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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Book part
Publication date: 28 June 2016

Luisa Errichiello and Tommasina Pianese

To provide a conceptual framework for understanding the role of organizational control in the context of remote work arrangements.

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a conceptual framework for understanding the role of organizational control in the context of remote work arrangements.

Methodology/approach

The framework has been developed drawing on two distinct research streams. Existing frameworks on remote work arrangements enabled to identify relevant dimensions to include in our framework, namely drivers of adoption and outcomes of implementation. They also evidenced the importance of opening up the remote work implementation process addressing crucial management issues, notably organizational control. On the basis of extant organizational research we deconstructed the complexity of organizational control in its constituent elements and identified mechanisms of control enactment over time.

Findings

The framework links the dynamics of change in organizational control initiated by the adoption of remote work arrangements with its antecedents (drivers of adoption and characteristics of the remote work model) and implementation outcomes at individual, group and organizational level. It opens the implementation stage focusing on the dynamics of organizational control and clarifies its role when the organization decides to adopt remote working.

Originality/value

The framework assumes that organizational control is not a static entity but a process of mutual constitution between structures of controls and actions enacted over time by both managers and employees (remote workers and on-site colleagues). It shows the value of a process perspective that emphasizes time mechanisms underlying changes in organizational control of remote work. Moreover, it constitutes a valuable reference guide to interpret in an integrated way existing research on the issue and identify inconsistencies in empirical findings, relevant gaps and opportunities for future research.

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Performance Measurement and Management Control: Contemporary Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-915-2

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Yuka Fujimoto and Charmine E.J. Härtel

To overcome the shortcomings of diversity training programs, the purpose of this paper is to conceptualize an organizational diversity-learning framework, which features…

Abstract

Purpose

To overcome the shortcomings of diversity training programs, the purpose of this paper is to conceptualize an organizational diversity-learning framework, which features an organizational intervention for employees’ joint decision-making process with other employees from different statuses, functions, and identities. Borrowing key principles from the diversity learning (Rainey and Kolb, 1995); integration and learning perspective (Ely and Thomas, 2001; Thomas and Ely, 1996), and the key practices informed by deliberative democratic theories (Thompson, 2008), the authors develop a new organizational diversity learning framework for behavioral, attitudinal, and cognitive learning at workplaces. They conclude with directions for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first presents an overview of key shortcomings of diversity training programs in relation to their group composition, design, content and evaluation. Second, it borrows the key principles of diversity learning (Rainey and Kolb, 1995); integration and learning perspectives (Ely and Thomas, 2001; Thomas and Ely, 1996), and the key practices informed by deliberative democratic theories (Thompson, 2008) to delineate the organizational diversity learning framework. Third, it presents a table of the approach contrasted with the shortcomings of diversity training programs and discusses practical and theoretical contributions, along with directions for future research.

Findings

This paper conceptualizes an organizational diversity-learning framework, which features an organizational intervention for employees’ joint decision-making process with other employees from different statuses, functions, and identities.

Research limitations/implications

The organizational diversity learning framework developed in this paper provides an inclusive diversity learning paradigm in which diversity learning rests in the experience of the learner. As stated by experiential learning theory, this framework encourages workers to heuristically learn about diverse perspectives in a psychologically safe environment, to reflect on different perspectives, and to create a new awareness about learning from others. As the participants learn to apply new repertoires for interacting with others in their daily work interactions (e.g. listening to different perspectives shared by unfamiliar social group members), it proposes that their behaviors may create a ripple effect, changing other colleagues’ attitudes, behaviors, and thinking patterns on working with diverse coworkers.

Practical implications

This paper provides detailed instructions for practitioners to facilitate diversity learning. It highlights a few key practical implications. First, the framework provides a method of organization-wide diversity learning through intersecting networks within the workplace, which is designed to reduce the elitist organizational decision making that mainly occurs at the upper echelon. Second, unlike other stand-alone diversity initiatives, the framework is embedded in the organizational decision-making process, which makes employees’ learning applicable to core organizational activities, contributing to both employees’ diversity learning and organizational growth. Third, the framework provides a preliminary model for transferring employees’ diversity learning in daily work operations, nurturing their behavioral learning to interact with different social groups more frequently at work and inclusive of their colleagues’ perspectives, feelings, and attitudes.

Social implications

Workforces across nations are becoming increasingly diverse, and, simultaneously, the gap and tension between demographic representation in the upper and lower echelons is widening. By joining with other scholars who have advocated for the need to move beyond diversity training programs, the authors developed the organizational diversity learning framework for meaningful co-participation of employees with different statuses, functions, and identities. By inviting minority perspectives into the organizational decision-making process, top managers can explicitly send a message to minority groups that their perspectives matter and that their contributions are highly valued by the organization.

