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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Felix Boronczyk, Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer

Technological innovations could allow for real-time control of sponsor exposure during sport broadcasts to increase the capacity of sponsor messages to attract attention

Abstract

Purpose

Technological innovations could allow for real-time control of sponsor exposure during sport broadcasts to increase the capacity of sponsor messages to attract attention. While such an approach requires knowledge on the interplay between in-game events and viewers' attention to sponsor signage previous studies have disregarded factors pertaining to the competition itself. To address this gap, this paper investigates the impact of game-related variables on the allocation of viewer attention in live broadcasts.

Design/methodology/approach

Eye tracking is used to examine the impact of variations in score, ball position and ball possession on soccer fans' attention to sponsor messages during broadcasts. In total, the data comprise n = 36,604 second-by-second observations from 11 participants and games.

Findings

Logistic regression analysis reveals game time effects and significant interaction effects between possession and the score as well as the ball position variable. Sponsors receive less attention if the attacking team controls the ball near the opponents' goal, particularly if the viewers' preferred team is in possession.

Practical implications

Property owners and sponsors can exploit these findings to determine the value of sponsor brand exposure more precisely. New systems could further increase message effectiveness through adjustments of sponsor exposure based on real time match event data.

Originality/value

This study is the first to explore the influence of game-related variables on attention to sponsors. By employing live broadcasts in a near-realistic setting, it further addresses a gap in the literature and adds to the knowledge on sponsor message processing.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2021

Rosy Boardman and Helen Mccormick

The purpose of this paper is to identify attention, cognitive and affective responses towards a fashion retailer's website and the behavioural outcomes when shopping online.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify attention, cognitive and affective responses towards a fashion retailer's website and the behavioural outcomes when shopping online.

Design/methodology/approach

52 eye-tracking tests and 52 qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted.

Findings

Consumer attention and behaviour differ across web pages throughout the shopping journey depending on its content, function and consumers' goal. Top-down attention is more dominant than bottom-up attention when consumers are shopping online for fashion items. The product listings page was the most frequented and had the most time spent on it. Consumers enjoy browsing for products and adding them to their basket to evaluate them together later. Customisation and personalisation features are the most valued due to their ability to make the experience more convenient and enjoyable.

Originality/value

This article contributes novel findings that the content and design of the website affects attention in different ways. It demonstrates that research cannot simplify viewing patterns for fashion shopping online. The study extends the SOR framework, showing that top-down attention, when provided with personalisation and customisation features, results in approach behaviour. A lack of personalisation or customisation features results in avoidance behaviour. The complex nature of consumer attention and behaviour during their holistic shopping journey advocates the need for eye-tracking research to be conducted on a live website for ecological validity, providing a methodological contribution which can be used for future research.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Guy Moshe Ross

This research aims to test focus of attention effects in risky choice.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to test focus of attention effects in risky choice.

Design/methodology/approach

As opposed to traditional aspiration-level theory, the shifting-focus concept introduces a second reference point, the survival point, and assumes a shifting focus of attention between the two reference points. In this conceptualization, risk-taking is a function of focus of attention on the survival reference point or the aspiration-level and resources relative to the two reference points. Four randomized controlled studies tested this concept.

Findings

Study 1 showed that with aspiration focus the probability of choosing a risky option was higher below an aspiration-level than above it. With survival focus, the effect was reversed. Study 2 found that close to the survival reference point, the probability of choosing a risky option was higher with aspiration focus relative to survival focus. Study 3 revealed that with scarce resources the risk taken was higher with aspiration focus than with survival focus, and the scarcer the resources the stronger was the effect. Study 4 demonstrated that with aspiration focus the risk taken was higher below an aspiration-level than above it. With survival focus the effect was reversed.

Originality/value

In addition to providing support for the validity of the shifting focus concept, this paper elaborates on the theoretical model by providing evidence for moderation effects. Risk-taking was affected by a focus of attention on one of two reference points, and the effect was moderated by resources relative to the two focal points. An advanced model is proposed to capture the effects of focus of attention and resources on risk-taking behavior.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2021

Wen Pan Fagerlin and Yueqi Wang

The purpose of this study is to map different kinds of tensions in product innovation and investigate how top managers use communication to shape subordinates' attention

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to map different kinds of tensions in product innovation and investigate how top managers use communication to shape subordinates' attention and thereby respond to these tensions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted an embedded case study of four innovation centers within a Nordic multinational firm.

