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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Matthew R. Leon, Holly K. Osburn and Thomas Bellairs

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects both civilian and military populations following wartime experiences. However, despite an abundance of research investigating…

Abstract

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects both civilian and military populations following wartime experiences. However, despite an abundance of research investigating civilian and military populations separately, much less focus has been given to synthesizing and integrating findings to describe how civilian and military war survivors are comparatively affected by PTSD. This review is broken down into three sections covering (1) risk factors associated with PTSD, (2) relationships between PTSD and mental health outcomes, and (3) protective factors that can attenuate PTSD and its effects. Each section covers findings for civilians and military personnel and highlights similarities and differences between groups.

Details

Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2022

Khalid Alshahrani, Judith Johnson and Daryl B. O’Connor

Three main objectives of this study were as follows: (1) To estimate the prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disordered (PTSD) symptoms among Saudi paramedics, (2) To…

Abstract

Purpose

Three main objectives of this study were as follows: (1) To estimate the prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disordered (PTSD) symptoms among Saudi paramedics, (2) To investigate which types of coping strategies were associated with PTSD symptoms among Saudi paramedics, (3) To explore which sources of social support were associated with PTSD symptoms among Saudi paramedics.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 217 paramedics working in the Saudi Red Crescent Authority from September to December 2019. Participants completed questionnaires measuring PTSD symptoms (the Screen of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders; SPTSD), passive and active coping strategies (Brief COPE Scale; BC), and three forms of social support: support from friends, family and organizational support. Associations between coping strategies, social support and PTSD symptoms were investigated using correlational analyses, hierarchical linear regression and binary logistic regression.

Findings

46% of participants experienced one or more PTSD symptom, 28.6% scored above the cut-off for partial PTSD and 17.5% scored above the cut-off for full PTSD. PTSD symptoms were significantly positively correlated with passive coping and negatively associated with both family and friends support. Passive coping was positively associated with a greater risk of meeting criteria for PTSD.

Originality/value

The current findings suggest that interventions to help reduce PTSD in Saudi paramedics should include strategies to reduce passive coping. Future research is urgently required to help understand the psychological, social and work-related factors that contribute to these high levels of PTSD.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Stephanie L. Taylor, Alexa J. Barrett, Albert M. Kopak and Norman G. Hoffmann

The female jail population is steadily growing in rural jails across the country. Detainees have high rates of mental health and substance use disorders, some of which are…

Abstract

Purpose

The female jail population is steadily growing in rural jails across the country. Detainees have high rates of mental health and substance use disorders, some of which are linked to violent offenses. These conditions include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder (PD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD). This study aims to examine the associations between these disorders among females charged with violent offenses.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of 167 female detainees from local rural jails in the USA. To assess participants’ behavioral health, the Comprehensive Addictions and Psychological Evaluation – 5 (CAAPE-5) was administered. The associations between PTSD, PD, AUD and violent offenses were investigated using bivariate statistics and multivariate logistic regression.

Findings

Over half of the female detainees in the sample met criteria individually for PTSD, PD or AUD, substantiating previous work on prevalence rate. Of the sample, only 10% were charged with violent offenses, from which the predominant condition reported was PTSD. Among detainees arrested for violent offenses, 69% also met criteria for PTSD, 56% for AUD and 44% for PD. Multivariate results indicate AUD was the only significant predictor for violent offenses.

Research limitations/implications

Female detainees experience trauma and mental health conditions at high rates. Research-informed mental health care may result in increased treatment efficacy. Provided the links between PTSD, PD and AUD, special considerations for this population should address interpersonal factors in treatment that may relate to violent offenses.

Originality/value

Little research exists examining female jail detainees and the implications of AUD, PTSD and PD on violent offending. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship between AUD, PTSD and PD in female jail detainees with violent offenses.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Natnael Terefe Arega

Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are known to be subjected to several potentially traumatic life events, risking more mental health problems than other populations of…

Abstract

Purpose

Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are known to be subjected to several potentially traumatic life events, risking more mental health problems than other populations of same age. Evidence concerning the mental health of Eritrean URMs in Ethiopia is scarce. This paper aims to present an estimate of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within this group and describes its associations with traumatic life events and participants’ characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional quantitative study surveyed a random sample of 384 Eritrean URMs, aged 12–17 years, in the Shimelba refugee camp. The Stressful Life Events (SLE) questionnaire and the Reactions of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress (RATS) questionnaire were used to assess traumatic events and PTSD symptoms, respectively. Descriptive statistics, the chi-square test with the odds-ratio and stepwise regression were used to analyze data.

