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Measuring spectators' perception toward peripheral stadium quality services after COVID-19: impact on their emotions and attendance intentions

Jaskirat Singh Rai (Chandigarh School of Business, Chandigarh Group of Colleges, Jhanjeri, Mohali, India)
Behzad Foroughi (Department of International Business Administration, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan)
Maher N. Itani (College of Business Administration, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates)
Amanpreet Singh (School of Management Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala, India)

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship

ISSN: 1464-6668

Article publication date: 9 January 2023

Issue publication date: 3 April 2023




The perception of sport consumers on peripheral stadium-quality services (PSQS) has evolved after compulsory precautionary measures were imposed on gatherings to alleviate the spread of coronavirus. This study attempts to reassess five principal dimensions of PSQS? Stadium parking, stadium cleanliness, fan control, food services and perceived crowding? through reflecting on the COVID-19 control and prevention measures established during this pandemic. Furthermore, it aims to measure the impact of the multi-dimensional PSQS on spectators' emotions and future attendance intentions.


The purposive sampling technique was used to collect data from spectators watching the live matches of cricket at the stadium. A total of 680 responses were collected from spectators and uploaded to the measurement model. The covariance-based structural equation modeling technique was used subsequently for analysis purposes.


The study found a positive impact of the stadium cleanliness and fan control services on spectators' happiness and excitement emotions; and a negative impact of stadium parking, stadium cleanliness, fan control and perceived crowding on their anger, anxiety and dejection emotions. The happiness and excitement emotions of the spectators induced them to visit again at the stadium. Of all the peripheral quality services, the study found only stadium cleanliness service indirectly effect spectators' revisit intentions through excitement emotion as a mediator.

Research limitations/implications

The incorporation of the safety procedures through PSQS can reduce spectators' negative emotions especially when they face psychological fear of the pandemic. These services work as a stimulus for spectators that directly affect their organism (emotions) and indirectly affect their response (attendance intentions).


This study contributed to sports research by novelty evaluating sport consumers' perception of the PSQS after incorporating COVID-19 preventive measures. It empirically examines the effect PSQS on spectators' emotions and re-visits intentions.



Rai, J.S., Foroughi, B., Itani, M.N. and Singh, A. (2023), "Measuring spectators' perception toward peripheral stadium quality services after COVID-19: impact on their emotions and attendance intentions", International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 375-394.



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