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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2018

Chunlan Li, Jun Wang, Min Liu, Desalegn Yayeh Ayal, Qian Gong, Richa Hu, Shan Yin and Yuhai Bao

Extreme high temperatures are a significant feature of global climate change and have become more frequent and intense in recent years. These pose a significant threat to…

Abstract

Purpose

Extreme high temperatures are a significant feature of global climate change and have become more frequent and intense in recent years. These pose a significant threat to both human health and economic activity, and thus are receiving increasing research attention. Understanding the hazards posed by extreme high temperatures are important for selecting intervention measures targeted at reducing socioeconomic and environmental damage.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, detrended fluctuation analysis is used to identify extreme high-temperature events, based on homogenized daily minimum and maximum temperatures from nine meteorological stations in a major grassland region, Hulunbuir, China, over the past 56 years.

Findings

Compared with the commonly used functions, Weibull distribution has been selected to simulate extreme high-temperature scenarios. It has been found that there was an increasing trend of extreme high temperature, and in addition, the probability of its indices increased significantly, with regional differences. The extreme high temperatures in four return periods exhibited an extreme low hazard in the central region of Hulunbuir, and increased from the center to the periphery. With the increased length of the return period, the area of high hazard and extreme high hazard increased. Topography and anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns may be the main factors influencing the occurrence of extreme high temperatures.

Originality/value

These results may contribute to a better insight in the hazard of extreme high temperatures, and facilitate the development of appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with the adverse effects.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2021

Ahmad Ghaith, Huimin Ma and Ashraf W. Labib

High-reliability performance and high-hazard are intertwined in High-Reliability Organizations (HROs) operations; these organizations are highly safe, highly hazardous and…

Abstract

Purpose

High-reliability performance and high-hazard are intertwined in High-Reliability Organizations (HROs) operations; these organizations are highly safe, highly hazardous and highly significant for the modern society, not only for the valuable resources they have, but also the indispensable services they provide. This research intend to understand how HROs could produce high quality performance despite their challenging and demanding contexts. The research followed an emic approach to develop an organizational framework that reflects the contribution of the seeming traits of the organizations to the operations safety based on the workers point of views about the safety of workstations.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopted mixed methods of in-depth interviews and literature review to identify the structural characteristics of high-reliability organizations (HROs) embedded in the organizations studies and developed a theoretical based structural framework for HROs. Furthermore, a systemic literature review was adopted to find the evidence from the organizations literature for the identified characteristics from the interviews from the first stage. The setting for this study is six Chinese power stations, four stations in Hubei province central China and two stations in the southern China Guangdong province.

Findings

The organizational framework is a key determinant to achieve high-reliability performance; however, solely it cannot explain how HROs manage the risks of hazard events and operate safely in high-hazard environments. High-reliability performance is attributed to the interaction between two sets of determinants of safety and hazard. The findings of this research indicate that HROs systems would be described as reliable or hazardous depending on the tightly coupled setting, complexity, bureaucracy involvement and dynamicity within the systems from one hand, and safety orientation, failure intolerance, systemwide processing, the institutional setting and the employment of redundant systems on other hand.

Originality/value

The authors developed an organizational framework of organizing the safety work in HROs. The applied method of interviewing and literature review was not adopted in any other researches.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Lixin Cai

– The purpose of this paper is to enhance understanding low pay dynamics of Australian employees, with a focus on the determination of low pay duration.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enhance understanding low pay dynamics of Australian employees, with a focus on the determination of low pay duration.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws on a representative longitudinal survey of Australian households to provide empirical findings from both descriptive analysis and econometric modelling.

Findings

The results show that workers who have entered low pay from higher pay also have a higher hazard rate of transitioning to higher pay; and those who have entered low pay from non-employment are more likely to return to non-employment. Union members, public sector jobs and working in medium to large size firms tend to increase the hazard rate of transitioning to higher pay, while immigrants from non-English speaking countries and workers with health problems have a lower hazard rate of moving into higher pay. There is some evidence that the longer a worker is on low pay, the less likely he or she is to transition to higher pay.

