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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Yanling Duan and Bing Liu

The purpose of this paper is to propose and examine an integrated model of spectator satisfaction in mass participant sport events.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and examine an integrated model of spectator satisfaction in mass participant sport events.

Design/methodology/approach

The Wuhan marathon, held in the middle of China, was selected serve for the study to examine the antecedents and consequences of spectator satisfaction at mass participant sport events. Data were collected from 956 spectators of the event on the day of the race. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the research model proposed by this study.

Findings

Structural equation modeling results indicate the following. First, the event image and perceived social impact of the event are important predictive factors of spectator satisfaction. Second, spectator satisfaction is positively associated with behavioral intentions toward the event and the sponsors' product. Third, spectator satisfaction plays a significant mediating role between the antecedents and consequences; specifically, compared to perceived social impacts of the event, event image has greater indirect effects on both event-related behavioral intentions and event sponsors' products.

Originality/value

Until now, there has not been an integrated research study on the sport spectator satisfaction model in the context of mass participant sport events. This paper thus extends the understanding of the spectator satisfaction in the context of mass participant sport events, and the findings provide valuable implications for holding cities and event organizers of mass participant sport events in emerging countries.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Charles W. Jones and Kevin K. Byon

This study is a micro-level perspective of value co-creation in spectator sport. By examining sport through the value co-creation lens, the dual role of the customer as…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is a micro-level perspective of value co-creation in spectator sport. By examining sport through the value co-creation lens, the dual role of the customer as both a contributor to and a beneficiary of value is acknowledged and the importance of stakeholder interactions is emphasized. This study analyzes the extent to which two theoretically and managerially important factors—attendance frequency (i.e. first-time attendee vs repeat attendee) and resident type (i.e. local resident vs domestic traveler)—impact value creation in the recurring live sporting event setting.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from spectators who attended a National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) sanctioned racing event. Multigroup structural equation modeling was performed to examine the proposed pathways, and multigroup t-tests were used to compare the model across both groups for each moderating variable. Corresponding path coefficients were then compared using Chin's (2004) recommended equations and procedures.

Findings

The study found organization-related value propositions to be the more common antecedents of value, while customer appearance had a strong negative association with hedonic value, and attendance frequency and resident type influenced certain value perceptions. Sport organizations should consider the expectations and motivations of various customer groups and provide offerings designed to meet the specific needs of different fan segments based on the spectator's experience with the sport product and the distance traveled to attend the sport event.

Originality/value

This paper advances the authors’ understanding of value creation in sport by showing how customer perceptions of value associated with the sport organization and other customers can be moderated by certain behavioral and geographic factors.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Daniel C. Funk, Daniel F. Mahony, Makoto Nakazawa and Sumiko Hirakawa

A 30-item Sport Interest Inventory (SII) was developed and validated for measuring ten unique motives related to consumer interest at an international sporting event…

Abstract

A 30-item Sport Interest Inventory (SII) was developed and validated for measuring ten unique motives related to consumer interest at an international sporting event. Spectators (N=1,321) attending five different US venues during the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup were administered the SII. Analysis revealed that sport and team interest, excitement, supporting women's opportunity in sport, aesthetics and vicarious achievement explained 35 per cent of the variance in spectators' interest in the event. Results provide sport marketers with consumer-based marketing strategies, particularly for women's sport.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Yasuhiro Watanabe, Cassendra Gilbert, Mohd Salleh Aman and James J. Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the systematic influence of core product features, event operation quality, sport fan identification, and image of host city as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the systematic influence of core product features, event operation quality, sport fan identification, and image of host city as a tourism destination on behavioral intentions of international spectator at a Formula One (F1) event held in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey form assessing the specified concepts was designed and employed to examine the structural relationships. The research participants were international spectators (n=512) attending the event. Data were randomly split into two halves, one for EFA (n=256) and the other for CFA and SEM (n=256).

Findings

Findings revealed that core product feature and sport fan identification factors were significantly (p<0.05) related to both of international spectators’ desire to stay at the event, attend the event in the future, and revisit the country; whereas, event operation quality was only found to be significantly influential of the re-patronage, and destination image was only significantly influential of the desire to stay. The findings highlight the importance and relevance of these concepts in attracting, serving, and retaining international visitors to the event.

