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1 – 10 of over 1000
Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2017

Brenda Jones Harden, Brandee Feola, Colleen Morrison, Shelby Brown, Laura Jimenez Parra and Andrea Buhler Wassman

Children experience toxic stress if there is pronounced activation of their stress-response systems, in situations in which they do not have stable caregiving. Due to…

Abstract

Children experience toxic stress if there is pronounced activation of their stress-response systems, in situations in which they do not have stable caregiving. Due to their exposure to multiple poverty-related risks, African American children may be more susceptible to exposure to toxic stress. Toxic stress affects young children’s brain and neurophysiologic functioning, which leads to a wide range of deleterious health, developmental, and mental health outcomes. Given the benefits of early care and education (ECE) for African American young children, ECE may represent a compensating experience for this group of children, and promote their positive development.

Details

African American Children in Early Childhood Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-258-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2015

Jennifer Stone and Susan Bray

Children experience trauma more often than many early childhood educators realize. As many as 26% of children experience multiple trauma events such as abuse, neglect…

Abstract

Children experience trauma more often than many early childhood educators realize. As many as 26% of children experience multiple trauma events such as abuse, neglect, parental substance abuse, parental incarceration, and so forth. Trauma impacts brain development in many negative ways that may have serious consequences on the child’s ability to learn, grow socially and emotionally, and develop physically. These brain changes also change how the child will play in the early childhood classroom, and information is given to help recognize the signs of trauma in children. The early childhood educator can make trauma-sensitive modifications in the classroom to assist the traumatized child’s ability to play out the problem. School counselors can be a resource for assisting early childhood teachers when working with traumatized children. A brief description of the importance of play therapy as a developmentally appropriate method to help traumatized young children is provided.

Details

Discussions on Sensitive Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-293-1

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

Deborah J. Morris, Shubhinder Shergill and Elizabeth Beber

People with an intellectual disability (ID) are more at risk of experiencing adverse childhood events. Moreover, prolonged exposure to ACEs results in enduring changes and…

Abstract

Purpose

People with an intellectual disability (ID) are more at risk of experiencing adverse childhood events. Moreover, prolonged exposure to ACEs results in enduring changes and impairments in neurological, physiological and psycho-social systems and functioning. In response, van der Kolk et al. (2009) have put forward the concept of developmental trauma disorder (DTD) to reflect the “constellation of enduring symptoms” and complex care needs of this population. The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the level of exposure to adverse childhood events and the prevalence of DTD in an inpatient forensic ID population.

Design/methodology/approach

A retrospective file review and consensus approach to diagnosis were used in a sample of adults with an ID detained in a secure forensic service.

Findings

Results revealed that 89 admissions (N=123) had been exposed to at least one significant ACE, with 81 being exposed to prolonged ACEs. A total of 58 admissions (47 per cent) met criteria for PTSD and 80 (65 per cent) met the criteria for DTD. Significant gender differences were noted in MHA status, primary psychiatric diagnoses, exposure to ACEs and DTD.

Research limitations/implications

The discussion explores the implications for working with forensic ID populations who report high incidents of childhood trauma and the utility, strengths and weaknesses of the proposed DTD, its relationship to ID diagnoses is explored.

Originality/value

The study outlines the prevalence of DTD and PTSD in ID forensic populations and suggests additional key assessment and treatment needs for this population.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2019

Hadewych R.M.M. Schepens, Joris Van Puyenbroeck and Bea Maes

People with intellectual disability are reported to encounter many negative life events during their increasingly long lives. In the absence of protective elements, these…

Abstract

Purpose

People with intellectual disability are reported to encounter many negative life events during their increasingly long lives. In the absence of protective elements, these may cause toxic stress and trauma. Given the reported negative effects of such adverse events on their quality of life (QoL), the perspective of older people with intellectual disability themselves may be of relevance. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors questioned nine participants with mild intellectual disability, aged 61–88 years old, in four 90-min focus group sessions and thematically analysed the data.

Findings

Many recent and bygone negative life events still weighed heavily on the participants. Negative interactions, experiences of loss, lack of control and awareness of one’s disability caused stress. Their emotional response contrasted with their contentment, compliance and resilience. Having (had) good relationships, having learnt coping skills, remaining active, talking about past experiences and feeling free of pain, safe, well supported, capable, respected and involved seemed to heighten resilience and protect participants from toxic stress.

