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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Jenna Reinbold

The 2015 Obergefell v. Hodges decision accomplished more than the national legalization of same-sex marriage; it also laid bare a deep rift among US Supreme Court justices…

Abstract

The 2015 Obergefell v. Hodges decision accomplished more than the national legalization of same-sex marriage; it also laid bare a deep rift among US Supreme Court justices over the question of whether and how religious objections to same-sex marriage should be accommodated in this new era of marriage equality. This chapter will explore the rift revealed in Obergefell between the Court’s differing conceptions of religious free exercise and will highlight the ways in which this legal dispute was translated into a forceful mode of conservative religious activism in the buildup to the groundbreaking 2016 election.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-727-1

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Marc von der Ruhr and Joseph P. Daniels

Megachurches are thriving in religious markets at a time when Americans are asserting their ability as consumers of religious products to engage in religious switching…

Abstract

Purpose

Megachurches are thriving in religious markets at a time when Americans are asserting their ability as consumers of religious products to engage in religious switching. The apparent success of megachurches, which often provide a low cost and low commitment path by which religious refugees may join the church, seems to challenge Iannocconne's theory that high commitment churches will thrive while low commitment churches will atrophy. This paper aims to investigate this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs a signaling model to illustrate the strategy and organizational forms megachurches employ to indicate a match between what the church produces and the religious refugee wishes to consume in an effort to increase their membership. The model illustrates that megachurches expect little in regard to financial or time commitment of new attendees. However, once the attendees perceive a good fit with the church, the megachurch increases its expectation of commitment. Data from the FACT2000 survey provide evidence in support of the model's predictions.

Findings

Data from the FACT2000 survey provide evidence in support of the model's predictions.

Originality/value

The paper serves to illustrate the dynamic process by which megachurches attract new attendees and transform those that find a good fit between their needs and what the church offers into full members of the church.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Nancy E. Day and Doranne Hudson

The expansion of religious diversity in US workplaces increases the relevance of leaders' religious motivations and the impact on their organizations. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The expansion of religious diversity in US workplaces increases the relevance of leaders' religious motivations and the impact on their organizations. This paper aims to investigate whether small company leaders' religious motivations predict their perceptions that their organization's values are directed to the welfare of others.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was mailed to top executives of Midwestern US firms with 20 to 250 employees, measuring leaders' organizational values and religious motivation. The sample revealed itself to be mostly Christian.

Findings

Findings show that, as predicted, leaders higher in extrinsic religious motivation toward personal benefit were less likely than those lower in this type of religious motivation to perceive other‐directed organizational values. However, neither intrinsic religious motivation nor extrinsic religious motivation toward social ends predicted a tendency to perceive other‐directed organizational values.

Research limitations/implications

Future research directions could assess the impact of beliefs associated with faith traditions on leader values and decision making. Further, a qualitative approach to data gathering may result in richer data. Limitations include a relatively low response rate and a sample skewed toward religiously motivated, mostly Christian small business leaders.

Practical implications

Just because small business leaders are religiously motivated does not mean that their perceived organizational values will be directed toward the welfare of others.

Originality/value

Little research exists about how small business leaders' religious motivations affect their organizational values. This research counters common assumptions that leaders' religious motivations will affect how they view their organizations' values.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Shalva Tabatadze

– This paper aims to explore the multicultural education strategies employed by primary school teachers in Georgia.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the multicultural education strategies employed by primary school teachers in Georgia.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth interviews with 65 primary school teachers were used. The interviews were analyzed using the theoretical framework of multicultural educational approaches defined by James Banks. The approaches used by Georgian teachers were classified into four approaches to multicultural education: contributions, additive, transformation and social action approaches.

Findings

The research revealed that the majority of teachers use the contributions and additive approaches to multicultural education. The use of the transformation approach by teachers is very rare and only happens if school textbooks, as well as exercises and assignments in the textbooks, provide this opportunity. The social action approach to multicultural education has not been used in primary grades in Georgia. The research revealed that some teachers reject diversity in their classroom as well as the necessity of developing their students’ intercultural sensitivity. These teachers have an informed and conscious approach to not using multicultural approaches in the teaching process. This approach is named by the author as the “inactive action approach”, which is specific to Georgia and is widely used in primary school classes.

Practical implications

The study has scientific and practical importance. The findings of this study also have practical importance. They can be used for the implementation of teacher education and training programs in Georgia. Consideration of these findings will contribute to the implementation of the National Objectives of General Education and the National Curriculum of Georgia.