Originality/value

Unlike other studies that are centered merely on game and event factors, this study expanded on a bigger ecological spectrum surrounding a F1 event and systematically evaluated the critical concepts and factors affecting international tourist to the event that can be considerable sources of economic growth. The findings provide empirical evidence for event and tourism management and marketing.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Kevin K Byon, Michael Cottingham and Michael S Carroll

This study examines the relationship between spectator motivation and sports consumption behaviours in the context of an adaptive sport. Respondents were spectators from…

Abstract

This study examines the relationship between spectator motivation and sports consumption behaviours in the context of an adaptive sport. Respondents were spectators from five matches held in the Midwest United States involving registered United States Quad Rugby Association teams. The Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSSC; Trail & James, 2001) was adapted to measure spectator motivation and predict repatronage intentions and online media consumption among wheelchair rugby spectators. Results indicated that two spectator motivation factors, physical skill and knowledge, were related to repatronage intentions. In addition, knowledge and vicarious achievement were found to be related to online media consumption.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2009

Sebastian Uhrich and Joerg Koenigstorfer

This conceptual article presents a theoretical approach to understanding the atmosphere at sports stadiums. Using the environmental psychology behavioural model proposed…

Abstract

This conceptual article presents a theoretical approach to understanding the atmosphere at sports stadiums. Using the environmental psychology behavioural model proposed by Mehrabian & Russell (1974), and taking into account recent findings in consumer research, we develop a comprehensive framework for investigating this atmosphere. The framework highlights the role of emotions elicited by different stimuli in sports stadiums. We also suggest a number of direct and indirect influences on behavioural outcomes, caused by the emotional reactions and personal predispositions of spectators - influences that are of economic relevance. The proposed framework also forms a starting point for future empirical studies.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Yanling Duan, Bing Liu and Yan He

The paper aims to examine the relationships among marathon spectator motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine the relationships among marathon spectator motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Date were collected from three Chinese marathon races. The paper presents the conceptual model of the study and adopted a mixed method to identify the motivations of marathon spectators; structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the measurement and substantive models; regression analysis was used to detect the specific effects of the various spectator motivations on spectator satisfaction and behavioral intention.

Findings

The paper provides empirical evidences about how marathon spectator motivation affects the behavioral intention. The research results from a path analysis of the spectator motivation–satisfaction–behavioral intention model show that: spectator motivation has significant positive effects on behavioral intention, the indirect path dominates the total effect of motivation on behavioral intention via satisfaction as a mediating variable; satisfaction is positively associated with behavioral intention, and it plays mediate role between spectator motivation and behavioral intention. The result of regression analysis indicates that various spectator motivations have different influences on the satisfaction and behavioral intention, motives of excitement and diversion have significant effect on satisfaction and behavioral intention, but socialization motive is not significantly associated with the satisfaction and behavioral intention.

Originality/value

This paper first fulfills an identified need to explore mass sports event spectator motivations and its influential mechanism on behavioral intention among Chinese marathon races by survey. It contributes greatly to the literature of mass sports spectator motivation and consumption theory, provides important managerial implications for Chinese sports organizations as to how to improve spectator orientation degree.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2015

Wonseok (Eric) Jang, Yong Jae Ko and Sylvia M Chan-Olmsted

No psychometrically sound measurement scale exists to effectively measure sports team reputation. The current study proposed and developed the Spectator-based Sports Team…

Abstract

No psychometrically sound measurement scale exists to effectively measure sports team reputation. The current study proposed and developed the Spectator-based Sports Team Reputation (SSTR) by considering the most important stakeholder groups - spectators. The results indicated that SSTR had a positive and direct impact on team identification and trust towards a team. The most significant theoretical contribution of this study is the conceptualisation and development of the SSTR scale, with a multi-dimensional approach from the spectator perspective.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2009

Seungmo Kim, Damon P. S. Andrew and T. Christopher Greenwell

This study compared the motives and media consumption behaviours of American and South Korean spectators of Mixed Martial Arts. Significant cross-national differences were…

Abstract

This study compared the motives and media consumption behaviours of American and South Korean spectators of Mixed Martial Arts. Significant cross-national differences were noted in sport interest, vicarious achievement, aesthetics, national pride and violence. Backward regression analyses indicated that sport interest, fighter interest and drama predicted media consumption at the American event, while sport interest, drama and adoration were significant predictors at the Korean event.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2015

Christopher Hautbois and Patrick Bouchet

It has become common for academics and sports marketing professionals to study and explain the heterogeneity and complexity of sports spectators' behaviours and attitudes…

Abstract

It has become common for academics and sports marketing professionals to study and explain the heterogeneity and complexity of sports spectators' behaviours and attitudes, with numerous works addressing this topic But these surveys are more about fans of professional sports clubs (soccer, basketball, baseball, hockey, etc) who attend regular season games in their favourite teams' home stadium or arena. To our knowledge, very few studies have been conducted into spectators of national teams. It is these spectators who are of the focus of this paper.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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