two stages of corrosion. First, corrosion attack takes place along eutectic phases in the cladding material, and then core alloy dissolves by forming a galvanic couple with the nobler residual cladding.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1970

G. Labeau

Définition et analyse des objectifs généraux qu'on se propose d'atteindre à l'aide du tourisme. Les objectifs susceptibles d'être retenus lors de la prise en considération d'une…

Abstract

Définition et analyse des objectifs généraux qu'on se propose d'atteindre à l'aide du tourisme. Les objectifs susceptibles d'être retenus lors de la prise en considération d'une politique de développement sont assez nombreux, et peuvent être contradictoires. Ils peuvent émaner d'agents privés, ou des pouvoirs publics qui songeraient à construire un système de décisions raisonnées et ordonnées selon un certain choix. De tels choix sont sans doute facilités par une bonne analyse de la politique économique générale, et des divers objectifs possibles. Quelques uns parmi ces objectifs sont cités ci‐dessous sans que leur ordre implique une hiérarchie de valeur. Une telle hiérarchie est plus fonction des cas d'espèce que de conceptions doctrinales.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

Article
Publication date: 17 February 2023

Michael Nii Addy, Titus Ebenezer Ebenezer Kwofie, Divine Mawutor Agbonani and Adikie E. Essegbey

Building information modelling (BIM) and augmented reality (AR) are unique technologies in the digitalized construction industry. In spite of the numerous benefits of BIM-AR, its…

Abstract

Purpose

Building information modelling (BIM) and augmented reality (AR) are unique technologies in the digitalized construction industry. In spite of the numerous benefits of BIM-AR, its adoption has been at a relatively slow pace. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the factors within technology–organization–environment (TOE) framework influence the adoption of BIM-AR in the context of construction companies in a developing country.

Design/methodology/approach

By using a mainly deductive quantitative design, survey data were collected from senior management of built environment companies in Ghana using questionnaires. The study adopted a mixture of both purposive and snowball sampling approaches. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to analyse how the factors within the TOE framework explain BIM-AR adoption in Ghana.

Findings

Findings from the study show that the top three factors within the TOE framework that facilitate the adoption of BIM-AR include ICT infrastructure within construction firms; the size of the construction firm, which may influence the financial capacity to accommodate BIM-AR; and competitive pressure. The inhibitors of BIM-AR at the company level included external support and trading partners’ readiness.

Research limitations/implications

Implicit is that the significant factors will be useful to policymakers and companies in developing programs that appeal to non-adopters to aid in mitigating their challenges and further enhance BIM-AR adoption.

Originality/value

The value of this paper has been the use of the theoretical framework TOE to explain the adoption factors of BIM-AR in the Ghanaian construction industry. The originality of the paper is further anchored in consideration of BIM-AR, which is quite nascent in emerging countries.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Bo Wang, Fengshun Wu, Yiping Wu, Bing An, Hui Liu and Jian Zou

The purpose of this paper is to identify the solder joint with optimal mechanical properties among Cu/Sn/Cu, Ni/Sn/Ni and Cu/Sn/Ni solder joints.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the solder joint with optimal mechanical properties among Cu/Sn/Cu, Ni/Sn/Ni and Cu/Sn/Ni solder joints.

Design/methodology/approach

Solder joints with the same specimen shape were prepared by reflow. The microstructures were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing was carried out to investigate the mechanical properties.

Findings

The mechanical properties of solder joint correlate closely with the intermetallic compounds (IMC) layer structure and the dissociative IMC particles in the solder bulk. Under the influence of the opposite Cu bar, the Cu/Sn/Ni has a duplex IMC layer structure at the Ni side, involving a thin Ni‐Cu‐Sn IMC layer and a faceted (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 layer. The mechanical connection of the duplex IMC layers is weak due to the pores in the layers. The Cu/Sn/Ni fractures in the IMC layers in a brittle mode under tensile testing. Comparatively, the Ni/Sn/Ni also has duplex Ni3Sn4 layers, and they connect firmly with each other. The tensile fracture of the Ni/Sn/Ni occurs in the solder bulk in a ductile mode, as well as for the Cu/Sn/Cu. Compared with the Cu/Sn/Cu solder bulk, the solder bulk of the Ni/Sn/Ni and the Cu/Sn/Ni have higher ultimate tensile strengths, because the strengthening effect of the dissociative Ni3Sn4 and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 particles on the solder bulk is stronger than that of the Cu6Sn5 particles. Among Cu/Sn/Cu, Ni/Sn/Ni and Cu/Sn/Ni, Ni/Sn/Ni has the optimal mechanical properties.

Originality/value

The paper offers insights into the significant influence of base material matching on the microstructure and mechanical properties of solder joints.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Paul A. Fadil, Robert J. Williams, Wanthanee Limpaphayom and Cindi Smatt

Conceptually examines the effect of individualism/collectivism on the tenets of equity theory. It is the view of the authors that the equality principle of reward allocation in…

11504

Abstract

Conceptually examines the effect of individualism/collectivism on the tenets of equity theory. It is the view of the authors that the equality principle of reward allocation in collectivistic cultures is not a separate method of distribution, but a subset of the theoretically grounded equity principle appropriately integrating the cross‐cultural individualism/collectivism value. To support this position, the authors reduce equity theory to its fundamental elements and illustrate how in dividualism/collectivism separately affects each component. The derived model and subsequent discussion should provide researchers with a theoretical frame work for future empirical studies.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1998