Originality/value

This study makes contribution to the development of the field of multicultural education in Georgia.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Narendranathan Maniyalath and Roshni Narendran

Past research has identified a negative association between national income and female entrepreneurship rates. Data from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2012 are…

Abstract

Purpose

Past research has identified a negative association between national income and female entrepreneurship rates. Data from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2012 are analyzed to determine whether the Human Development Index (HDI) predicts female entrepreneurship rates. The purpose of this paper is to indicate how other socioeconomic variables that measure human development interact with national income to predict female entrepreneurship rates.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were drawn from the 2012 GEM data set, which provides information on female entrepreneurship rates in 61 countries. To test relevant hypotheses, dependent and socio-demographic variables were sourced from international databases to perform quantitative cross-country regression analyses.

Findings

National income significantly predicted female entrepreneurship rates in the univariate analysis. However, this relationship became non-significant when development indices were added to the model. In contrast, the HDI, the Gender Inequality Index, and national religious composition were robust, significant predictors.

Practical implications

This study presents evidence that human and gender development indices, and national religious composition, are better predictors of female entrepreneurship rates than national income. Thus, studies on female entrepreneurship rates should account and adjust for human development and gender equality indices. As religiosity continues to be pervasive within multiple nations, policymakers should consider this when developing interventions geared toward promoting female entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

This paper identifies factors other than economic determinism to explain variance in female entrepreneurship rates and demonstrates that human development and gender inequality indices are better predictors of female entrepreneurship rates.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2012

Stephanie Clintonia Boddie, Rebekah P. Massengill and Anne Fengyan Shi

Purpose – In this chapter, we advance research on the socioeconomic ranking of religious groups by using both income and wealth to document the rankings of the six major…

Abstract

Purpose – In this chapter, we advance research on the socioeconomic ranking of religious groups by using both income and wealth to document the rankings of the six major religious groups in the United States – Jews, Catholics, mainline Protestants, evangelical Protestants, black Protestants, and the religiously unaffiliated – during 2001–2007, a period marked by both catastrophic economic losses and widespread economic gain.

Design/Methodology/Approach – Drawing from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics (PSID), we provide descriptive statistics to explore the socioeconomic differences among the six major religious groups. In addition, we note their ownership rates and changes in wealth and income during 2001–2007.

Findings – Overall, these findings point to enduring stratification in the U.S. religious landscape. Based on median net worth, leading into the Great Recession, the six major religious groups ranked in the following order: Jews, Catholics, mainline Protestants, evangelical Protestants, the unaffiliated, and black Protestants. At the same time, these findings point to the upward mobility of white Catholics, who increased their income and made the greatest increase in net worth between 2001 and 2007. These data also suggest a decline in the socioeconomic status of the religiously unaffiliated as compared to previous studies.

Research implications – These findings illustrate the degree to which certain religious groups have access to wealth and other resources, and have implications for how the years leading into the Great Recession may have influenced households’ vulnerability to financial shocks.

Originality/Value – We use both income and wealth to examine whether different religious groups experienced any changes in income and wealth leading into the 2008 economic downturn.

Details

Religion, Work and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-347-7

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Adam Dinham

The purpose of this paper is to report on an action research programme in the UK to address this through the notion of religious literacy.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on an action research programme in the UK to address this through the notion of religious literacy.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on original research and analysis in UK higher education settings, the article will argue that health and social care educators, policy makers and practitioners need to develop their religious literacy in order to engage fully and competently with the religion and belief identities of their service users in a religiously diverse and complex world.

Findings

The relationship between religion and belief on the one hand and health and social care practice has been scarcely addressed, despite the important work of Furness and Gilligan in the UK and Canada in the USA. Their work appears as exceptional within a wider context of professions which have been forged in a predominantly secular milieu, despite having their roots in Christian social services in the USA, Canada and the UK. New research in the sociology of religion shows that religion and belief themselves vary in form, number and mix around the world, and that the religious landscape itself has changed enormously in the period during which secular social work has been changing significantly in recent years. It has been observed that in the UK secular assumptions reached a peak of confidence in the 1960s, when social work was most rapidly consolidating as a public profession (Dinham 2015). The inheritance has been generations of health and social care practitioners and educators who are ill-equipped to address the religion and belief identities which they encounter. In recent years this has become a pressing issue as societies across the West come to terms with the persistent – and in some ways growing – presence of religion or belief, against the expectations of secularism. In total, 84 per cent of the global population declares a religious affiliation (Pew, 2012); globalisation and migration put us all in to daily encounter with religious plurality as citizens, neighbours, service users and professionals; and internationally, mixed economies of welfare increasingly involve faith groups in service provision, including in social work and welfare settings across Europe and North America. Yet the twentieth century – the secular century – leaves behind a lamentable quality of conversation about religion and belief. Public professionals find themselves precarious on the subject, and largely unable to engage systematically and informedly with religion and belief as they encounter them.