Research limitations/implications

Monitoring and preventing adverse (childhood) experiences, supporting active/emotional coping strategies, psychotherapy and life story work may facilitate coping with negative events and enhance QoL of elderly people with intellectual disability.

Originality/value

Elderly people with mild intellectual disability run a higher risk of experiencing (early) adverse events in life. They are very capable of talking about their experiences, QoL, and the support they need. Focus groups were a reliable method to capture their insights.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2020

Beverly Love, Arlene Vetere and Paul Davis

Psychological developmental informed theories imply that addiction is not exclusively due to the addictive properties of the substance but that early psycho-social…

Abstract

Purpose

Psychological developmental informed theories imply that addiction is not exclusively due to the addictive properties of the substance but that early psycho-social experiences are influential on later life. The purpose of this paper is to understand substance dependency, relapse and recovery amongst community-based substance using offenders in relation to their childhoods, relationships and significant life events, from their perspective. A key aim was to help better inform policy and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study (interpretative phenomenological analysis) was used to understand the impact of childhood, relationships and significant life events amongst (N = 17) adult ex/offenders with substance use dependency problems, (who were part of the UK Government rehabilitation programme), to understand their substance use and recovery from their own perspectives.

Findings

Four main superordinate themes were developed illustrating participants extremely adverse childhoods. Substance use was a means to cope with current and past trauma and crises and to help manage the emotions and mental health which could accompany these difficulties. Managing recovery was about learning to manage life itself, including emotions, mental health problems, trauma/responses, relationships and everyday life.

Originality/value

This group is under researched where qualitative methods have been used. The study focussed on early-psycho-social experiences and relationships and the influence of these throughout the life cycle, in relation to their substance use. The study was informed by theories often used in therapeutic settings but rarely in research, (Orford, 2008; Khantzian, 2012; Flores, 2012, Van Der Kolk, 2014).

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2020

Deborah J. Morris, Elanor Lucy Webb, Emma Parmar, Grace Trundle and Anne McLean

People with developmental disorders are significantly more likely to experience adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), although the impact of ACEs on this population is not…

Abstract

Purpose

People with developmental disorders are significantly more likely to experience adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), although the impact of ACEs on this population is not well understood. Furthermore, considerably less is known about the exposure to, and impact of, ACEs in detained adolescents with complex developmental disorder needs. This paper aims to explore the exposure to ACEs in an adolescent population detained in a secure specialist developmental disorder service.

Design/methodology/approach

A retrospective file review was used to explore ACEs and placement histories within a specialist developmental disorder inpatient service. Data was collated for a convenience sample of 36 adolescents, 9 of whom were female, aged 13–20 years (M = 17.28 years).

Findings

A total of 33 participants (91.7%) had experienced at least 1 ACE, with 58% experiencing 4 or more ACEs and 36% experiencing 6 or more ACEs. The most common ACEs reported were physical abuse (61.6%), parental separation (58.3%) and emotional abuse (55.6%). The majority of participants had also experienced high levels of disruption prior to admission, with an average of four placement breakdowns (range 1–13, standard deviation = 3.1). ACEs held a significant positive association with the total number of placement breakdowns and total number of mental health diagnoses.

Practical implications

Adolescents detained in specialist developmental disorder secure care had, at the point of admission, experienced high levels of adversities and had been exposed to high levels of experienced and observed abuse. The level of exposure to adversity and ongoing disruptions in care suggests that Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services’ developmental secure services should consider adopting dual treatment frameworks of developmental disorder and trauma-informed care.

Originality/value

This study explored the early-life and placement experiences of a marginalised and understudied population.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

John M. Violanti, Anna Mnatsakanova, Ja K. Gu, Samantha Service and Michael E. Andrew

The purpose of this study is to examine cross-sectional associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health among police officers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine cross-sectional associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health among police officers.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study data (132 male and 51 female officers). Standardized surveys were administered to participants. Regression coefficients were obtained from models adjusted for age, sex, race and alcohol intake. All statistical tests were performed using a statistical significance level at p < 0.05.

