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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Stephanie L. Taylor, Alexa J. Barrett, Albert M. Kopak and Norman G. Hoffmann

The female jail population is steadily growing in rural jails across the country. Detainees have high rates of mental health and substance use disorders, some of which are…

Abstract

Purpose

The female jail population is steadily growing in rural jails across the country. Detainees have high rates of mental health and substance use disorders, some of which are linked to violent offenses. These conditions include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder (PD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD). This study aims to examine the associations between these disorders among females charged with violent offenses.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of 167 female detainees from local rural jails in the USA. To assess participants’ behavioral health, the Comprehensive Addictions and Psychological Evaluation – 5 (CAAPE-5) was administered. The associations between PTSD, PD, AUD and violent offenses were investigated using bivariate statistics and multivariate logistic regression.

Findings

Over half of the female detainees in the sample met criteria individually for PTSD, PD or AUD, substantiating previous work on prevalence rate. Of the sample, only 10% were charged with violent offenses, from which the predominant condition reported was PTSD. Among detainees arrested for violent offenses, 69% also met criteria for PTSD, 56% for AUD and 44% for PD. Multivariate results indicate AUD was the only significant predictor for violent offenses.

Research limitations/implications

Female detainees experience trauma and mental health conditions at high rates. Research-informed mental health care may result in increased treatment efficacy. Provided the links between PTSD, PD and AUD, special considerations for this population should address interpersonal factors in treatment that may relate to violent offenses.

Originality/value

Little research exists examining female jail detainees and the implications of AUD, PTSD and PD on violent offending. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship between AUD, PTSD and PD in female jail detainees with violent offenses.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Matthew R. Leon, Holly K. Osburn and Thomas Bellairs

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects both civilian and military populations following wartime experiences. However, despite an abundance of research investigating…

Abstract

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects both civilian and military populations following wartime experiences. However, despite an abundance of research investigating civilian and military populations separately, much less focus has been given to synthesizing and integrating findings to describe how civilian and military war survivors are comparatively affected by PTSD. This review is broken down into three sections covering (1) risk factors associated with PTSD, (2) relationships between PTSD and mental health outcomes, and (3) protective factors that can attenuate PTSD and its effects. Each section covers findings for civilians and military personnel and highlights similarities and differences between groups.

Details

Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Natnael Terefe Arega

Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are known to be subjected to several potentially traumatic life events, risking more mental health problems than other populations of…

Abstract

Purpose

Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are known to be subjected to several potentially traumatic life events, risking more mental health problems than other populations of same age. Evidence concerning the mental health of Eritrean URMs in Ethiopia is scarce. This paper aims to present an estimate of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within this group and describes its associations with traumatic life events and participants’ characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional quantitative study surveyed a random sample of 384 Eritrean URMs, aged 12–17 years, in the Shimelba refugee camp. The Stressful Life Events (SLE) questionnaire and the Reactions of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress (RATS) questionnaire were used to assess traumatic events and PTSD symptoms, respectively. Descriptive statistics, the chi-square test with the odds-ratio and stepwise regression were used to analyze data.

Findings

Large proportions of the URMs had experienced traumatic events including physical abuse (261, 68%), separation from family against will (240, 62.5%), a stressful life event in which they were in danger (198, 51.6%), and important changes in family life (196, 51%). About 38% of the URMs met the criteria for classifying probable PTSD diagnosis, suggesting that they are likely to have PTSD. The odds-ratio statistic revealed that girls and the oldest age group (15–17 years) were at a greater risk for PTSD. The total score on the SLE appeared to be the robust predictor, explaining 28% of the variance in RATS total scores.

Research limitations/implications

Self-report questionnaires used in this study yield less diagnostic information than extensive interviews. Additional information should be collected from the viewpoint of significant adults (caregivers/ teachers). Such information would be crucial in assessing the degree of impairment in daily functioning and the severity of the symptoms.

Originality/value

Awareness of the stressful experiences and the mental health status of the URMs has implications for taking preventive and curative measures to provide a broad range of intervention programs and psychosocial support.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Clare S. Allely and Bob Allely

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have a detrimental impact on the individual’s ability to benefit from rehabilitative prison-based programmes, and studies have…

Abstract

Purpose

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have a detrimental impact on the individual’s ability to benefit from rehabilitative prison-based programmes, and studies have also found that there is an association between PTSD and higher rates of re-offending. Studies have also found that a significant number of cases of trauma and PTSD go undetected and therefore untreated in individuals who are incarcerated.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was carried out exploring studies that have investigated PTSD in incarcerated populations to identify current clinical considerations and recommendations.