Originality/value

Religion and belief have been bracketed off in education in departments of Theology and Religious Studies. Social work education has largely neglected them, and professional standards, benchmarks, values and toolkits, have tended to use proxies for religion and belief, such as “spirituality”, which are often ill-defined and vague. In a context of the reemergence of public faith, and a widespread acknowledgement that religion and belief did not go away after all, health and social care face the pressing challenge of engaging skilfully. This article draws on an action research programme in the UK to address this through the notion of religious literacy. Reflecting on original research and analysis in UK higher education settings, the article will argue that health and social care educators, policy makers and practitioners need to develop their religious literacy in order to engage fully and competently with the religion and belief identities of their service users in a religiously diverse and complex world.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

James Frederick Morgan

This paper aims to explore the changing nature of religion (also described in terms of faith or spirituality) as experienced in the USA, particularly regarding the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the changing nature of religion (also described in terms of faith or spirituality) as experienced in the USA, particularly regarding the interrelationship between business and religion within the contexts of culture, law and management. With a solid understanding of these subjects, business leaders, judges and public policy officials will be able to more effectively deal with issues arising from a more religious workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper begins by examining the religious nature of the USA, with attention paid to the embrace of religious tolerance from a cultural perspective and religious liberty from a legal perspective. The piece then looks at the characteristics associated with religious vibrancy. Then, the paper delves into the impact of religion on business, both yesterday and today. Legal and managerial literature, studies and perspectives are used to determine how business can respond and perhaps even embrace a more religious business environment.

Findings

After describing and critiquing cultural, legal and managerial dimensions associated with an increasingly religious business environment at worker and owner levels, this paper suggests there exists currently an adequate legal structure to serve the needs of religious workers and owners, if properly managed. More research is needed to find solutions to situations where competing interests conflict, but this paper provides a foundation upon which further study can be conducted.

Originality/value

This paper draws from cultural, legal and management sources to provide an understanding of the current religious environment facing business, legal and public policy leaders.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 58 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

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Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2011

Lionel Obadia and Donald C. Wood

The “economics of religion” has grown into a new and groundbreaking approach to the study of religious beliefs, preferences, attitudes, belongings, organizations, and…

Abstract

The “economics of religion” has grown into a new and groundbreaking approach to the study of religious beliefs, preferences, attitudes, belongings, organizations, and dynamics. This chapter circumscribes its epistemological area, outlines some of the major developments in the field, allows place for the presentation of both important theoretical models (market theory, rational choice, supply-and-demand) and crucial criticisms that have been directed toward them. If the “economics of religion” partakes of an attempt to explain religion in ancient or recent history, in the conceptual prism of economics, the general movement known as globalization has accelerated the convergence of economics and cultural/social analysis in religious studies. Anthropology, however, has gone its own way regarding economic issues. It has been somewhat reluctant to espouse the principles of “economics of religion,” even while being convinced of its relevance. Some recent anthropological works on globalization and religion are presented here as examples of this ambivalent contribution of anthropology to the economics of religion in global settings.

Details

The Economics of Religion: Anthropological Approaches
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-228-9

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Panagiotis Pentaris

Service users very often interpret and respond to their experiences of death, dying and bereavement through a religious or spiritual lens. However, recent trends in…

Abstract

Purpose

Service users very often interpret and respond to their experiences of death, dying and bereavement through a religious or spiritual lens. However, recent trends in religion and belief have influenced how professionals respond to indicators such as faith. Since the post-war years in Britain, and due to the transfer of services from church to state, as well as the change in the religious landscape, language has largely secularized. When people start addressing religion and belief again, they lack the appropriate literacy to do so, this is termed religious literacy by Dinham (2015). The purpose of this paper is to explore how professionals in end of life (EOL) care respond to service users’ religious and spiritual indicators, through the lens of religious literacy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws from an ethnographic study undertaken across hospices in England, UK. In this study, healthcare professionals (HCPs) were observed for one calendar year.

Findings

Results show that lack of religious literacy on the part of HCPs may lead to subtle and unintentional microaggression. Three types of indications of microinvalidation have been noted: verbal, non-verbal and environmental.

Originality/value

This paper innovates in offering a first-hand phenomenological interpretation of observations in the field. The research data capture visually the impact of lack of religious literacy, an achievement which adds to the dialogue about service user rights in EOL care.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 4000