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Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2023

Farhad Nazir

Tourism and natural hazards share a long pathway, owing to the fragile existential status of certain tourist destinations and voluntary and involuntary intervention of…

Abstract

Tourism and natural hazards share a long pathway, owing to the fragile existential status of certain tourist destinations and voluntary and involuntary intervention of mankind in the business of natural environment. Over a course of history, numberless natural hazards prevailed and left behind some of the colossal and collateral damage on the physicality and virtuality of destinations. Volume of studies contended this direct and inverse association. Resultantly, impact measurement, ongoing imagery issues and future forecasting have been made to ease out the tourist destination from the consequences of natural hazards. Moreover, considering the inner fabric of tourism system (demand and supply side), natural hazards have been foreseen as unwanted yet necessary event to be emphasized and taken care of. Predominantly, in the existing global milieu of maximum human intervention in the climatic cycle and its outcomes in the form of global warming, climate concerns, natural hazards have been considered as inevitable and destined. Hence, it needs a comprehensive literature-based study to assess the risk factor of natural hazards on the tourist destinations. This study, in acquiescence to address this grey section, intends to explore the existing studies (drafted on the risks impacts of natural hazards on demand, supply and ancillary segments of tourism) and structure the findings thematically and orchestrate these findings in the existing body of literature. Implications from the findings have been presented.

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Pia-Johanna Schweizer and Ortwin Renn

Systemic risks originate in tightly coupled systems. They are characterised by complexity, transboundary cascading effects, non-linear stochastic developments, tipping…

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Abstract

Purpose

Systemic risks originate in tightly coupled systems. They are characterised by complexity, transboundary cascading effects, non-linear stochastic developments, tipping points, and lag in perception and regulation. Disasters need to be analysed in the context of vulnerabilities of infrastructure, industrial activities, structural developments and behavioural patterns which amplify or attenuate the impact of hazards. In particular, disasters are triggered by chains of events that often amplify and also multiply damages. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies the concept of systemic risks to disasters more precisely to the combination of natural and human-induced disasters. The paper refers to the International Risk Governance Council’s Risk Governance Framework and applies this framework to the systemic aspects of disaster risks.

Findings

The paper maps out strategies for inclusive governance of systemic risks for disaster prevention and mitigation. Furthermore, the paper highlights policy implications of these strategies and calls out for an integrated, inclusive and adaptive management approach for the systemic aspects of disaster risks.

Originality/value

The paper fulfils the identified need to analyse disaster risks in the context of vulnerabilities of infrastructure, industrial activities, structural developments and behavioural patterns which amplify or attenuate the impact of hazards.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2006

Charlotte Benson and Edward J. Clay

Two worldwide trends in recent decades are commonly noted and sometimes linked in discussing disasters. First, the reported global cost of natural disasters has risen…

Abstract

Two worldwide trends in recent decades are commonly noted and sometimes linked in discussing disasters. First, the reported global cost of natural disasters has risen significantly, with a 14-fold increase between the 1950s and 1990s (Munich Re, 1999). During the 1990s, major natural catastrophes are reported to have resulted in economic losses averaging an estimated US$ 54 billion per annum (in 1999 prices) (ibid). Record losses of some US$ 198 billion were recorded in 1995, the year of the Kobe earthquake – equivalent to 0.7 percent of global gross domestic product (GDP) (ibid).

Details

Developmental Entrepreneurship: Adversity, Risk, and Isolation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-452-2

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2020

Christopher Scott Thompson

This paper aims to reintroduce to proponents of natural disaster readiness worldwide the history and content of the most renowned tsunami mitigation tale in Japan, …

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reintroduce to proponents of natural disaster readiness worldwide the history and content of the most renowned tsunami mitigation tale in Japan, “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) for the purpose of reconnecting with its many virtues that have made it a cross-cultural pedagogical catalyst for tsunami preparedness education. At a time in the planet's history when global warming mitigation and pandemic advertence in a milieu in which equity, diversity and human rights are highly valued, the insights it contains pertaining to tsunami preparedness, plot design and the politics of its popularity make it particularly instructive.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used methods, approaches and techniques prevalent in cultural anthropology, i.e. primary texts, historical analysis, linguistic natural hazard preparedness education theory and ethnographic insights to assess how and why “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) has come to be used so broadly on an international scale as a tsunami preparedness teaching tool and the politics involved in this process.