Findings

This study identifies three kinds of tensions that reside in product innovation, namely dilemma, paradox and trade-off. Further, this study reveals how joint attention (among top managers and subordinates) as a response to tensions can be achieved through different aggregates of top managers' communication efforts.

Originality/value

In opening the black box of tensions in product innovation and identifying multiple tensions, this study contributes to advancing the understanding of the attention-based view. Different from previous studies that simply consider communication as channels for information processing, the findings indicate that the contents and practices of communication can help top managers to shape subordinates' attention and thereby respond to tensions. This study also extends the research focus of attention from top managers to the whole organization, by revealing the importance of building a joint pattern of attention among top managers and subordinates.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Guang-Yih Sheu and Chang-Yu Li

In a classroom, a support vector machines model with a linear kernel, a neural network and the k-nearest neighbors algorithm failed to detect simulated money laundering…

Abstract

Purpose

In a classroom, a support vector machines model with a linear kernel, a neural network and the k-nearest neighbors algorithm failed to detect simulated money laundering accounts generated from the Panama papers data set of the offshore leak database. This study aims to resolve this failure.

Design/methodology/approach

Build a graph attention network having three modules as a new money laundering detection tool. A feature extraction module encodes these input data to create a weighted graph structure. In it, directed edges and their end vertices denote financial transactions. Each directed edge has weights for storing the frequency of money transactions and other significant features. Social network metrics are features of nodes for characterizing an account’s roles in a money laundering typology. A graph attention module implements a self-attention mechanism for highlighting target nodes. A classification module further filters out such targets using the biased rectified linear unit function.

Findings

Resulted from the highlighting of nodes using a self-attention mechanism, the proposed graph attention network outperforms a Naïve Bayes classifier, the random forest method and a support vector machines model with a radial kernel in detecting money laundering accounts. The Naïve Bayes classifier produces second accurate classifications.

Originality/value

This paper develops a new money laundering detection tool, which outperforms existing methods. This new tool produces more accurate detections of money laundering, perfects warns of money laundering accounts or links and provides sharp efficiency in processing financial transaction records without being afraid of their amount.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2021

Hee-Kyung Ahn, Seung-Hwa Kim and Wen Ying Ke

This study examines the impact of incidental pride on consumer preference for attention-grabbing products. This effect is mediated by the desire to gain attention. This…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the impact of incidental pride on consumer preference for attention-grabbing products. This effect is mediated by the desire to gain attention. This study also shows that the effect of incidental pride is qualified by visibility of consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

Using two studies with between-subjects designs, this research examines the difference in preferences for attention-grabbing products between hubristic and authentic pride.

Findings

Individuals who experience hubristic pride (vs authentic pride) show greater preference for attention-grabbing products and have a strong desire to gain attention from others. However, when consumption is perceived as private (vs public), preferences for attention-grabbing products weaken for those who experience hubristic pride.

Research limitations/implications

This research studies the effect of incidental pride on consumer preference. By examining dispositional pride effects, future research may expand these findings, which enrich the literature on emotion. Future research can identify the potential mechanism for the relationship between authentic pride and preference for attention-grabbing products in the context of private consumption.

Practical implications

Marketers and salespersons can guide and recommend products with attention-grabbing features to customers celebrating a friend’s success in recognition of their innate ability. Second, marketers may encourage consumers to buy attention-grabbing products with targeted advertising or emotion-eliciting advertising (i.e., evoke a certain type of pride).

