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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Giuseppe Lamberti, Josep Rialp and Alexandra Simon

Extending existing research in a football context, this study explores how image and service quality influence spectator tribe satisfaction and loyalty and variations in…

Abstract

Purpose

Extending existing research in a football context, this study explores how image and service quality influence spectator tribe satisfaction and loyalty and variations in behaviors depending on age, gender and emotional involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

Spectators aged 18 years and older who attended Barcelona Football Club home La Liga matches were sampled. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the model, and hybrid multigroup PLS-SEM was used to explore observed heterogeneity.

Findings

Image and service quality both influence spectator satisfaction and loyalty. Satisfaction and loyalty are associated differently with three tribes: a nonpassionate tribe characterized by low emotional involvement and younger and older passionate tribes composed of emotionally involved spectators aged <30 and >30 years old, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s results contribute to strengthening the suitability of PLS-SEM and multigroup in sport management, in particular for analyzing the behavior of specific groups of football spectators.

Originality/value

The findings of this study underline image and service quality as crucial to football spectator satisfaction and loyalty, with emotional involvement and age defining different consumer tribes as potential targets for marketing purposes.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Zack P. Pedersen, Kyungyeol (Anthony) Kim, Kevin K. Byon and Antonio S. Williams

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perceived enjoyment that is derived from spectators observing other spectators’ dysfunctional behavior during a game.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perceived enjoyment that is derived from spectators observing other spectators’ dysfunctional behavior during a game.

Design/methodology/approach

Using four forms (i.e. fighting, verbal assault, disrupting play and throwing missiles) of spectators dysfunctional behavior (SDB), two experiments (N = 252 for Study 1 and N = 92 for Study 2) were conducted in which video clips corresponding to the four types of SDB were used as experimental stimuli.

Findings

The findings indicate that participants enjoyed viewing spectators running onto the field of play significantly more than the other forms of SDB (i.e. fighting, verbal assaults and throwing missiles). The results also show no significant difference between how much spectators enjoyed the actions of fighting, verbal assault and throwing missiles.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study include the usage of a multidimensional approach to the concept of SDB and testing for a positive outcome pertaining to SDB that has largely, if not fully, been examined using negative inputs and outputs.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Saara Moisio

This article examines how spectators describe their expectations of contemporary dance by referring to action. Through discussing a qualitative audience study, the article…

Abstract

Purpose

This article examines how spectators describe their expectations of contemporary dance by referring to action. Through discussing a qualitative audience study, the article argues that spectators always have an expectation of being affected by performances they attend. This expectation can guide their interest in attending performances of certain genres instead of other possible ones on offer. Additionally, the article points out how spectators can actively manage their expectations in order to be affected.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on 21 in-depth interviews with spectators at a dance venue, a company and a festival in Finland. The analysis of the interviews combines thematic analysis with metaphor analysis. Employing the paradigm of enaction and the concept of affordances, this article approaches expectations as embodied and dynamic, created in interactions between artists, producers and spectators.

Findings

The analysis shows that when speaking about their expectations of performances, spectators use bodily and spatial metaphors. Focusing on metaphors reveals how, for the spectators, performances afford a possibility for action that affects them. The interviewed spectators describe that contemporary dance is “not set in its ways”, and therefore it keeps them “awake” and their thoughts do “not fossilize”. This way, they understand contemporary dance as a genre that affords a possibility to be affected by allowing a freedom of own interpretation and surprising experiences if they desire such.

Originality/value

Concentration on the metaphors of language offers a deeper understanding of the active nature of spectators' expectations. Understanding how spectators describe their expectations by referring to action that enables the shaping of their emotions and thoughts can help the development of arts marketing and audience engagement.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Armin Marquez, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison

The paper investigates the factors influencing spectators’ adoption of digital (mobile) ticketing by expanding the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM; Davis, 1989) to…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper investigates the factors influencing spectators’ adoption of digital (mobile) ticketing by expanding the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM; Davis, 1989) to include two variables overlooked in previous ticketing research: (1) trust of digital ticketing and (2) willingness to pay convenience fees. The study provides information on consumer behavior that may aid sports managers’ decision-making.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a paper-and-pencil survey of high school American football spectators (N = 523) over 12 games, the study examined perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, the trust of digital ticketing, willingness to pay convenience fees and their effects on spectators’ intention to use digital ticketing.

Findings

Trust of digital ticketing, willingness to pay a convenience fee and the perceived ease of use were found to influence the perceived usefulness of the technology, which, in turn, had a significant effect on the intention to use. Willingness to pay fees also had a direct effect on intention.

Research limitations/implications

Although every intention was made to ascertain a diverse sampling of schools (urban vs. suburban, large vs. small), it is worth noting that the sample location may be a limitation for the overall applicability.

Practical implications

The manuscript includes practical applications for marketers and ticket sales staff. Digital (mobile) ticketing is on the rise. As segments like high school athletics adopt the technology, spectators’ evaluation of digital ticketing must be considered, given its impact on intentions to use.

Originality/value

The findings support the use of willingness to pay convenience fees and trust of digital ticketing as considerations in the TAM for understanding digital ticketing.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2020

Hüseyin Çevik and Kerem Yıldırım Şimşek

The purpose of this study is to examine the theoretical relationship between experience quality (EXQ), satisfaction and the behavioral intentions (BI) of Motocross World…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the theoretical relationship between experience quality (EXQ), satisfaction and the behavioral intentions (BI) of Motocross World Championship spectators.

Design/methodology/approach

The research data were collected from spectators who participated in the World Motocross Championship race held in Afyon, Turkey in 2018. The structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relationship among the research variables.

Findings

The results showed EXQ had significant and direct effects on satisfaction and BI. In addition to this, satisfaction had a partial mediating effect between EXQ and BI.