Findings

The study revealed that the cross-cultural relevance of “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) is related to its unique authorship and development which has cultivated in it three qualities highly compatible with effective disaster mitigation at the international level. These are the simplicity of its message, the practical advice it dispenses and the universally agreeable morality it supports. However, the way in which the Japanese Government has promoted this story does not effectively encourage equity, diversity, or a respect for human rights as a major facilitator of preparedness among the many nations like itself in the region and in the world that are vulnerable to natural hazards.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitations of the study are that it is based on a historic investigation of the origins of “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) using materials in English and Japanese, a genealogical interpretation of the story using approaches prevalent in translation studies and a qualitative analysis of historical uses of the story, all of which are difficult to quantify. Since the study seeks to find social and cultural patterns in the relevant material presented, the analysis reflects a subjectivity common in all social scientific studies of this kind.

Practical implications

Educating its readers about tsunami preparedness is one of the most important functions of this paper. The study confirms that “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) provides Japanese and non-Japanese alike with the opportunity to envision and construct a customized culturally specific sense of tsunami readiness by harnessing this dynamic. For Japanese, the story provides a chance to contemplate an astute view of Japanese-style tsunami management from the viewpoint of an outsider who became a well-respected citizen. For non-Japanese, the story offers an opportunity to be reflexive about tsunami readiness based on a cross-culturally adaptable template that Hamaguchi's protagonist Gohei provides.

Social implications

Pedagogically speaking, “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) makes the most sense when regarded as a starting point for preparing for any natural disaster anywhere. The story reminds us that the most educational, globally relevant tsunami preparedness narratives are those that complement and extend the latest of what the world knows about these destructive ocean waves to keep vulnerable citizens safe and alive. This study reveals that as important as the story is the politics of its delivery to provide the best first line of defense against tsunami amnesia which in Japan and many other countries has historically taken far too many lives.

Originality/value

The paper argues that “Inamura no Hi” (“The Rice Bale Fire”) is an example of a tsunami preparedness story that contains a variety of insights that continue to contribute to tsunami awareness education cross culturally that must not be underestimated. However, the way it is currently promoted by the Japanese Government needs to be improved, so that more representatives from more countries involved in tsunami preparedness and natural hazard readiness worldwide can benefit. These are insights not accessible by a researcher who is not bilingual in English and Japanese; thus, by using an ethnographic approach and participant observation utilizing both languages as part of long-term fieldwork, the researcher can gain these insights.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2007

Jean‐Christophe Gaillard

This article sets out to address the response of traditional societies in facing natural hazards through the lens of the concept of resilience.

4558

Abstract

Purpose

This article sets out to address the response of traditional societies in facing natural hazards through the lens of the concept of resilience.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper considers that resilient societies are those able to overcome the damage caused by the occurrence of natural hazards, either through maintaining their pre‐disaster social fabric, or through accepting marginal or larger change in order to survive. The discussion is based on a review of the corpus of case studies available in the literature.

Findings

The present article suggests that the capacity of resilience of traditional societies and the concurrent degree of cultural change rely on four factors, namely: the nature of the hazard, the pre‐disaster socio‐cultural context and capacity of resilience of the community, the geographical setting, and the rehabilitation policy set up by the authorities. These factors significantly vary in time and space, from one disaster to another.

Practical implications

It is important to perceive local variations of the foregoing factors to better anticipate the capability of traditional societies to overcome the damage caused by the occurrence of natural hazards and therefore predict eventual cultural change.

Originality/value

This article takes off from the previous vulnerability‐driven literature by emphasizing the resilience of traditional societies.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Disaster Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policies, Institutions and Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-817-3

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Abdulla Ali Alhmoudi and Zeeshan Aziz

The impacts and costs of natural disasters on people, properties and environment are often severe when these occur on a large scale and with no warning system in place…

Abstract

Purpose

The impacts and costs of natural disasters on people, properties and environment are often severe when these occur on a large scale and with no warning system in place. The lack of deployment of an early warning system (EWS), low risk and hazard knowledge and impact of natural hazard experienced by some communities in the UAE have emphasised the need for more effective EWSs. This work focuses on developing an integrated framework for EWSs for communities prone to the impact of natural hazards to reduce their vulnerability and improve emergency management arrangements in the UAE.

Design/methodology/approach

The essential elements of effective EWS were identified through literature review to develop an integrated framework for EWS. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires were also used to identify and confirm hindering factors to deployment of effective EWSs in Abu Dhabi and Fujairah Emirates, while areas that require further development were also identified through this means.

Findings

The outcome of this research revealed that the warning for natural hazards in the UAE lacked the required elements for effective EWS, whereas the elements which are present are insufficient to mitigate the impacts of natural hazards. The information in this work emphasises the need to improve two elements, and to develop the other two essential elements of EWS in the UAE.