Findings

Regression analyses showed significant positive associations between ACEs and mental health (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [PTSD]: β = 1.70, p < 0.001 and depressive symptoms: β = 1.29, p < 0.001). Resiliency significantly modified the association between ACEs and PTSD. A positive and significant association was observed among officers with lower resiliency (β = 2.65, p < 0.001). The association between ACEs and PTSD was stronger among male officers compared to females (β = 2.66, p < 0.001 vs. β = 0.59,  0.248, respectively).

Research limitations/implications

Child abuse and development of PTSD or depression could not be traced through time as this was a cross-sectional study. Recall bias may affect results.

Practical implications

PTSD and depression associated with ACEs can affect the interpretation of threat and can exacerbate emotional regulation in officers. An inquiry should be expanded regarding work assignments of victimized officers, such as child exploitation and pornography investigation.

Originality/value

There are few studies on ACEs and the mental health of police officers. The present study is among the first to associate multiple police mental health issues with ACEs.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Chloe Crompton, Bethany Duncan and Graham Simpson-Adkins

This paper aims to systematically review the available evidence that explores adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in people with intellectual disabilities (PwID). It is…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to systematically review the available evidence that explores adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in people with intellectual disabilities (PwID). It is important to systematically review this literature as, to date, there is little known about the number of studies in this area, despite the World Health Organization declaring ACE prevention and support as a global public health priority.

Design/methodology/approach

Published studies were identified from electronic database searches. Key journals and reference lists were also hand searched.

Findings

Two studies met the inclusion criteria and the prevalence and frequency of ACEs experienced by participants of these studies analysed. Overall, due to the small number of studies meeting the inclusion criteria, it is difficult to establish any meaningful conclusions.

Originality/value

This appears to be the first systematic review to try and identify a research base looking at the prevalence of ACEs within a PwID population. Findings suggest that this is a highly neglected area of research, and the authors hope to have identified that further evidence is required to draw clearer conclusions about the impact of ACEs on PwID.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2010

Marjorie C. Feinson and Tamar Ben Dror

Purpose and methodology – Many adult women struggle with serious eating problems (EPs) and obesity is increasing, yet, little is known about the origins of EPs, which…

Abstract

Purpose and methodology – Many adult women struggle with serious eating problems (EPs) and obesity is increasing, yet, little is known about the origins of EPs, which often begin in childhood. Personal Narratives with 25 Israeli Jewish women in recovery from EPs explore (a) types of childhood experiences, (b) the connection between childhood experiences and subsequent EPs, and (c) why food!

Findings a.Analyses of personal narratives uncover a broad range of emotionally abusive experiences in childhood (CEA) including continuous criticism about body shape and weight, emotional neglect and abandonment, death or illness in the family in the absence of a nurturing adult, conflict and tension surrounding parental divorce or dysfunctional marriage, geographic dislocation, and aftermath of the Holocaust.b.Interviewees explicitly identified CEA as the cause of their turning to food for comfort in childhood and subsequently developing lifelong EPs.c.Why food! It was easily accessible, its sweetness took away the pain - temporarily, children replicated parents' unhealthy relationship with food, it was abundant and central in Jewish cultural, ethnic and religious traditions.

Research Implications – This research documents the critical contribution of emotionally abusive experiences in childhood to the development of EPs and confirms the need for additional research.

Practical Implications – The findings warrant a shift in policies and practices to address the role of emotional abuse in the development and maintenance of EPs. Moreover, policies focused on obesity, particularly among youth, need to recognize the contribution of CEA – in addition to poor dietary choices and lack of exercise.

Details

Interactions and Intersections of Gendered Bodies at Work, at Home, and at Play
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-944-2

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2007

Bonnie Lee, Jason Solowoniuk and Mary Fong

Trauma and adverse childhood events are found in the pre‐immigration histories of a cohort of four Chinese Canadian pathological gamblers. The nature of their traumatic…

Abstract

Trauma and adverse childhood events are found in the pre‐immigration histories of a cohort of four Chinese Canadian pathological gamblers. The nature of their traumatic experiences, consisting of loss and abandonment, neglect and deprivation, physical and emotional abuse, socioeconomic and political oppression, is elucidated and described. The impact of pre‐immigration trauma and its relationship to the development of pathological gambling post‐immigration are discussed. Upon further corroboration of the existence of pre‐immigration trauma among Chinese and Asian immigrants in future studies, training of counsellors to incorporate an in‐depth pre‐immigration history in the assessment and treatment protocol of immigrants manifesting pathological gambling is recommended.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000