Originality/value

While prior studies focused on basic emotions, this research has investigated self-conscious emotions that are central to consumer behavior. This research contributes to the understanding of self-conscious emotions that affect consumers’ behavioral responses in unrelated situations. Investigating the two facets of pride, the findings show the impact of pride on the preference for attention-grabbing products and reveals that visibility of consumption moderates the effect of pride.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2021

Ripsy Bondia, Pratap C. Biswal and Abinash Panda

Can something that drives our initial attention toward a stock have any implications on final decision to buy it? This paper empirically and statistically tests…

Abstract

Purpose

Can something that drives our initial attention toward a stock have any implications on final decision to buy it? This paper empirically and statistically tests association, if any, between factors fostering attention toward a stock and rationales to buy it.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses survey responses of individual investors involving multiple response categorical data. Association between attention fostering factors and rationales is tested using a modified first-order corrected Rao-Scott chi-square test statistic (to adjust for within-participant dependence among responses in case of multiple response categorical variables). Further, odds ratios and mosaic plots are used to determine the effect size of association.

Findings

Strong association is seen between attention fostering factors and rationales to buy a stock. Further, strongest associations are seen in cases where origin is the same underlying influencing factor. Some of the most cited attention fostering factors and rationales in this research stem from familiarity bias and expert bias.

Practical implications

What starts as a trivial attention fostering factor, which may not even be recognized by majority investors, can go on to become one of the rationales for buying a stock. This can result in substantial financial implications for an individual investor. Investor education agencies and regulatory authorities can make investors cognizant of such association, which can help investors to improve and adjust their decision making accordingly.

Originality/value

The extant literature discusses factors/biases influencing buying decisions of individual investors. This research takes a step ahead by distinguishing these factors in terms of whether they play role of (1) fostering attention toward a stock or (2) of reasons for ultimately buying it. Such dissection of factors/biases, to the best of authors' knowledge, has not been done previously in any empirical and statistical analysis. The paper uses multiple response categorical data and applies a modified first-order corrected Rao-Scott chi-square statistic to test association. Application of the above-mentioned test statistic has not been done previously in context of individual investor decision-making.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Francisco Muñoz-Leiva, Luís Miguel Faísca, Célia M.Q. Ramos, Marisol B. Correia, Carlos M.R. Sousa and Marouan Bouhachi

This study aims to analyse the effectiveness of a static promotional banner located on a hotel reservation website in terms of capturing the visitor’s visual attention by…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the effectiveness of a static promotional banner located on a hotel reservation website in terms of capturing the visitor’s visual attention by exploring how this impact depends on the user’s degree of internet experience.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was conducted using the eye-tracking methodology, in addition to a self-administered questionnaire. Through eye-tracking technology, eye movements were recorded whilst participants explored a generic hotel website. The factors used in the analyses were the position of the banner on the website and participants’ experience as internet users.

Findings

The findings showed that positioning a banner at certain locations on the webpage may lead to a better recall, which, in part, seems to result from the visual attention that such locations attract. The mediation analysis showed that the bottom-right and bottom-left positions have a negative effect on banner recall due, in part, to the shorter attention times and the smaller number of fixations those positions induce. Although the visitor’s level of internet experience affected his/her visual attention towards the banner, its impact on banner recall was non-significant. Results are discussed considering which variables produce greater effectiveness in capturing the user’s attention.

Practical implications

The paper draws several implications for the marketing literature, hospitality management and society in general.

Originality/value

The study is the first to analyse the impact of the position of a static ad on users’ visual attention and memory, considering the user’s degree of internet experience.

Propósito

Este estudio analiza la eficacia de un banner promocional estático ubicado en un sitio web de reservas de un hotel en términos de captación de la atención visual del visitante examinando cómo este efecto depende del grado de experiencia del usuario en Internet.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se llevó a cabo un experimento utilizando la metodología de seguimiento ocular (eye tracking), junto con un cuestionario autoadministrado. A través de la tecnología de eye tracking, se registraron los movimientos oculares mientras los participantes exploraban el sitio web genérico de un hotel. Los factores considerados en los análisis fueron la posición del banner en el sitio web y la experiencia de los participantes como usuarios de Internet.