Originality/value

The outcome of this research revealed that the warning for natural hazards in the UAE lacked the required elements for effective EWS, whereas the elements which are present are insufficient to mitigate the impacts of natural hazards. The information in this work emphasises the need to improve two elements and to develop the other two essential elements of EWS in the UAE.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 March 2022

Chang Hoon Oh and Jennifer Oetzel

In a largely exploratory study, the authors investigate: how do managers’ experiences with exogenous hazards (e.g., natural disaster risk) affect their identification of

Abstract

In a largely exploratory study, the authors investigate: how do managers’ experiences with exogenous hazards (e.g., natural disaster risk) affect their identification of those hazards as salient to the firm? This analysis is based on an international survey of 575 managers across 18 disaster-prone countries. The authors examine whether and how locational hazard risk and managerial experience influence the identification of natural disaster risk as an important firm issue. The authors find that locational natural hazard risk, and direct and indirect experience with natural disasters, increases the likelihood that managers’ will identify firm-specific natural disaster risk as an important firm issue. In addition, the authors also find that managers are likely to identify natural hazards as a threat when natural hazard risk is high and when managers have experience in natural disasters that directly affected their businesses.

Details

International Business in Times of Crisis: Tribute Volume to Geoffrey Jones
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-164-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Imon Chowdhooree and Kanu Kumar Das

Mud architecture as one of the expressions of vernacular architecture illustrates the success of indigenous knowledge of traditional communities. Due to the pressure of…

Abstract

Purpose

Mud architecture as one of the expressions of vernacular architecture illustrates the success of indigenous knowledge of traditional communities. Due to the pressure of industrialization, urbanization and globalization, the trend of using non-traditional measures guided by the Western-Euro-centric knowledge and technologies considers the traditional practices as expressions of backward past, under-development and poverty. Though mud as a building material is usually assumed as a fragile and ephemeral material that cannot survive against natural hazards, the surviving traditional mud buildings are needed to be investigated to know their performances during and after different types of natural hazard incidents.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper intends to study the available cases of mud architecture of Chattogram, Bangladesh to trace the history of their survival despite of experiencing multiple natural hazards and to understand their status and prospect of resisting hazards. Three individual homesteads are chosen as cases for conducting physical survey as well as engaging inhabitants and local masons of the locality in semi-structured interviews in a story telling mode to know the construction process and histories of experiencing natural hazards. Available literatures are reviewed, and experts are interviewed to understand the causes of their performances and possible ways to improve the quality.

Findings

Collected information on mud architecture demonstrates their quality of surviving against many natural challenges and this hazard-resilient quality can be enhanced through using contemporary building technologies and materials, promising to co-exist with the global trend.

Originality/value

This study as an attempt to reinvent the vernacular architectural heritage endorses the need of appreciating indigenous knowledge for enhancing community resilience against natural hazards.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2019

Margaret Kilvington and Wendy Saunders

Risk-based land-use planning is a major tool for reducing risks and enabling communities to design for and mitigate against natural hazard events. Moving towards a…

Abstract

Purpose

Risk-based land-use planning is a major tool for reducing risks and enabling communities to design for and mitigate against natural hazard events. Moving towards a risk-based approach to land-use planning involves changes in planning and public communication practice for local government agencies. However, talking to people about how decisions made in the present may increase risk in the future is notoriously hard and requires carefully crafted public discussion. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores the case of a local government planning agency (the Bay of Plenty Regional Council (BOPRC)) who adopted a risk-based approach to the development of their regional policy statement (RPS). The BOPRC designed an innovative approach to talking to their communities about future land use and acceptable risk based on a framework and toolkit of resources (the RBPA – risk-based planning approach).

Findings

The process addressed several common challenges of risk engagement for land-use planning as it: integrated input from policy and planning professionals, technical experts and community development specialists across local government organisations; used locally relevant community sessions that developed participants’ understanding of risk; linked ideas about risk tolerance to potential policy implications for local government; and built capacity amongst participants for judgment about risk acceptability and options for safeguard.

Research limitations/implications

The process met public engagement planning criteria for robustness, i.e., valid process design and interpretation of feedback, and transparent integration into the final decisions. It enabled public views on natural hazards to be evaluated alongside technical input and incorporated into final decisions on thresholds for acceptable and unacceptable risk.

Originality/value

The approach taken has made significant contribution to risk engagement and land-use planning practice in New Zealand. In 2017, the BOPRC risk-based approach to their RPS received a national award from the New Zealand Planning Institute for contribution to advancing best practice. In 2018, it received further recognition through the Commonwealth Association of Planners Award for Outstanding Achievement in the Commonwealth.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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