Originality/value

This study addresses an information gap regarding the determination of low pay duration. The findings help identify workers who are at high risk of staying on low pay or transitioning into non-employment and are therefore informative for developing targeted policy to help the low paid maintain employment and/or move up the earnings ladder. The results also suggest that policy intervention should take place at an early stage of a low pay spell.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2019

Michael Petterson, Sonam Wangchuk and Norgay Konchok

This paper places a college at the centreof a multi-hazard assessment (earthquake, flood and landslide). The college is within a less studied, rural area of Ladakh, North…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper places a college at the centreof a multi-hazard assessment (earthquake, flood and landslide). The college is within a less studied, rural area of Ladakh, North India. Research focusses on a case study (Students Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL) College), close to Leh, Ladakh, and extends to incorporate/apply thinking from/to the wider Ladakh region. The approach adopted, centring on the hazard assessment of a single entity/local area, allows a rapid uptake of hazard recommendations within a college environment planning to continue its existence for decades ahead. A sister paper (Petterson et al., 2019) documents the active involvement of college staff and students in the principles of geohazard assessment and the development of student-centric hazard assessments of the college and their home village. SECMOL is a self-sufficient, alternative, college, organised along strong environmentally sustainable principles. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This work has adopted different strategies for different hazards. Fieldwork involved the collection of quantitative and qualitative data (e.g. shape and size of valleys/river channels/valley sides, estimation of vegetation density, measurement of sediment clasts, angle of slopes, assessment of sediment character, stratigraphy of floodplains and identification of vulnerable elements). These data were combined with satellite image analysis to: define river catchment character and flood vulnerability (e.g. using the methodology of Collier and Fox, 2003), examine catchment connectivity, and examine landslip scars and generic terrain analysis. Literature studies and seismic database interrogation allowed the calculation of potential catchment floodwater volumes, and the collation of epicentre, magnitude, depth and date of seismic events, together with recent thinking on the return period of large Himalayan earthquakes. These data were used to develop geological-seismic and river catchment maps, the identification of vulnerable elements, and disaster scenario analyses.

Findings

This research concludes that SECMOL, and much of the Ladakh region, is exposed to significant seismic, flood and landslide hazard risk. High magnitude earthquakes have return periods of 100s to c. 1,000 years in the Himalayas and can produce intense levels of damage. It is prudent to maximise earthquake engineering wherever possible. The 2010 Leh floods demonstrated high levels of devastation: these floods could severely damage the SECMOL campus if storms were centred close by. This study reveals the connectivity of catchments at varying altitudes and the potential interactions of adjacent catchments. Evacuation plans need to be developed for the college. Northern ridges at SECMOL could bury parts of the campus if mobilised by earthquakes/rainfall. Slope angles can be lowered and large boulders moved to reduce risk. This work reinforces recommendations that relate to building quality and urban/rural planning, e.g. using spatial planning to keep people away from high-risk zones.

Practical implications

The frequency of hazards is low, but potential impacts high to very high. Hazard mitigation actions include engineering options for hazardous slopes, buildings to be earthquake-proofed, and evacuation management for large floods.

Originality/value

Methodologies undertaken in this research are well-tested. Linkages between disciplines are ambitious and somewhat original. The application of this work to a specific college centre site with the capacity to rapidly take up recommendations is novel. The identification of catchment inter-connectivity in this part of Ladakh is novel. This work complements a sister paper (Petterson et al., 2019) for community aspects of this study, adding to the novelty value.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

Pradeep K. Rawat, C.C. Pant, P.C. Tiwari, P.D. Pant and A.K. Sharma

The main objective of the study is to identify the vulnerable areas for river‐line and flash flood hazard and its mitigation through GIS Database Management System (DBMS…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of the study is to identify the vulnerable areas for river‐line and flash flood hazard and its mitigation through GIS Database Management System (DBMS) of geo‐hydrometeorological parameters. The Dabka watershed constitutes a part of the Kosi Basin in the Lesser Himalaya, India in district Nainital has been selected for the case illustration.

Design/methodology/approach

The Dabka DBMS is constituted of three GIS (Geographic Information System) modules, i.e. geo‐informatics (consists of geomorphology, soils, geology and land use pattern, slope analysis, drainage density and drainage frequency), weather informatics (consists of daily, monthly and annual weather data about temperature, rainfall, humidity and evaporation) and hydro‐informatics (consist of runoff, sediment delivery, and denudation). The geo‐informatics and weather informatics modules carried out by comprehensive field work and GIS mapping than both modules used to carry out hydro‐informatics module. Through the integration and superimposing of spatial data and attribute data with their GIS layers of all these modules prepared Flood Hazard Index (FHI) to identify the level of vulnerability for flood hazards and their socio‐economic and environmental risks.

