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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Niclas Erhardt, Carlos Martin-Rios and Elisa Chan

Co-creation as a collaborative process between organizations and customers generates unique value for both internal and external stakeholders for the company. Research…

Abstract

Purpose

Co-creation as a collaborative process between organizations and customers generates unique value for both internal and external stakeholders for the company. Research generally examines and portrays customer-company co-creation as a balanced and harmonious relationship. However, a successful co-creation strategy involves understanding the shared interests of the parties and resolving tensions between internal and external stakeholders to avoid co-destruction. This study aims to draw on the intersection of organizational behavior and marketing literature and to examine shared interests and conflicting tensions involved in the co-creation in the context of sports entertainment. This context allows the researchers to unpack and present a more complex process of co-creation that fosters co-creativity and innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a qualitative case-based approach of a major university in the USA, the authors draw on interviews and observations from their athletic administration and fans engaged in a men’s Division I team through an entire season.

Findings

This qualitative study illustrates an alternative, more complex dilemma of co-creating emotional and symbolic value based on shared interests while reconciling conflicting internal and external stakeholder interests. The findings suggest a tug of war based on tensions, where management adopted contrasting managerial strategies ranging from attempting to reconcile tension through organic co-creation to controlled manufactured creation.

Research limitations/implications

Emotional and symbolic game experience value is an interdependent process which cannot be created without consumer engagement. Both emotional and symbolic values are enhanced during games to the extent consumers perceive participation in the creative pre-game stages.

Originality/value

This study draws on sports entertainment to identify sources of tension in co-creation and discuss type of solutions among internal and external stakeholders.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

David M. Herold, Tim Breitbarth, Nico Schulenkorf and Sebastian Kummer

Although logistics management is a crucial part of local and global sports events, there is no research-driven characterization of “sports logistics management”. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Although logistics management is a crucial part of local and global sports events, there is no research-driven characterization of “sports logistics management”. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a framework that allows for a more structured recognition of logistics in sports, in general, and sport event management, in particular. In addition, we conduct a systematic literature review of sports logistics management and locate opportunities for future research both for sports management and logistics management scholars.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by Durach et al.’s (2017) systematic literature review approach, we identify key attributes and characteristics of sports logistics management. These are based on studies featuring at least partial aspects of logistics management in sports and sport events, and that were published between 2000 and mid-2019.

Findings

The study reveals that sports logistics management – meaning logistics activities in sports and sport event management – is a heavily under-researched area that provides an abundance of scientific opportunities. Based on the three sport event types of local/regional sport events, major sport events and mega sport events, the authors propose four sports logistics management pillars that are central to the proposed Sport Logistics Framework: venue logistics management, sports equipment logistics management, athletes logistics management, and fan and spectators logistics management.

Practical implications

By providing a conceptual framework for sports logistics, the authors progress towards informing the sport sector on relevant strategic and operational levels of logistics management and set the stage for empirical studies that are likely to advance sport logistics planning and management.

Originality/value

This is the first study that builds on a systematic review of literature specifically focused on the logistics aspect in sports and sport event management. It provides a conceptual framework of sports logistics management and offers an agenda of future research opportunities.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Paul Jones and Amanda Jones

Given the high unemployment rates being experienced by graduates, the importance of small business start-up has increased significantly, with greater priority being placed…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the high unemployment rates being experienced by graduates, the importance of small business start-up has increased significantly, with greater priority being placed upon the development of entrepreneurial skills across the educational sector. However, there is a limited literature considering the student experience and issues involved with supporting non-Business discipline students attaining entrepreneurial competencies. The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitudes and experience of Sports Development and Sports Management students towards entrepreneurship education, highlighting best practice from a pedagogical perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Over 120 Sports Development and Sports Management students on an undergraduate degree were interviewed over a two year period using a semi-structured research instrument. The focus and content of the questionnaire was developed from prior studies undertaken in the field, measuring the impact and value of entrepreneurship education upon attitudes, knowledge and career choice.

