Contemporary Destination Governance: A Case Study Approach: Volume 6

Cover of Contemporary Destination Governance: A Case Study Approach
Subject:

Table of contents

(35 chapters)
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Overview

Pages 3-4
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Lenzerheide

Pages 5-13
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Abstract

Lenzerheide is an Alpine destination located in Graubünden. It rapidly developed approximately 40 years ago with the rise of winter sports and the affluence of Swiss families, particularly in the German-speaking parts of the country. The destination today is characterized by a considerable number of second homes and faces the challenge of an eroding market base. The need to renew or even reinvent the destination poses a major challenge for the concerned local actors and organizations. On the one hand, they have to agree on a strategy that goes beyond simple promotion and additional sports activities and therefore requires a major infrastructure development program. On the other hand, the current constellation of actors, public institutions, and private organizations, with their differing and diverging interests, barely ensures a common understanding and the effective realization of major projects. Stakeholder theory is a useful approach used here to understand the challenges in Lenzerheide.

Toggenburg

Pages 15-23
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Abstract

The Upper Toggenburg is located close to major urban areas and is used mainly for overnight tourism. The destination has an urgent need for revitalization and faces dramatic challenges in renewing its products and markets. The newly created DMO, along with political and financial management by the cantonal government, raises issues related not only to the rejuvenation and the relaunch of the destination but also for the role of particular institutions. While the destination is clearly positioned in a declining phase, there are numerous efforts to overcome the critical situation; and some projects are promising. The life cycle concept and institutional analysis are useful approaches for the discussion of this case.

Saas-Fee/Saastal

Pages 25-34
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Abstract

Saas-Fee/Saastal is a successful destination in the Swiss Alps. Even though the region has a long history as a destination, it rapidly developed in the post-war period and is still continuously investing in further offers and activities. Despite the rapid growth, the four villages, particularly the upper village of Saas-Fee, have preserved the picturesque quality of the destination. An analysis of the actor and organizational networks reveals a strong concentration of decisionmaking power among a very few actors, typically the local elite. The case discusses a series of challenges and processes in light of the highly focused group of very influential actors.

Germany

Page 35
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Overview

Pages 37-38
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Bodenmais

Pages 39-50
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Abstract

Bodenmais has developed from a region into a destination. This progression means that the region has faced different challenges as well as ups and downs caused by external factors such as changing market conditions and customer needs, along with internal factors such as changes in the governance structure. Bodenmais is an example of how a central organization can play a role in the relaunch of a destination. The Bodenmais Tourism & Marketing Board was founded after several years of negotiations among political, economic, and community interests. The association undertakes several tasks, ranging from internal and external marketing to product development and quality control. The organization structure means that all private actors may seek membership, through which they can influence the strategic development of the destination.

Altmühltal

Pages 51-62
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Abstract

The valley of Altmühltal is a good example of community-based destinations, where a variety of stakeholder relationships exists. These stakeholders, all with their own expectations, needs, and interests, work together in the form of a network. Based on the resources and competencies of the destination, private and public sector actors cooperate in order to develop products and services attractive to the market. Private and public actors do not perceive themselves as competitors, but rather as partners who promote joint objectives. However, they nevertheless act in a utility-oriented way and focus on their own benefits. Development and consensus are ensured through a central organization responsible for the management and governance of the destination. The interplay of the different stakeholders as well as the governance structure in this valley is characterized by mutual trust.

Bad Gögging

Pages 63-73
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Abstract

Bad Gögging is a health spa resort in Bavaria with a long tradition of sulfur springs. Due to reforms in the health care system, the destination has experienced a structural crisis, particularly noticeable in the 1980s. The establishment of new resorts under the corporate model in the 1990s led to a change in the destination’s life cycle. The case study of Bad Gögging illustrates challenges for the governance of a destination where both the community model and corporate model coexist at a local level. This historical health spa town displays characteristics of both models and typical diverging control mechanisms and interests of a small-scale destination. The case study also shows how both organizational and management approaches affect destination governance and stakeholder relations.

Austria

Page 75
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Overview

Pages 77-79
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Stubaital

Pages 81-92
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Abstract

Stubaital is among the top destinations in Austria, depending heavily on winter tourism. Families and individual tourists who seek hiking or skiing are the core target segments. After merging two DMOs that previously managed separate parts of the area, problems of cooperation and coordination between actors from different regions occurred. This was partly due to different interests rooted in different resource endowments. The main goal of the DMO has been to strengthen the summer season in order to reduce dependency on winter tourism. Destination governance therefore must foster cooperation and joint planning activities among the stakeholders. The Stubaital case illustrates stakeholders’ perceptions of power constellations and patterns of communication among stakeholders and their influences on destination development.

Ötztal

Pages 93-104
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Abstract

With more than 3.6 million overnights in 2012, Ötztal is the strongest destination in Tyrol, Austria. The destination encompasses very different geographic conditions suitable for different kinds of tourism offers. This results in a very strong winter season in the higher regions and a more seasonally balanced set of tourism offers in the lower regions. Until 2006 the destination was split into five parts, managed by five independent DMOs. After merging these DMOs, the destination management faced issues around how to integrate distinct stakeholder interests regarding tourism development. The case highlights how different actors are integrated into destination governance. One focus is on the destination network and relationships between different actors, while information exchange between different actor categories and influences on decisionmaking are also emphasized.

