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Brenda Jones Harden, Brandee Feola, Colleen Morrison, Shelby Brown, Laura Jimenez Parra and Andrea Buhler Wassman

Children experience toxic stress if there is pronounced activation of their stress-response systems, in situations in which they do not have stable caregiving. Due to…

Abstract

Children experience toxic stress if there is pronounced activation of their stress-response systems, in situations in which they do not have stable caregiving. Due to their exposure to multiple poverty-related risks, African American children may be more susceptible to exposure to toxic stress. Toxic stress affects young children’s brain and neurophysiologic functioning, which leads to a wide range of deleterious health, developmental, and mental health outcomes. Given the benefits of early care and education (ECE) for African American young children, ECE may represent a compensating experience for this group of children, and promote their positive development.

Details

African American Children in Early Childhood Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-258-9

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Article

Hadewych R.M.M. Schepens, Joris Van Puyenbroeck and Bea Maes

People with intellectual disability are reported to encounter many negative life events during their increasingly long lives. In the absence of protective elements, these…

Abstract

Purpose

People with intellectual disability are reported to encounter many negative life events during their increasingly long lives. In the absence of protective elements, these may cause toxic stress and trauma. Given the reported negative effects of such adverse events on their quality of life (QoL), the perspective of older people with intellectual disability themselves may be of relevance. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors questioned nine participants with mild intellectual disability, aged 61–88 years old, in four 90-min focus group sessions and thematically analysed the data.

Findings

Many recent and bygone negative life events still weighed heavily on the participants. Negative interactions, experiences of loss, lack of control and awareness of one’s disability caused stress. Their emotional response contrasted with their contentment, compliance and resilience. Having (had) good relationships, having learnt coping skills, remaining active, talking about past experiences and feeling free of pain, safe, well supported, capable, respected and involved seemed to heighten resilience and protect participants from toxic stress.

Research limitations/implications

Monitoring and preventing adverse (childhood) experiences, supporting active/emotional coping strategies, psychotherapy and life story work may facilitate coping with negative events and enhance QoL of elderly people with intellectual disability.

Originality/value

Elderly people with mild intellectual disability run a higher risk of experiencing (early) adverse events in life. They are very capable of talking about their experiences, QoL, and the support they need. Focus groups were a reliable method to capture their insights.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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Article

Trista Hollweck

The purpose of this paper is to report on a qualitative case study that examined the potential benefits, challenges and implications of the mentor–coach (MC) role as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on a qualitative case study that examined the potential benefits, challenges and implications of the mentor–coach (MC) role as a supportive structure for experienced teachers’ well-being and sense of flourishing in schools.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative case study used data collected from surveys, interviews, focus groups and documentation. Data were coded and abductively analyzed using the “framework approach” with and against Seligman’s well-being PERMA framework. In order to include an alternative stakeholder perspective, data from a focus group with the district’s teacher union executive are also included.

Findings

Using the constituting elements of Seligman’s well-being (PERMA) framework, experienced teachers reported positive emotion, engagement, positive relationships, meaning and accomplishment from their MC experience. However, the MC role is not a panacea for educator well-being. Rather, the quality and effectiveness of the mentoring and coaching relationship is a determining factor and, if left unattended, negative experiences could contribute to their stress and increased workload.

Research limitations/implications

The data used in this study were based on a limited number of survey respondents (25/42) and the self-selection of the interview (n=7) and focus group participants (n=6). The research findings may lack generalizability and be positively skewed.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the current lack of empirical research on the MC experience and considers some of the wider contextual factors that impact effective mentoring and coaching programs for educators.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

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Abstract

Details

African American Children in Early Childhood Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-258-9

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Article

Amna Anjum and Xu Ming

Across the globe, every organization is striving to enhance the productivity and growth rate, but the prosperity and success of an organization is determined by the type…

Abstract

Purpose

Across the globe, every organization is striving to enhance the productivity and growth rate, but the prosperity and success of an organization is determined by the type of work environment in which it operates. To address this apprehension, this paper aims to determine the effect of toxic workplace environment on job stress that can badly affect the job productivity of an employee.