Originality/value

To date there has been no empirical study examining the consumer behaviors of motocross event spectators. Consequently, this research provides important contributions to the literature and informs event organizers about the role of EXQ in terms of understanding the behavior of motocross event spectators.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Yanling Duan and Bing Liu

The purpose of this paper is to propose and examine an integrated model of spectator satisfaction in mass participant sport events.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and examine an integrated model of spectator satisfaction in mass participant sport events.

Design/methodology/approach

The Wuhan marathon, held in the middle of China, was selected serve for the study to examine the antecedents and consequences of spectator satisfaction at mass participant sport events. Data were collected from 956 spectators of the event on the day of the race. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the research model proposed by this study.

Findings

Structural equation modeling results indicate the following. First, the event image and perceived social impact of the event are important predictive factors of spectator satisfaction. Second, spectator satisfaction is positively associated with behavioral intentions toward the event and the sponsors' product. Third, spectator satisfaction plays a significant mediating role between the antecedents and consequences; specifically, compared to perceived social impacts of the event, event image has greater indirect effects on both event-related behavioral intentions and event sponsors' products.

Originality/value

Until now, there has not been an integrated research study on the sport spectator satisfaction model in the context of mass participant sport events. This paper thus extends the understanding of the spectator satisfaction in the context of mass participant sport events, and the findings provide valuable implications for holding cities and event organizers of mass participant sport events in emerging countries.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Luke R. Potwarka, Ryan Snelgrove, Laura Wood, Georgia Teare and Daniel Wigfield

The purpose of this study was to examine whether watching a live track cycling event could increase youths' intention to participate in the sport, and to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine whether watching a live track cycling event could increase youths' intention to participate in the sport, and to identify cognitive and affective mechanisms associated with post-event intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of youth spectators (n = 362) who experienced the 2016 Milton International Track Cycling Challenge completed pre- and post-event questionnaires to assess intention to participate and cognitive and affective components of their spectator experience.

Findings

Respondents' intentions to participate post-event were significantly higher than pre-event. Results also indicated that state inspiration mediated relationships between three cognitive dimensions of sport spectator experiences (i.e. fantasy, flow, evaluation) and intention to participate.

Practical implications

Sport managers should design youth day events to engage with youth prior to the event to increase their knowledge of the sport. This prior engagement may help youth to evaluate performances effectively. Moreover, event experience should be designed to incorporate vicarious and immersive experiences tailored to youth spectators.

Originality/value

The present study is one of the first to assess intentions to participate among youth spectators at multiple time points (i.e. before and after an event) and identifies specific mechanism within the spectator experience that may lead to a demonstration effect.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Charles W. Jones and Kevin K. Byon

This study is a micro-level perspective of value co-creation in spectator sport. By examining sport through the value co-creation lens, the dual role of the customer as…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is a micro-level perspective of value co-creation in spectator sport. By examining sport through the value co-creation lens, the dual role of the customer as both a contributor to and a beneficiary of value is acknowledged and the importance of stakeholder interactions is emphasized. This study analyzes the extent to which two theoretically and managerially important factors—attendance frequency (i.e. first-time attendee vs repeat attendee) and resident type (i.e. local resident vs domestic traveler)—impact value creation in the recurring live sporting event setting.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from spectators who attended a National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) sanctioned racing event. Multigroup structural equation modeling was performed to examine the proposed pathways, and multigroup t-tests were used to compare the model across both groups for each moderating variable. Corresponding path coefficients were then compared using Chin's (2004) recommended equations and procedures.

Findings

The study found organization-related value propositions to be the more common antecedents of value, while customer appearance had a strong negative association with hedonic value, and attendance frequency and resident type influenced certain value perceptions. Sport organizations should consider the expectations and motivations of various customer groups and provide offerings designed to meet the specific needs of different fan segments based on the spectator's experience with the sport product and the distance traveled to attend the sport event.

Originality/value

This paper advances the authors’ understanding of value creation in sport by showing how customer perceptions of value associated with the sport organization and other customers can be moderated by certain behavioral and geographic factors.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Kyu-soo Chung, Dong Soo Ryu and Seunghwan Lee

The purpose of this paper is to provide meaningful information to sport organizations that have just recently started hosting sporting events in a new market and want to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide meaningful information to sport organizations that have just recently started hosting sporting events in a new market and want to build long-term relationships with that market’s consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using self-administered questionnaires, the study surveys 463 spectators who attended the 2012 Formula One Korean Grand Prix.

Findings

Prior affect and existing sensory cues are crucial for spectators’ consumption behavior. Spectators’ prior event attendance plays a significant role on perceiving sensory stimuli as well as on consequent outcomes. This study also finds arousal significantly affected by seeing and hearing and prior affect. Arousal mediates the effects of these sensory stimuli and prior affect on satisfaction and revisit intention.

Originality/value

This study expands the knowledge on spectators’ experience at live sporting events. In addition, more dimensions of the mechanisms that are at work between cognitive elements and sensory stimuli are added to the existing knowledge of sport spectators’ behavior.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Daniel C. Funk, Daniel F. Mahony, Makoto Nakazawa and Sumiko Hirakawa

A 30-item Sport Interest Inventory (SII) was developed and validated for measuring ten unique motives related to consumer interest at an international sporting event…

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Abstract

A 30-item Sport Interest Inventory (SII) was developed and validated for measuring ten unique motives related to consumer interest at an international sporting event. Spectators (N=1,321) attending five different US venues during the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup were administered the SII. Analysis revealed that sport and team interest, excitement, supporting women's opportunity in sport, aesthetics and vicarious achievement explained 35 per cent of the variance in spectators' interest in the event. Results provide sport marketers with consumer-based marketing strategies, particularly for women's sport.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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