Originality/value

There has not been a conceptual paper that delineates the diversity inclusive decision-making process within a workplace. The authors established the organizational diversity learning framework based on the diversity learning, organizational diversity integration and learning perspectives, and deliberative democracy practices. The proposed framework guides organizations in structural interventions to educate employees on how to learn from multiple perspectives for better organizational decision making.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Tengku Adil Tengku Izhar, Torab Torabi and M. Ishaq Bhatti

This paper is about gathering the measurement data and making an effectiveness results to assist decision-making process to evaluate the level of the organizational goals…

Abstract

This paper is about gathering the measurement data and making an effectiveness results to assist decision-making process to evaluate the level of the organizational goals achievement. In order to achieve this aim, we designed GOAL framework as a platform represents five steps for domain experts and entrepreneurs to identify the relevant organizational data to assist decision-making process in relation to the organizational goals. The aim of this paper concentrates on the design of this framework. GOAL framework associated with the organizational goals ontology aim to identify the dependency relationship between organizational goals and dependency relationship between organizational data and organizational goals. Metrics is defined for this dependency to identify which organizational data is relevant to the organizational goals. The framework is flexible to change without affecting things around because the framework is applicable in any organizational data with different organizational goals.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2014

Kim Aitken and Kathryn von Treuer

The purpose of this paper is to describe a two-part study that has explored the organisational and leadership competencies required for successful service integration…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a two-part study that has explored the organisational and leadership competencies required for successful service integration within a health consortia in Australia. Preliminary organisational and leadership competency frameworks were developed to serve as reference points as the consortia it expanded to cater for increased service demand in the midst of significant health reform.

Design/methodology/approach

The study design is outlined, which involved literature reviews and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders to ascertain the key determinants of successful service integration at both organisational and leadership levels.

Findings

The literature reviews revealed little existing research specifically focused on the organisational and leadership competencies that underpin successful service integration. The themes from the literature reviews and semi-structured interviews informed the preliminary organisational and leadership competency frameworks. Both frameworks are outlined in the paper. Key determinants of successful service integration – at both an organisational and individual leadership level – are also presented.

Research limitations/implications

This is a one-organisation case study and the competency frameworks presented are preliminary. However, the study findings provide a foundation for further research focusing on the longer-term success of service integration.

Originality/value

Service integration in health is a new and emerging area, and there is little extant research exploring the organisational and leadership competencies underpinning its success. The competency frameworks presented in the paper may be of interest to other consortia and organisations engaged in service integration and other forms of merger and collaboration.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Rajnish Kumar Rai

Organizational culture is a critical factor in building and reinforcing knowledge management in organizations. However, there is no theoretical framework that

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational culture is a critical factor in building and reinforcing knowledge management in organizations. However, there is no theoretical framework that comprehensively explains the effect of organizational culture on knowledge management in organizations. This paper endeavors to develop a theoretical integrative framework for organizational knowledge management and organizational culture.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper. It modifies the “competing value framework” by adding a new dimension representing ethical and trusting culture, and then integrates it with the SECI model of knowledge creation and conversion by identifying the conceptual parallels between the two frameworks and then analyzing the interaction effects among the dimensions.

Findings

Based on the congruity between the modified competing values framework and the knowledge creation and conversion framework, the paper formulates six propositions about the propensity of organizations of different dominant cultural styles to engage in the four processes of knowledge creation and conversion.

Research limitations/implications

The dynamic nature of the framework presented in the paper points to the importance of longitudinal and comparative research in understanding the effects of organizational culture on organizational knowledge management systems in organizations.

Practical implications

The proposed integrative framework would facilitate organizational learning and lead to the improvement of knowledge management practices in organizations as it helps managers to understand the linkages between culture and knowledge management.

Originality/value

This paper presents a new framework linking organizational culture to knowledge management. It moves away from analyzing culture only in terms of its positive and negative influences on knowledge management. Instead, it suggests a typology of the kind of knowledge management processes that organizations are likely to focus on depending on the culture that prevails in an organization.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Phil St John Renshaw, Emma Parry and Michael Dickmann

This study aims to present a framework relating to the organizational value of international assignments (IAs). This extends the existing framework by Lepak et al. (2007…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present a framework relating to the organizational value of international assignments (IAs). This extends the existing framework by Lepak et al. (2007) and applies to other fields researching questions of value.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper that applies new thinking to the critical practical and theoretical issue of organizational value in global mobility (GM) and international business (IB) literature. The Lepak et al. (2007) framework is explained, used and extended to appraise the value of IAs to organizations.