Findings

This paper explores the key findings from the literature and highlights the important clinical implications and recommendations.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper focusing specifically on how the findings from the literature can inform clinical practice and also what factors need to be given greater consideration, going beyond the current systematic and literature reviews in the field.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2020

Charlotte Louise Wall and Michelle Lowe

This study aims to investigate the effects of resilience and social support on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of 121 veterans (n = 56) and civilians (n = 65).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effects of resilience and social support on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of 121 veterans (n = 56) and civilians (n = 65).

Design/methodology/approach

Gender, age and marital status were collected, along with occupation for civilians and the unit served with, rank, length of time deployed, overall months active and location for veterans. The trauma experiences scale for civilians, the PTSD checklist for civilian and military, Resilience Research Centre’s Adult Resilience Measure-28, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Deployment Risk and Resiliency Inventory-2 scales were used.

Findings

The results revealed for both samples, resilience and social support (except unit support for veterans) impacted PTSD symptoms. However, social support did not mediate the relationship between resilience and PTSD.

Practical implications

Implications for policy and practice were discussed.

Originality/value

The originality of this research stems from the incorporation of both a civilian and military sample by comparing their levels of PTSD, resilience and social support.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Gading Ekapuja Aurizki, Ferry Efendi and Retno Indarwati

The purpose of this paper is to analyze factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among elderly who live in a post-earthquake area.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among elderly who live in a post-earthquake area.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a cross-sectional study involving 152 elder people who survived the disaster and were selected conveniently. The study was conducted in two worst-affected districts of Lombok Utara regency. PTSD was diagnosed using a modified version of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale version 5 (CAPS-5). The demographic data were assessed using a self-developed questionnaire consisting of 13 items. All data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ2 test and binary logistic regression with p<0.05.

Findings

Out of the 152 elder people, 91 (59.9 percent) suffered PTSD. Intrusion symptoms were the most common symptoms experienced by the respondents (94.1 percent). The factors associated with the PTSD in the elderly after the earthquake were having chronic illnesses (OR=2.490; 95% CI=1.151–5.385), public health center utilization (OR=2.200; 95% CI=1.068–4.535) and occupational status before the disaster (OR=2.726; 95% CI=1.296–5.730). These findings highlight that individual factors and access to health care services remain an important aspect of stress identification among the elderly following the disaster event.

Social implications

Elder people constitute a vulnerable group that is often forgotten and neglected during post-disaster recovery, though they have potentially higher psychosocial distress than younger age groups. This study was conducted to raise awareness about mental health problems suffered by the elderly.

Originality/value

This is the first study to apply CAPS-5 to assess PTSD among Indonesian elderly people following a natural disaster. This paper also provides insights that can be used by governments and other relevant parties to address PTSD problems suffered by many elderly people in a post-disaster area.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2013

José N. Caraballo, Coralee Pérez-Pedrogo and Carmen E. Albizu-García

The purpose of this paper is to assess the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Davidson trauma scale (DTS-S) and to determine the prevalence and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Davidson trauma scale (DTS-S) and to determine the prevalence and correlates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a non-clinical random sample of prison inmates.

Design/methodology/approach

Probabilistic samples of 1,179 inmates from 26 penal institutions in Puerto Rico were selected using a multistage sampling design. Population estimates and correlations were obtained for PTSD, generalized anxiety and depression. The reliability, factor structure, and convergent validity of the DTS-S were assessed. Cross-validation was employed to confirm the results of the factor analyses.

Findings

Using the cut-offs adopted by the scale's author, 136 (13.4 percent) of the inmates are likely to have current PTSD and 117 (11.6 percent) reach the cut-off for sub-threshold PTSD. Confirmatory factor analysis generated two factors explaining 53 percent of the variance. High reliabilities were obtained for the total scale (α=0.95) and for the frequency and severity scales (α=0.90 and 0.91). Significantly higher DTS-S scores were found for females (t=2.26, p<0.025), for inmates diagnosed with depression or anxiety (t=2.02, p<0.05), and those reporting suicide attempts (t=4.47, p<0.0001).