Findings

The results found that Sports Development and Sports Management students were typically enterprising by nature due to their prior experience in coaching and training within their respective sports disciplines. The majority of students indicated that they were attracted to a future entrepreneurial career in a sports-related discipline. This was driven by the potential of an entrepreneurial career option and the limited alternative choices. Sports Development and Sports Management students were characterised by their mature attitudes towards their career development and future inclination regarding an entrepreneurial career choice.

Practical implications

The results will inform the teaching of entrepreneurship education to non-Business discipline specialist students in terms of the effective construction of entrepreneurship curriculum. Best practice in terms of customised subject informed teaching material, guest talks and interactive pedagogical practice are highlighted.

Originality/value

This study will be of interest to entrepreneurship education providers delivering content to non-Business disciplines at all levels and aid them in the construction of their curriculum to provide fit for purpose provision.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 56 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2015

Wonseok (Eric) Jang, Yong Jae Ko and Sylvia M Chan-Olmsted

No psychometrically sound measurement scale exists to effectively measure sports team reputation. The current study proposed and developed the Spectator-based Sports Team…

Abstract

No psychometrically sound measurement scale exists to effectively measure sports team reputation. The current study proposed and developed the Spectator-based Sports Team Reputation (SSTR) by considering the most important stakeholder groups - spectators. The results indicated that SSTR had a positive and direct impact on team identification and trust towards a team. The most significant theoretical contribution of this study is the conceptualisation and development of the SSTR scale, with a multi-dimensional approach from the spectator perspective.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2019

Yan Chen

To improve the operational management benefits of large-scale sports venues, the literature data method, questionnaire survey method, and comparative analysis method were…

Abstract

To improve the operational management benefits of large-scale sports venues, the literature data method, questionnaire survey method, and comparative analysis method were used to study the planning and management of large-scale sports stadiums in China. From the macro external environment, the micro external environment and the internal management of the venue, the opportunities and challenges of China's large stadiums were analyzed. Corresponding countermeasures to improve the efficiency of venue operation management were proposed. The results show that the proportion of business structure of large-scale sports stadiums in China was unreasonable, and the ontology management was in a polarized development trend. The venue utilization rate was generally low. In addition, the operational management benefits of large-scale sports stadiums in China were affected by the micro-external environment and the internal conditions of the venues. Therefore, this research has important reference significance for the operation and management of stadiums.

Details

Open House International, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2008

Ram Herstein and Eugene D. Jaffe

The demand for sport tourism throughout the world has risen in recent years for several reasons, most significantly an increased emphasis on health and fitness and the

Abstract

Purpose

The demand for sport tourism throughout the world has risen in recent years for several reasons, most significantly an increased emphasis on health and fitness and the increased use of sporting events by cities in order to attract tourists. The purpose of this case study is twofold. First, to trace the corporate communication process implemented by the management of Isrotel Hotels in its effort to build the new Sport Club Hotel, focusing on internal and external communications. Second, to describe how the marketing and promotion of sport hotels differs from that of ordinary hotels.

Design/methodology/approach

This article describes one unique example of a hotel based entirely on the idea of fulfilling the dreams of active sport tourists, provided by the Isrotel Hotel Management Group, who have given the concept of a sports vacation a whole new meaning in the world of hospitality.

Findings

The case study described here suggests that sports‐oriented hotel identity must be achieved via the most efficient corporate communication channels in the hospitality industry – nomenclature and branding, graphic design, formal statements, architecture, media relations and routine interactions.

Originality/value

This case study provides insights into the marketing and communication strategies used in creating a sports‐oriented hotel for people who wish to live and breathe sports 24 hours a day during their vacation. This case can serve other hotel managements in their attempts to provide their guests with a different experience that effectively amalgamates hospitality and sports.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Helmut M. Dietl, Anil Özdemir and Nicolas Schweizer

The purpose of this paper is to understand and explain why some professional sports organizations outsource their sponsorship-related activities to sports marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand and explain why some professional sports organizations outsource their sponsorship-related activities to sports marketing agencies, whereas others purposely retain these activities in-house.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies transaction cost economics (TCE) and the resource-based view (RBV) to outsourcing of sports sponsorship activities. It examines the extent determinants descending from these theories influence the sourcing choice of professional sports organizations.