Seefeld

Pages 105-116
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Abstract

The Olympic Region of Seefeld is a popular winter but also a strong summer destination. Together with the city of Innsbruck, Seefeld hosted several Olympic mega-events and gained a strong reputation as an Olympic region, with a main focus on Nordic combination competitions. Seefeld’s strengths include the Nordic cross-country skiing slopes that provide the ideal basis for high-altitude trainings for top sports athletes. Since 2006 five municipalities have been represented by the DMO, which is managed by two CEOs. Individual and group behavior can be observed in the region. Seefeld’s destination network displays a sufficient density where a few key leading actors have come to symbolize the network nodes linking different stakeholder groups.

Italy

Page 117
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Overview

Pages 119-120
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Tisens/Tesimo

Pages 121-133
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Abstract

The case of Tisens/Tesimo illustrates the critical role of governance in the course of a destination life cycle. In particular, it exemplifies how improving the effectiveness and efficiency of destination governance has the potential to relaunch stagnating or declining destinations. First, Tisens/Tesimo has managed to improve its effectiveness by developing a common strategy in a participatory manner. Second, improving efficiency in networking through an increase in trust also seems to have supported the process of recovery. However, the challenge is to establish cost-efficient collaboration while maintaining the dynamic and adaptive capacity associated with low levels of centralization. In achieving this balance, the destination raises issues about collaborative efficiency.

Naturns/Naturno

Pages 135-147
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Abstract

The extant literature distinguishes sharply between corporate and community models of destination governance. In contrast, the case of Naturns/Naturno illustrates how a specific mixture of corporate and community approaches in governance can yield positive results. In particular, it shows how the existence of a network core characterized by integrative entrepreneurial leadership, an element that would in the first instance be associated with a corporate-driven destination, turns out to be a potential driver of a successful community-oriented destination development. In Naturns/Naturno, through its integrative entrepreneurial behavior, a hotel consortium has been influential in leading the transformation of the whole destination toward increased quality, strategic coherence, and innovativeness, while maintaining its community orientation.

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Abstract

The case of Passeiertal/Val Passiria illustrates how typologies of governance forms help to differentiate cases with concentrated authority from cases with an even distribution of power. In particular, it exemplifies how the interplay between DMOs and powerful private businesses can improve the competitive position of a destination. First, Passeiertal/Val Passiria has managed to develop a common strategy in collaboration with the biggest private player. Second, the whole destination is positioned with the themes driven by the player. The case also shows that property rights theory and principal agent theory may provide useful explanations as to how sustainable destination governance can be improved in situations of significant power asymmetries.

Australia

Page 161
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Overview

Pages 163-166
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Abstract

Tourism is an important part of the Queensland economy, contributing 7.3% to the state’s GDP, and alongside agriculture, resources, and construction, is part of the state’s “four-pillar economy.” Tourism and Events Queensland is the state’s peak tourism organization, a quasi-governmental body with responsibility for destination marketing and management, and more recently, organizing major events including the 2018 Commonwealth Games. This case explores the roles, responsibilities, and governance challenges of Tourism and Events Queensland, providing insights to regional cooperation, destination marketing, and policy and planning.

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Abstract

The Gold Coast has long been one of Australia’s iconic destinations. Rapid development by entrepreneurs in the 1960s saw the former coastal fishing and surfing town grow quickly into a city. After many decades of success, market fluctuations and changing consumer patterns the Gold Coast has stagnated as a destination. This case discusses the history of tourism on the Gold Coast and provides a context to some of the modern governance challenges faced by the destination. The findings of an empirical study of social network analysis identify various power relationships in the destination’s governance structure.

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Abstract

The case study on Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast, examines a local-level example of governance. Surfers Paradise is the literal and metaphorical heart of the Gold Coast and one of Queensland’s most visited tourist precincts. Surfers Paradise has evolved through many iterations of the market from Australian surfers in the 1960s, to high-end Japanese tourists in the 1980s and to an affordable family-friendly destination today. There has also been an evolution of the Schoolies Week festival, an end of high school celebration, which has at times tarnished the reputation of the precinct. Surfers Paradise presents a case of destination management that caters to numerous stakeholders including at times highly disparate tourist segments.

Canada

Page 205
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Abstract

This case examines the concept and role of adaptability in destination governance, particularly as it relates to hosting a mega-event such as the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. It describes how the Resort Municipality of Whistler in British Columbia, Canada, used its broad sustainability-focused destination governance system to guide and manage relationships and outcomes related to the Games. Through its strategic and adaptive interactions with the International Olympic Committee and the Vancouver Organizing Committee, the Resort Municipality of Whistler leveraged unprecedented sustainability benefits from this mega-event.

References

Pages 233-258
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About the Authors

Pages 259-261
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Cover of Contemporary Destination Governance: A Case Study Approach
DOI
10.1108/S2042-144320156
Publication date
2015-04-07
Book series
Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78350-112-0
eISBN
978-1-78350-113-7
Book series ISSN
2042-1443