Design/methodology/approach

As an independent variable, toxic workplace environment was used as a complete spectrum consisting multiple dimensions named as workplace ostracism, workplace incivility, workplace harassment and workplace bullying. Job stress was used as a mediating variable between the spectrum of toxic workplace environment and job productivity. In this regard, self-administered close-ended questionnaire was used to collect the data from 267 employees of the health sector (HS) of Lahore region in Pakistan. For analysis purpose, we used confirmatory factor analysis to ensure the convergent and discriminant validity of the factors. AMOS 22 was used to check the direct and indirect effect of selected variables. Hayes mediation approach was used to check the mediating role of job stress between four dimensions of toxic workplace environment and job productivity.

Findings

The output demonstrated that the dimensions of toxic workplace environment have a negative significant relationship with job productivity, while job stress was proved as a statistical significant mediator between dimensions of toxic workplace environment and job productivity. Finally, we conclude that organizations need to combat/cleanse the roots of toxic workplace environment to ensure their prosperity and success.

Originality/value

This study aims to determine the effect of toxic workplace environment on job stress that can badly affect the job productivity of an employee. An empirical study in the context of the HS of Pakistan. This study, which is based on HS, has never been reported before in literature.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article

National Scientific Council

Drawing on the scientific literature, the purpose of this paper is to elucidate the harmful effects of toxic stress on the developing brain. It explains how severe…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the scientific literature, the purpose of this paper is to elucidate the harmful effects of toxic stress on the developing brain. It explains how severe, chronic adversity during development, in the absence of responsive caregiving, can impair brain architecture. It also outlines policy implications for preventing or mitigating the effects of toxic stress in early childhood.

Design/methodology/approach

The National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, based at the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University, is a multidisciplinary, multiuniversity panel of scholars that seeks to bring science to bear on public decision making. Council members selected excessive stress as a topic meriting translation for a general audience and conducted extensive peer review in drafting the paper's key scientific concepts.

Findings

The paper discusses how healthy development can be derailed by excessive or prolonged activation of the biological stress response systems and how that increases lifetime risk for certain behavioural and physiological disorders. It finds that supportive relationships with caregivers can help buffer the negative consequences of toxic stress.

Social implications

The paper calls for improvements to family support programmes, mental health services, and the quality and availability of early care and education.

Originality/value

This paper describes an original taxonomy of positive, tolerable, and toxic stress and demonstrates the need to translate scientific knowledge about the developing brain into actionable strategies for the prevention and treatment of the effects of adverse childhood experiences.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article

Declan Fahie

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the lived experience of toxic leadership for a cohort of 11 individuals who work, or have worked, in the field of higher education…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the lived experience of toxic leadership for a cohort of 11 individuals who work, or have worked, in the field of higher education in Ireland. Drawing on national and international literature, as well as the testimonies of a cohort of academic and administrative staff, the study considers the impact of this negative management style on these individuals as well as upon the organisation itself.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 11 self-selected individuals (four males and seven females) were interviewed for this pilot study. Data from the semi-structured interviews were organised thematically and analysed with the support of the computer software package MAXQDA®.

Findings

The results show that the experience of toxic leadership was profound for the interviewees across a number of contexts. They reported adverse physical and psychological impacts as well as detailing the repercussions for their respective career trajectories as they endeavoured to safely navigate their often-hostile work environment. Human resources departments within their respective institutions were the focus of considerable criticism by the interviewees who highlighted, what they saw as, the inherent contradiction/tension between the perceived roles and responsibilities of such departments in addressing or resolving interpersonal work-related disputes.

Originality/value

The findings expand on the extant scholarly literature on toxic leadership in higher education and, for the first time, offer a revealing insight on this phenomenon within the Irish context.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article

Asha Bhandarker and Snigdha Rai

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the distressing impact of toxic leadership on the mental state of the subordinates and examine the unique coping mechanisms used…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the distressing impact of toxic leadership on the mental state of the subordinates and examine the unique coping mechanisms used by them to deal with such leaders. The paper also examined the relationship between psychological distress and coping strategy used by subordinates to deal with the toxic leader.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents a validity testing of two scales. The first scale was designed to measure experienced psychological distress emanating from exposure to toxic leaders, and the second scale aims to assess the coping strategies utilized by subordinates to deal with the toxic leaders. Data were collected from 570 employees working in public as well as private organizations in India.