Findings

This paper argues that determinants derived from TCE and the RBV are useful to understand the factors likely to influence an outsourcing decision and to analyze which sponsorship-related activities are more or less likely to be outsourced. However, these determinants are insufficient to shed light on why sports organizations arrive at different conclusions about their internal and external environments. With recourse to contingency theory, the authors propose two additional contingencies that affect the sourcing decision: a sport organization’s size and its degree of professionalism. This integrative conceptual framework improves the understanding of sports sponsorship outsourcing, makes several propositions, and paves the way for future empirical research in sports sponsorship.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to apply classical theoretical concepts to outsourcing sports sponsorship activities. As a conceptual paper, it hopes to stimulate further research on outsourcing in sports sponsorship and on the relationship between sports organizations and sports marketing agencies.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Paul A. Willie

This paper aims to recommend opportunities for professional sport leagues in the USA and Canada to apply the art and science of revenue management in order to minimize…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to recommend opportunities for professional sport leagues in the USA and Canada to apply the art and science of revenue management in order to minimize potential losses and maximize profits.

Design/methodology/approach

The evolution of current key revenue management concepts is presented from their initial stages to their current level of implementation. In addition, the literature regarding the strongest business models is reviewed and examined in the context of current successes and challenges across the major sport leagues in North America.

Findings

Five revenue streams in sports organizations are identified and analysed. Five key elements for revenues are highlighted as strategic tools used to maximize effectiveness in achieving revenue management goals. A series of recommendations is made to best use revenue management including careful negotiation of television contracts, the use of dynamic pricing models, maximization of partnerships and sponsorships, acceptance of new approaches to food and beverage and accessibility of sport merchandise to customers.

Practical implications

At the regional, national and international levels, sports organizations should review their current business practices to identify areas to improve their revenue management in light of the recommendations in this paper.

Originality/value

Although the use of the concept of revenue management in sectors of tourism has evolved since early 1970s, its application in professional sports is relatively new. Therefore, this paper provides value to professional sports organizations to optimize their profitability.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Jonathan Liu, Ashok Srivastava and Hong Seng Woo

This paper presents the findings of a literature review and survey conducted on sport sponsorship in the UK. The paper seeks to establish relevant material published that…

Abstract

This paper presents the findings of a literature review and survey conducted on sport sponsorship in the UK. The paper seeks to establish relevant material published that addresses the issue of the transferability of techniques and skills from sports to business. The findings of the literature review highlighted the close relationship between the two mediums. The results of the sponsorship questionnaire showed evidence of the transference of mutually beneficial skills between the organisations offering the assistance, and the sporting organisation receiving the funding. The survey indicated that a majority of sports sponsoring organisations offered more than just monetary assistance to their beneficiaries. Sponsors also assisted with the management of specific events, and operated the complicated software and computer equipment required for the smooth running of the sporting activity. These organisations supplied the sports with key personnel, and highly skilled staff who were experts in their respective fields in marketing, public relations, corporate hospitality, and management.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2017

Ren Pengyu and Liu Zhaoxia

The function, utilization, and resource allocation of sport facilities in residential areas have attracted increasing attention in China along with the country's rapid…

Abstract

The function, utilization, and resource allocation of sport facilities in residential areas have attracted increasing attention in China along with the country's rapid economic development and the popularization of the health concept. To optimize the allocation of public sports resources and develop functions for sports facilities in China, this study analyzed existing policies concerning the planning and construction of sports facilities in residential areas and actual problems in the operation, management, and construction of sports facilities in the country. The analysis was conducted using document, investigation and expert consultation methods. Corresponding improvement measures were proposed by combining actual situations of urban sport participation of residents. Sports facilities in urban residential areas in China are facing various problems, such as inadequate quantity, uneven layout, poor management, and imperfect related laws and regulations as well as planning policies. Formulating sports facility planning policies and updating existing sports facilities are beneficial in relieving the sports facility shortage caused by the increased, diversified, and actual demands of residents. These measures could also guide the future construction of sports facilities in residential areas in high-density cities in China.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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