Brian H. Kleiner

Presents a special issue, enlisting the help of the author’s students and colleagues, focusing on age, sex, colour and disability discrimination in America. Breaks the evidence…

5425

Abstract

Presents a special issue, enlisting the help of the author’s students and colleagues, focusing on age, sex, colour and disability discrimination in America. Breaks the evidence down into manageable chunks, covering: age discrimination in the workplace; discrimination against African‐Americans; sex discrimination in the workplace; same sex sexual harassment; how to investigate and prove disability discrimination; sexual harassment in the military; when the main US job‐discrimination law applies to small companies; how to investigate and prove racial discrimination; developments concerning race discrimination in the workplace; developments concerning the Equal Pay Act; developments concerning discrimination against workers with HIV or AIDS; developments concerning discrimination based on refusal of family care leave; developments concerning discrimination against gay or lesbian employees; developments concerning discrimination based on colour; how to investigate and prove discrimination concerning based on colour; developments concerning the Equal Pay Act; using statistics in employment discrimination cases; race discrimination in the workplace; developments concerning gender discrimination in the workplace; discrimination in Japanese organizations in America; discrimination in the entertainment industry; discrimination in the utility industry; understanding and effectively managing national origin discrimination; how to investigate and prove hiring discrimination based on colour; and, finally, how to investigate sexual harassment in the workplace.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 17 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2023

Qifan Jia, Rui Chen, Yihan Zuo, Run Liu, Roushan Gong, Linnan Huang, Chen Chen and Bangyi Xue

This research aims to find out the reasons why Chinese people prefer domestic products. The authors examine the effect of consumer ethnocentrism (CE), social norms (SNs) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to find out the reasons why Chinese people prefer domestic products. The authors examine the effect of consumer ethnocentrism (CE), social norms (SNs) and national identity (NI) on willingness to buy (WTB) domestic products in two time points and test the product category differences and age group differences.

Design/methodology/approach

Two survey studies (n1 = 314; n2 = 346) were conducted in China in 2021 and 2022, respectively. The authors measured CE, SNs, NI and WTB domestic products in both studies and WTB four categories of products in study 2. Multiple hierarchical linear regression was conducted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

In study 1, the authors found that SNs and NI significantly predicted WTB domestic products, but CE did not. In study 2, the authors found that all three indicators significantly predicted WTB domestic products. CE played a significant and consistent role in different product categories, while SNs and NI had inconsistent effects. NI predicted WTB domestic products for younger people but not for older people.

Originality/value

This research is the first to examine CE, SNs and NI in the same study and the first to explore the role of SNs and NI in WTB domestic products in China. It promotes the understanding of CE and other related factors, increases the knowledge of Chinese consumers’ purchasing behavior and indicates the power of the situation. Practical implications are also discussed.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 35 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Kong Hui Lee

The use of an electroless nickel/immersion gold (ENIG) surface finish comes with the inherent potential risk of Black Pad failures that can cause fracture embrittlement at the…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of an electroless nickel/immersion gold (ENIG) surface finish comes with the inherent potential risk of Black Pad failures that can cause fracture embrittlement at the interface between the solder and the metal pad. As yet, there is no conclusive agreed solution to effectively eliminate Black Pad failures. The case studies presented are intended to add to the understanding of the Black Pad failure mechanism and to identify both the plating and the subsequent assembly processes and conditions that can help to prevent the likelihood of Black Pad occurring.

Design/methodology/approach

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of exposed pad surfaces on failed PCBs demonstrated a “mud‐crack” appearance, which is a characteristic of the Black Pad phenomenon. In addition, energy dispersive X‐ray (EDX) analysis was used to identify the elemental composition of the fractured layer between the Ni3P and Ni3Sn4 inter‐metallic compound, confirming the presence of Black Pad.

Findings

Grain boundaries or “mud‐cracks” that can be clearly seen in a top view of the failed pad surface and corrosion spikes in the failed pad surface, as evident from the cross‐section sample, should be used as a guideline to confirm Black Pad failures. Maintaining an optimum and well‐controlled EN and immersion gold bath, in addition to good process control prior to nickel‐gold deposition is recommended as the best approach for minimizing the occurrence of Black Pad failures.

Research limitations/implications

Only Sn/Pb soldering processes using ENIG PCBs or package substrates were evaluated and discussed. Thus, the current case studies do not encompass Black Pad failures with lead‐free soldering.

Practical implications

The work reported provides guidelines that can be used to identify Black Pad occurrence. It also proposes relevant approaches for minimizing the possible occurrence of Black Pad.

Originality/value

The findings of these studies provide a basic understanding of the Black Pad failure mechanism. Subsequently, both the plating and the ensuing assembly processes and conditions that can help to prevent the likelihood of Black Pad occurrence were identified.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Abbas J. Ali, Monle Lee, Yi‐Ching Hsieh and Krish Krishnan

Individualism collectivism measures, along with decision styles, are examined in Taiwan. About 600 questionnaires were distributed directly to employees with managerial positions…

5008

Abstract

Individualism collectivism measures, along with decision styles, are examined in Taiwan. About 600 questionnaires were distributed directly to employees with managerial positions in private, public, and mixed enter prises in the capital, Taipei. In general, Taiwanese were found to be more collectivist than individualistic. Participants displayed a strong preference for consultative and participative styles and determined that these two styles were the most effective in practice. Further more, participants indicated that their immediate supervisors were mostly consultative and autocratic.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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