Findings

The results suggest that geo‐environmentally most stressed areas of barren land (i.e. river‐beds, flood plain, denudational hills, sites of debris flow, gullies, landslide prone areas etc.) have extreme vulnerability for flood hazard due to high rate of runoff, sediment load delivery and denudation during rainy season (i.e. respectively 84.56 l/s/km2, 78.60 t/km2 and 1.21 mm/year) whereas in geo‐environmentally least stressed dense forest areas (i.e. oak, pine and mixed forests) have low vulnerability due to low rate of stream runoff, sediment load delivery and denudation (i.e. respectively 20.67 l/s/km2, 19.50 t/km2 and 0.20 mm/year). The other frazzled geo‐environment which also found high vulnerable for flood hazard and their risks is agricultural land areas due to high rate of stream runoff, sediment load delivery and denudation rates (i.e. respectively 53.15 l/s/km2, 90.00 t/km2 and 0.92 mm/year).

Research limitations/implications

For hydro‐informatics module it is quite difficult to monitor water and sediment discharge data from each and every stream of the Himalayan terrain due the steep and rugged topography. It requires strategic planning and trained man power as well as sufficient funds; therefore representative micro‐watershed approach of varied ecosystem followed for a three years (2006‐2008) period.

Practical implications

The study will have great scientific relevance in the field of river‐line flood and flash flood hazard and its socio‐economic and environmental risks prevention and management in Himalaya and other mountainous terrain of the world.

Originality/value

This study generated primary data on hydro‐informatics and weather informatics to integrate with geo‐informatics data for flood hazard assessment and mitigation as constitutes a part of multidisciplinary project, Department of Science and Technology (D.S.T.) Government of India.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Evan H. Offstein, Raymond Kniphuisen, D. Robin Bichy and J. Stephen Childers Jr

Recent lapses in the management of high hazard organizations, such as the Fukushima event or the Deepwater Horizon blast, add considerable urgency to better understand the…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent lapses in the management of high hazard organizations, such as the Fukushima event or the Deepwater Horizon blast, add considerable urgency to better understand the complicated and complex phenomena of leading and managing high reliability organizations (HRO). The purpose of this paper is to offer both theoretical and practical insight to further strengthen reliability in high hazard organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Phenomenological study based on over three years of research and thousands of hours of study in HROs conducted through a scholar-practitioner partnership.

Findings

The findings indicate that the identification and the management of competing tensions arising from misalignment within and between public policy, organizational strategy, communication, decision-making, organizational learning, and leadership is the critical factor in explaining improved reliability and safety of HROs.

Research limitations/implications

Stops short of full-blown grounded theory. Steps were made to ensure validity; however, generalizability may be limited due to sample.

Practical implications

Provides insight into reliably operating organizations that are crucial to society where errors would cause significant damage or loss.

Originality/value

Extends high reliability research by investigating more fully the competing tensions present in these complex, societally crucial organizations.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2019

Michael Petterson, Lanka Nanayakkara, Norgay Konchok, Rebecca Norman, Sonam Wangchuk and Malin Linderoth

The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of “Interconnected Geoscience” to a disaster and risk reduction (DRR) case study at SECMOL College, near Leh, Ladakh, N…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of “Interconnected Geoscience” to a disaster and risk reduction (DRR) case study at SECMOL College, near Leh, Ladakh, N. India. Interconnected geoscience is a model that advocates holistic approaches to geoscience for development. This paper reports research/practical work with Ladakhi students/staff, undertaking community-oriented DRR exercises in hazard awareness, DRR themed village/college mapping, vulnerability assessments and DRR management scenario development. The geoscientific hazard analysis work is published within a separate sister paper, with results feeding into this work. This work addresses aspects of, and contributes to, the DRR research(science)-policy-interface conversation.

Design/methodology/approach

Interconnected geoscience methodologies for DRR here are: the application of geoscience for hazard causality, spatial distribution, frequency and impact assessment, for earthquakes, floods and landslides, within the SECMOL area; the generation of community-developed DRR products and services of use to a range of end-users; the development of a contextual geoscience approach, informed by social-developmental-issues; and the active participation of SECMOL students/teachers and consequent integration of local world-views and wisdom within DRR research. Initial DRR awareness levels of students were assessed with respect to earthquakes/floods/landslides/droughts. Following hazard teaching sessions, students engaged in a range of DRR exercises, and produced DRR themed maps, data, tables and documented conversations of relevance to DRR management.