Findings

Large proportions of the URMs had experienced traumatic events including physical abuse (261, 68%), separation from family against will (240, 62.5%), a stressful life event in which they were in danger (198, 51.6%), and important changes in family life (196, 51%). About 38% of the URMs met the criteria for classifying probable PTSD diagnosis, suggesting that they are likely to have PTSD. The odds-ratio statistic revealed that girls and the oldest age group (15–17 years) were at a greater risk for PTSD. The total score on the SLE appeared to be the robust predictor, explaining 28% of the variance in RATS total scores.

Research limitations/implications

Self-report questionnaires used in this study yield less diagnostic information than extensive interviews. Additional information should be collected from the viewpoint of significant adults (caregivers/ teachers). Such information would be crucial in assessing the degree of impairment in daily functioning and the severity of the symptoms.

Originality/value

Awareness of the stressful experiences and the mental health status of the URMs has implications for taking preventive and curative measures to provide a broad range of intervention programs and psychosocial support.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2013

José N. Caraballo, Coralee Pérez-Pedrogo and Carmen E. Albizu-García

The purpose of this paper is to assess the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Davidson trauma scale (DTS-S) and to determine the prevalence and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Davidson trauma scale (DTS-S) and to determine the prevalence and correlates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a non-clinical random sample of prison inmates.

Design/methodology/approach

Probabilistic samples of 1,179 inmates from 26 penal institutions in Puerto Rico were selected using a multistage sampling design. Population estimates and correlations were obtained for PTSD, generalized anxiety and depression. The reliability, factor structure, and convergent validity of the DTS-S were assessed. Cross-validation was employed to confirm the results of the factor analyses.

Findings

Using the cut-offs adopted by the scale's author, 136 (13.4 percent) of the inmates are likely to have current PTSD and 117 (11.6 percent) reach the cut-off for sub-threshold PTSD. Confirmatory factor analysis generated two factors explaining 53 percent of the variance. High reliabilities were obtained for the total scale (α=0.95) and for the frequency and severity scales (α=0.90 and 0.91). Significantly higher DTS-S scores were found for females (t=2.26, p<0.025), for inmates diagnosed with depression or anxiety (t=2.02, p<0.05), and those reporting suicide attempts (t=4.47, p<0.0001).

Originality/value

Findings support that the DTS-S is a reliable and valid measure to assess PTSD symptoms in Latino inmate populations and to identify individuals at risk for the disorder that require confirmatory diagnosis and clinical interventions.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Elizabeth Combs, Kaitlin Guston, Albert Kopak, Alyssa Raggio and Norman G. Hoffmann

Most research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and offending has been conducted with special populations (e.g. veterans and female inmates) and generally overlooks…

Abstract

Purpose

Most research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and offending has been conducted with special populations (e.g. veterans and female inmates) and generally overlooks the additive effect of panic disorder (PD) in offending patterns. The purpose of this paper is to assess the prevalence of PTSD and PD among jail inmates, while simultaneously examining the relationships between these disorders, offending types and frequency.

Design/methodology/approach

A random sample of adults recently booked into a local county jail participated in the Comprehensive Addictions and Psychological Evaluation-5 (CAAPE-5), a structured psychological assessment. The study sample was comprised of 200 male and 83 female inmates.

Findings

Indications of PTSD were observed among 44.0 percent of male inmates and 57.8 percent of female inmates. Most male inmates (78.4 percent) with positive PTSD indications also met criteria for PD, with a similar proportion (78.1 percent) of female inmates also meeting criteria for both. The combination of PTSD and PD was not associated with offending frequency, but inmates presenting indications of both PTSD and PD were more likely to be charged with a violent offense relative to those with only PTSD.

Practical implications

Inmates with PTSD who also have panic attacks may have a more severe condition with possible implications for other risks. Observations of these conditions among adults recently booked into local jails should coincide with each other.

Originality/value

Few studies have examined mental health conditions among local jail detainees, despite the ever-present need to address them. The current study considers this important population and investigates the prevalence of co-occurring conditions.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Emma Louise Barrett, Zachary W. Adams, Erin V. Kelly, Natalie Peach, Rachel Hopkins, Bronwyn Milne, Sudie E. Back and Katherine L. Mills

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) frequently co-occur (PTSD+SUD). The onset of these disorders often occurs during adolescence. There…

Abstract

Purpose

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) frequently co-occur (PTSD+SUD). The onset of these disorders often occurs during adolescence. There is limited understanding of the perspectives of service providers working with this population. The purpose of this paper is to identify the practices, attitudes, experiences and training needs of Australian service providers treating adolescents with PTSD+SUD.