Originality/value

Findings support that the DTS-S is a reliable and valid measure to assess PTSD symptoms in Latino inmate populations and to identify individuals at risk for the disorder that require confirmatory diagnosis and clinical interventions.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Elizabeth Combs, Kaitlin Guston, Albert Kopak, Alyssa Raggio and Norman G. Hoffmann

Most research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and offending has been conducted with special populations (e.g. veterans and female inmates) and generally overlooks…

Abstract

Purpose

Most research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and offending has been conducted with special populations (e.g. veterans and female inmates) and generally overlooks the additive effect of panic disorder (PD) in offending patterns. The purpose of this paper is to assess the prevalence of PTSD and PD among jail inmates, while simultaneously examining the relationships between these disorders, offending types and frequency.

Design/methodology/approach

A random sample of adults recently booked into a local county jail participated in the Comprehensive Addictions and Psychological Evaluation-5 (CAAPE-5), a structured psychological assessment. The study sample was comprised of 200 male and 83 female inmates.

Findings

Indications of PTSD were observed among 44.0 percent of male inmates and 57.8 percent of female inmates. Most male inmates (78.4 percent) with positive PTSD indications also met criteria for PD, with a similar proportion (78.1 percent) of female inmates also meeting criteria for both. The combination of PTSD and PD was not associated with offending frequency, but inmates presenting indications of both PTSD and PD were more likely to be charged with a violent offense relative to those with only PTSD.

Practical implications

Inmates with PTSD who also have panic attacks may have a more severe condition with possible implications for other risks. Observations of these conditions among adults recently booked into local jails should coincide with each other.

Originality/value

Few studies have examined mental health conditions among local jail detainees, despite the ever-present need to address them. The current study considers this important population and investigates the prevalence of co-occurring conditions.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Emma Louise Barrett, Zachary W. Adams, Erin V. Kelly, Natalie Peach, Rachel Hopkins, Bronwyn Milne, Sudie E. Back and Katherine L. Mills

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) frequently co-occur (PTSD+SUD). The onset of these disorders often occurs during adolescence. There…

Abstract

Purpose

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) frequently co-occur (PTSD+SUD). The onset of these disorders often occurs during adolescence. There is limited understanding of the perspectives of service providers working with this population. The purpose of this paper is to identify the practices, attitudes, experiences and training needs of Australian service providers treating adolescents with PTSD+SUD.

Design/methodology/approach

Service providers in Australia were invited to complete an anonymous online survey regarding their experiences working with adolescents who have PTSD+SUD. Ninety participants completed the 48-item survey that comprised multiple choice and open-ended questions.

Findings

Service providers estimated that up to 60 per cent of their adolescent clients with PTSD also have SUD. They identified case management, engaging with caregivers and difficult client emotions as specific challenges associated with working with this population. Despite this, providers rated treating PTSD+SUD as highly gratifying for reasons such as teaching new coping skills, developing expertise and assisting clients to achieve their goals. There were mixed perspectives on how to best treat adolescents with PTSD+SUD, and all participants identified a need for evidence-based resources specific to this population.

Originality/value

This is the first survey of Australian service providers working with adolescents who experience PTSD+SUD. The findings improve our understanding of the challenges and rewards associated with working with this population, and provide valuable information that can enhance clinical training and guide the development of new treatment approaches for this common and debilitating comorbidity.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 February 2018

David McBride, Nancy Porter, Kirsten Lovelock, Daniel Shepherd, Maria Zubizaretta and James Burch

The purpose of this paper is to describe risk and protective factors for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experienced over a 1.5-year period among both…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe risk and protective factors for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experienced over a 1.5-year period among both frontline and “non-traditional” responders to the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal survey administered to Christchurch workers with referents from the city of Hamilton at 6, 12 and 18 months after the 2011 earthquake. Potential risk and protective determinants were assessed by questionnaire items at baseline and over time, the outcome being PTSD as assessed by the PTSD Checklist-Civilian version. A longitudinal latent class analysis identified groups with similar trajectories of PTSD.

Findings

A total of 226 individuals, 140 (26 per cent) from Christchurch and 86 (16 per cent) from Hamilton, participated at baseline, 180 at 12 and 123 at 18 months, non-traditional responders forming the largest single group. Two latent classes emerged, with PTSD (21 per cent) and without PTSD (79 per cent), with little change over the 18-month period. Class membership was predicted by high scores in the Social Support and Impact of Events scale items, Health-related Quality of Life scores being protective. PTSD scores indicative of distress were found in females, and predicted by burnout risk, behavioural disengagement and venting.

Practical implications

Non-traditional responders should be screened for PTSD. Social support should be considered with the promotion of adaptive coping mechanisms.

Originality/value

The strength was longitudinal follow-up over an 18-month period, with demonstration of how the potential determinants influenced the course of PTSD over time.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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