Findings

Students levels of hazard awareness were variable, generally low for low-frequency hazards (e.g. earthquakes) and higher for hazards such as floods/landslides which either are within recent memory, or have higher frequencies. The 2010 Ladakhi flood disaster has elevated aspects of flood-hazard knowledge. Landslides and drought hazards were moderately well understood. Spatial awareness was identified as a strength. The application of an interconnected geoscience approach immersed within a student+staff college community, proved to be effective, and can rapidly assess/build upon awareness levels and develop analytical tools for the further understanding of DRR management. This approach can assist Ladakhi regional DRR management in increasing the use of regional capability/resources, and reducing the need for external inputs.

Practical implications

A series of recommendations for the DRR geoscience/research-policy-practice area include: adopting an “interconnected geoscience” approach to DRR research, involving scientific inputs to DRR; using and developing local capability and resources for Ladakhi DRR policy and practice; using/further-developing DRR exercises presented in this paper, to integrate science with communities, and further-empower communities; taking account of the findings that hazard awareness is variable, and weak, for potentially catastrophic hazards, such as earthquakes, when designing policy and practice for raising DRR community awareness; ensuring that local values/world views/wisdom inform all DRR research, and encouraging external “experts” to carefully consider these aspects within Ladakh-based DRR work; and further-developing DRR networks across Ladakh that include pockets of expertise such as SECMOL.

Originality/value

The term “interconnected geoscience” is highly novel, further developing thinking within the research/science-policy-practice interface. This is the first time an exercise such as this has been undertaken in the Ladakh Himalaya.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 March 2020

Andrea Valagussa, Paolo Frattini, Giovanni Battista Crosta, Daniele Spizzichino, Gabriele Leoni and Claudio Margottini

Aim of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of UNESCO Periodic Reports for the assessment of hazards affecting the UNESCO world heritage sites (WHSs) and to rank the…

Abstract

Purpose

Aim of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of UNESCO Periodic Reports for the assessment of hazards affecting the UNESCO world heritage sites (WHSs) and to rank the most critical WHSs in Europe through multicriteria analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The Periodic Reports represent the available continental-scale knowledge on hazards that threaten the WHSs in Europe and include 13 different natural threats. The information included in these reports has been first validated with high-quality data available in Italy for volcanoes, landslides, and earthquakes. Starting from the Periodic Reports, a multicriteria hazard analysis has been developed by using the analytical hierarchy procedure (AHP) approach. This analysis allows to identify and to rank the most critical WHSs at the European scale.

Findings

The data provided by Periodic Reports are demonstrated to be a good starting point for a continental-scale analysis of the actual distribution of natural threats affecting WHSs in Europe. The Periodic Reports appear to be reliable enough for a first-order assessment of hazards. The general overview of the hazard at the European scale shows high value of hazard index in the Eastern Mediterranean area and Balkans, due to a combination of earthquakes and landslides. The most at danger cultural site is in Bosnia and Herzegovina, while the most at danger natural site is Norway.

Originality/value

The paper gives a contribution to improve the continental-scale knowledge on hazards affecting the UNESCO heritage sites. The assessment of hazard inside the WHSs is an important task for the preservation of cultural and natural heritage, and it is important for UNESCO to achieve some of its goals. Through this research, European WHSs have been ranked according to their degree of hazard.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Evan H. Offstein, Raymond Kniphuisen, D. Robin Bichy and J. Stephen Childers

In light of and due to the spike in concern regarding high hazard industries, in general, and nuclear power plants (NPPs) in particular, resulting from the Japanese…

Abstract

Purpose

In light of and due to the spike in concern regarding high hazard industries, in general, and nuclear power plants (NPPs) in particular, resulting from the Japanese earthquake and crisis at Fukushima, the purpose of this paper is to offer an innovative organizational development (OD) intervention that may enhance safety and operational performance directed at these critical organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on and integrating key elements of strategy, leadership coaching and development and assessment, the authors describe and detail an intervention designed to bring a troubled NPP to a state of reliability.

Findings

It was found that performance improved in a relatively short amount of time from implementing this OD tool.

Practical implications

The findings contained herein may apply to any organization aiming to improve on safety and operational performance.

Originality/value

The paper's findings should appeal to high hazard and high reliability organizations, such as those found within the energy industry, that must continuously strive toward improved operational and safety performance.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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