Findings

The results of this paper supported the theorized two three-dimensional tools to measure: psychological distress (loss of self-worth, withdrawal and agitated) and coping strategies to deal with toxic leaders (assertive coping, avoidance coping and adaptive coping). Reliability estimates and construct validity of both the tools were established. The results also suggest that the loss of self-worth was negatively related with assertive coping, avoidance coping and adaptive coping. However, withdrawal was positively related with assertive coping and avoidance coping. Finally, agitation was positively related with avoidance and adaptive coping.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the rare studies to examine together the phenomenon of both psychological distress experienced by subordinates and the coping strategies utilized by them to deal with toxic leaders.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article

Maha Al Makhamreh and Denise Stockley

The purpose of this paper is to examine how doctoral students experienced mentorship in their supervision context and how the mentorship they received impacted their well-being.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how doctoral students experienced mentorship in their supervision context and how the mentorship they received impacted their well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretive phenomenological methodology was selected to frame the research design. This research approach seeks to study the individual lived experience by exploring, describing and analyzing its meaning.

Findings

The findings revealed three different quality levels of mentorship in this context authentic mentorship, average mentorship and below average/toxic mentorship. Doctoral students who enjoyed authentic mentorship experiences were more motivated and satisfied, students who reported average mentorships needed more attention and time from their supervisors, and students who had below average/toxic mentorships were stressed out and depleted.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study is the lack of generalizability owing to the small sample size typical in qualitative studies. Another limitation is that this research did not include students who quit their programs because of dysfunctional supervision experiences.

Practical implications

Students and supervisors can use the findings to reflect on their beliefs and practices to evaluate and improve their performances. Also, authentic mentors can benefit from the findings to create a positive culture for all students to receive support. Finally, current supervisory policies can be reviewed in light of this paper’s findings.

Social implications

The findings show the nature of mentorship in an authoritative context, and how it can be toxic when power is misused.

Originality/value

This study provides new knowledge in relation to the different types of mentorship experiences that exist in doctoral supervision, and how each type can influence students’ well-being differently. Additionally, it reveals that doctoral students can graduate, even in the face of toxic mentorship, but at the expense of their well-being.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

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Article

Srikanth P.B.

More than a decade of research on abusive leader behaviors suggests a consensus regarding its deleterious effects on employees’ contextual performance. Therefore, research…

Abstract

Purpose

More than a decade of research on abusive leader behaviors suggests a consensus regarding its deleterious effects on employees’ contextual performance. Therefore, research on how to cope with abusive leader behaviors is both theoretically and practically important. The purpose of this paper is to examine how individuals’ personality and appropriate coping strategy may jointly help in weakening the negative effects of abusive leader behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines the relationship between social support coping strategy and agreeableness. Data collected from full-time employees and their reporting managers were used for analyses. Data were analyzed using moderated regression techniques followed by conditional indirect effects testing.

Findings

The study provides supports to the evidence that the relationship between abusive leader behaviors and contextual performance was weaker for employees high in agreeableness. Additionally, the use of social support coping strategy facilitated a negative relationship between abusive leader behaviors and contextual performance. Finally, the moderating effects of agreeableness were mediated by the use of social support coping strategy.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to theories of abusive supervision, personality and coping strategies. The results offer insights into the joint roles of personality and the social support coping strategy that may weaken the negative influence of abusive leader behaviors and contextual performance.

Practical implications

Human resource practitioners may benefit from formally institutionalizing social support through mentoring programs and informally through “buddy” programs for newly joined employees, to understand the organization culture and voice their concerns.

Originality/value

While most studies on abusive leader behavior focused on the deleterious effects, this study is one of the few that explores the role of coping strategy while dealing with abusive leader.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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