Design/methodology/approach

Service providers in Australia were invited to complete an anonymous online survey regarding their experiences working with adolescents who have PTSD+SUD. Ninety participants completed the 48-item survey that comprised multiple choice and open-ended questions.

Findings

Service providers estimated that up to 60 per cent of their adolescent clients with PTSD also have SUD. They identified case management, engaging with caregivers and difficult client emotions as specific challenges associated with working with this population. Despite this, providers rated treating PTSD+SUD as highly gratifying for reasons such as teaching new coping skills, developing expertise and assisting clients to achieve their goals. There were mixed perspectives on how to best treat adolescents with PTSD+SUD, and all participants identified a need for evidence-based resources specific to this population.

Originality/value

This is the first survey of Australian service providers working with adolescents who experience PTSD+SUD. The findings improve our understanding of the challenges and rewards associated with working with this population, and provide valuable information that can enhance clinical training and guide the development of new treatment approaches for this common and debilitating comorbidity.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 February 2018

David McBride, Nancy Porter, Kirsten Lovelock, Daniel Shepherd, Maria Zubizaretta and James Burch

The purpose of this paper is to describe risk and protective factors for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experienced over a 1.5-year period among both…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe risk and protective factors for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experienced over a 1.5-year period among both frontline and “non-traditional” responders to the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal survey administered to Christchurch workers with referents from the city of Hamilton at 6, 12 and 18 months after the 2011 earthquake. Potential risk and protective determinants were assessed by questionnaire items at baseline and over time, the outcome being PTSD as assessed by the PTSD Checklist-Civilian version. A longitudinal latent class analysis identified groups with similar trajectories of PTSD.

Findings

A total of 226 individuals, 140 (26 per cent) from Christchurch and 86 (16 per cent) from Hamilton, participated at baseline, 180 at 12 and 123 at 18 months, non-traditional responders forming the largest single group. Two latent classes emerged, with PTSD (21 per cent) and without PTSD (79 per cent), with little change over the 18-month period. Class membership was predicted by high scores in the Social Support and Impact of Events scale items, Health-related Quality of Life scores being protective. PTSD scores indicative of distress were found in females, and predicted by burnout risk, behavioural disengagement and venting.

Practical implications

Non-traditional responders should be screened for PTSD. Social support should be considered with the promotion of adaptive coping mechanisms.

Originality/value

The strength was longitudinal follow-up over an 18-month period, with demonstration of how the potential determinants influenced the course of PTSD over time.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2009

Anna Egeressy, Tony Butler and Mick Hunter

Background: Post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is over represented in the prisoner population and is predictive of violence and suicide. This raises issues in relation…

Abstract

Background: Post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is over represented in the prisoner population and is predictive of violence and suicide. This raises issues in relation to prisoner management, as well as theoretical issues such as why there is a range of vulnerability for PTSD. The current study examines the relationship between PTSD and personality profiles of prisoners. Method: Data from 1305 participants in the NSW survey of health in prisoners are examined to identify relationships between personality profiles derived from the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and PTSD. Participants are grouped as experiencing no trauma; with a trauma history but no PTSD; and being diagnosed with PTSD. A logistic regression modelled significant predictors of PTSD. These data indicated that women prisoners report PTSD at twice the rate of males. An increased risk for PTSD is associated with high Harm Avoidance, low Self‐Directedness, high Persistence and high Self‐Transcendence. Conclusions: A combination of both temperament and character traits influences the trajectory towards PTSD development. Targeted treatment of these traits is needed in addressing the problems of prisoners with PTSD and managing the associated risks of violence and suicide.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Guoping Huang, Yalin Zhang, Shakeh Momartin, Xuanyin Huang and Lan Zhao

The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female inmates in China. A total of…

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Abstract

The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female inmates in China. A total of 471 participants were assessed for CSA, personality traits, coping strategies, and frequency of lifetime PTSD. Results demonstrated that CSA and negative coping were predictive factors for lifetime PTSD among female inmates after personality traits were controlled. The findings suggest that CSA is one potential factor contributing to lifetime PTSD among female inmates. The importance of screening for CSA among female inmates was highly emphasized. Early intervention and prevention programmes based on coping skills may be useful to forestall the development of chronic PTSD in female inmates.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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