Findings

The primary contribution is the establishment of a value framework within which future IA research can position itself, refining extant measures and thereby enabling greater cohesion in future studies. The secondary contribution, impacting beyond the field of GM, is the development of this framework, including the identification and discussion of value itself, the significance of organizational sub-levels, the extension of the definitions of isolating mechanisms and competition to explicate value capture, the importance of temporal analysis and the inclusion of value assessment.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited by its application to IAs at the organizational level only. However, the relationship with other levels is also explored. Research within different contexts or focusing on the other levels of value will increase the understanding of value.

Practical implications

Definitions of the value of IAs are extended, and practitioner implications are discussed.

Originality/value

A new framework for evaluating the organizational value of IAs and new definitions to enable this value to be assessed are produced.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Lew Sook-Ling, Maizatul Akmar Ismail and Yuen Yee-Yen

The purpose of this paper is to propose an inclusive research model to overcome the single perspective issues of the previous research which were looking at either on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an inclusive research model to overcome the single perspective issues of the previous research which were looking at either on knowledge management (KM) activity, information technology (IT) applications or information infrastructure capability (IIC) independently.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviewed and categorised five knowledge management (KM) frameworks: first, KM foundation studies; second, resource-based view studies; third, IIC studies; fourth, competitive advantage (CA) studies; fifth, organisational information processing theory studies to propose research model. Case studies based on face-to-face interviews were conducted to empirically analyse the proposed research model.

Findings

An inclusive research model was suggested to redress the key limitation of past studies in this research field.

Research limitations/implications

Since Asian countries are at present heading for the creation of a knowledge economy, the present study is important to assist government and researchers to develop the most suitable information infrastructure for effective KM in the organisation. The research model proposed by the present study can also become a key reference to the governments and researchers in other developing countries towards the creation of knowledge economy.

Practical implications

The model proposed by the present study will help organisations to examine the performance of their current information infrastructure towards developing new business processes, techniques and decisions for effective KM in the organisations.

Originality/value

The present study is one of the pioneer studies that integrating important IICs such as the integrating capability, data management capability, security capability, utility capability and collaborating capability in the research framework to assist knowledge-based companies to enhance current KM practices and attain long-term CA.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Henrik Pålsson and Erik Sandberg

Grounded in paradox theory, and with the objective of structuring and extending existing knowledge of conflicts of interest (e.g. trade-offs) in packaging logistics, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Grounded in paradox theory, and with the objective of structuring and extending existing knowledge of conflicts of interest (e.g. trade-offs) in packaging logistics, the purpose of this paper is to identify categories of paradoxical tensions in packaging systems used in supply chains, and to develop a conceptual framework that describes these categories.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a theory building approach. It develops a conceptual framework of paradoxical tensions for packed products in supply chains. It revises and extends current knowledge in this domain by applying paradox theory from organisational research.

Findings

The paper develops a generic, conceptual framework that identifies, categorises and describes packed product paradoxes on two system levels: supply chain and company levels. The categories of paradoxes refer to performing, organising, belonging and learning.

Research limitations/implications

The framework provides a new theoretical explanation of conflicts of interest in packaging logistics in terms of paradoxical tensions related to packed products in supply chains. It structures and increases general understanding of such tensions within and between actors in a supply chain. The paper also discusses differences in terminology between tensions which are possible to settle and those which lead to paradoxes.

Practical implications

The framework provides a structure for analysing the organisational impact of strategic packaging decisions. It can help highlight different stakeholders' organisational constraints related to packaging.

Originality/value

The framework's systematic categorisation of four types of paradoxical tensions, with thorough descriptions of the meaning of packed product paradoxes of each type, offers an expanded and in-depth explanation of the organisational impacts of packed products in supply chains.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Jesse F. Dillard, John T. Rigsby and Carrie Goodman

Institutional theory is becoming one of the dominant theoretical perspectives in organization theory and is increasingly being applied in accounting research to study the…

Abstract

Institutional theory is becoming one of the dominant theoretical perspectives in organization theory and is increasingly being applied in accounting research to study the practice of accounting in organizations. However, most institutional theory research has adequately theorized neither the institutionalization process through which change takes place nor the socio‐political context of the institutional formations. We propose a social theory based framework for grounding and expanding institutional theory to more fully articulate institutionalization processes. Specifically, we incorporate institutional theory and structuration theory and draw on the work of Max Weber in developing a framework of the context and the processes associated with creating, adopting and discarding institutional practices. We propose that the expanded framework depicts the socio‐economic and political context better and more directly addresses the dynamics of enacting, embedding and changing organizational features and processes. Expanding the focus of the institutional theory based accounting research can facilitate a more comprehensive representation of accounting as the object of institutional practices as well as provide a better articulation of the role of accounting in the institutionalization process.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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