Hallazgos

Los hallazgos mostraron que colocar un banner en ciertas ubicaciones de la página web puede conducir a un mayor recuerdo, lo que, en parte, parece ser el resultado de la atención visual que atraen tales posiciones. El análisis de mediación mostró que las posiciones inferior-derecha e inferior-izquierda tienen un efecto negativo en el recuerdo del banner debido, en parte, a los tiempos de atención más cortos y al menor número de fijaciones que provocan esas posiciones. Aunque el nivel de experiencia de Internet del visitante afectó su atención visual hacia el banner, su impacto en el recuerdo del banner no fue significativo. Los resultados son discutidos considerando qué variables producen mayor efectividad a la hora de captar la atención del usuario.

Implicaciones prácticas

El artículo presenta una serie de implicaciones para la literatura de marketing, la gestión hotelera y la sociedad en general.

Originalidad/valor

Nuestro estudio es el primero en analizar el impacto de la posición de un anuncio estático en la atención visual y la memoria de los usuarios, considerando el nivel de experiencia del usuario en Internet.

目的

本研究分析了位于酒店预订网站上的静态促销横幅在吸引访问者视觉注意力方面的效果, 并探索了这种效果如何受到用户的互联网体验程度的影响。

研究方法

本文除了采用自填问卷的方式, 还使用眼动追踪方法进行了实验。通过眼动追踪技术, 记录了参与者在浏览一般酒店网站时的眼动情况。分析中使用的因素是网站上横幅的位置和参与者作为互联网用户的体验。

研究结果

调查结果显示, 将横幅定位在网页上的某些位置可能会导致更佳的记忆, 这种效果在一定程度上是由于横幅的位置吸引了视觉注意力。调解分析表明, 横幅在右下角和左下角的位置对的回忆有负面影响, 部分原因是这些位置引起的注意时间较短、固定次数较少。虽然访问者的互联网体验水平影响了他/她对横幅的视觉注意力, 但其对横幅记忆的影响并不显著。讨论结果时考虑到了某些变量在吸引用户的注意力方面具有更明显的效果。

实践意义

本文对市场营销文献、酒店管理和社会都具有一定的借鉴意义。

原创性/价值

本次研究是第一个分析静态广告的位置对用户视觉注意力和记忆的影响的研究, 考虑到用户的互联网体验程度。

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Roger Stefani

For many years it has been speculated that some learning and attention problems in children are related to underlying problems in neurological functioning. In fact, the…

Abstract

For many years it has been speculated that some learning and attention problems in children are related to underlying problems in neurological functioning. In fact, the IDEA (1997) definition of learning disabilities utilizes terminology that specifically includes neurological processes and conditions: Specific learning disabilities means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, of mental retardation, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.This chapter begins with a review of the role of neuroimaging in advancing an understanding of the basis and nature of learning and attention problems. The ever-increasing sophistication of neurodiagnostic technology has made it possible to obtain more precise information about neuroanatomical and neurophysiological bases of behavior, including learning and attention. Advances in technology have greatly increased the ability to study the functioning of the brain during the performance of relatively complex mental activities. With this advanced technology it is becoming increasingly possible to visualize normal and abnormal brain functioning, including important components of basic academic skills. The chapter includes a discussion of the recent evidence about the neurological basis of learning and attention problems.

Details

Current Perspectives on Learning Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-287-0

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Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2012

William Ocasio

This chapter first examines the role of attention in the garbage can model of decision making and compares it both to prior approaches in the Carnegie School tradition and…

Abstract

This chapter first examines the role of attention in the garbage can model of decision making and compares it both to prior approaches in the Carnegie School tradition and the attention-based view of the firm. Both the garbage can model and the attention-based view rely on the same assumption, one that is rarely recognized nor understood – that organizational decision making is characterized by situated attention, where organizational participants vary across time and place in what they attend to. In the garbage can model, decision opportunities are the temporal contexts for situated attention; in the attention-based view, attention is situated in both time and place within the organization's communication channels. In the garbage can, situated attention is also shaped by the ecology of problems and opportunities competing for attention. The final part examines the determinants and consequences of tight versus loose coupling of channels in organizations and its effects on participants’ situated attention. Attention structures external to channels and the architecture of channel structures shape the degree of coupling found in organizations. In viewing coupling as a variable, the chapter suggests that a modified garbage can model, combined with an increased focus on situated attention, provides the foundations for a more general theory of nonroutine decision making.

Details

The Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice: Looking Forward at Forty
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-713-0

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