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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Dipyaman Pal, Chandrima Chakraborty and Arpita Ghose

The present study aims to determine the existence of simultaneous relationship between economic growth, income inequality, fiscal policy, and total trade of the 13…

Abstract

The present study aims to determine the existence of simultaneous relationship between economic growth, income inequality, fiscal policy, and total trade of the 13 emerging market economies as a group for the period 1980–2010. After establishing the existence of simultaneity between the above relationships, a simultaneous panel model has been formulated and estimated incorporating the nonlinearity among the variables as suggested by the existing literature. An inverted U-shape relationship is evident between (1) economic growth, income inequality, and total trade in economic growth equation, (2) income inequality, economic growth, and per capita income in income inequality equation, and (3) total trade and economic growth in total trade equation. Thus, the existence of a two-way nonlinear relationship is highlighted between economic growth, income inequality, and total trade. Apart from these nonlinear relationships, positive and significant effect of (1) gross capital formation, inflation, population growth, human capital, fiscal policy, monetary policy, and domestic credit to private sector on economic growth; (2) civil liabilities on income inequality; (3) gross capital formation and inflation on total trade; (4) total trade, population growth of those aged 65 years and above, political system on fiscal policy is highlighted. Also, negative and significant effect of (1) fiscal policy on income inequality and (2) income inequality on fiscal policy is revealed.

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The Gains and Pains of Financial Integration and Trade Liberalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-004-7

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Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Casey J. Dawkins

Purpose – Evidence suggests that during the 1990s, many US metropolitan areas saw fundamental changes in the spatial distribution of household income. Following two…

Abstract

Purpose – Evidence suggests that during the 1990s, many US metropolitan areas saw fundamental changes in the spatial distribution of household income. Following two decades of increasing economic segregation, many metropolitan neighborhoods saw declines in economic segregation, particularly those neighborhoods located within central cities and rural areas. This paper adapts the Spatial Ordering Index proposed by Dawkins (2007b) to explore these trends.

Methodology/Approach – Using US Census data, I calculate economic segregation indices for a sample of 205 US metropolitan areas in 1990 and 2000 and decompose changes in the indices into portions attributable to changes in the spatial distribution of households and portions capturing changes in the spatial distribution of aggregate income. I also examine regional variations in the decompositions.

Findings – The results suggest that changes in the spatial distribution of households and of income each influenced metropolitan economic segregation in different ways during the 1990s. Furthermore, the spatial dynamics of income segregation exhibited significant regional heterogeneity.

Originality/Value of paper – This paper presents a new approach to measuring the dynamics of economic segregation.

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Occupational and Residential Segregation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-786-4

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Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2003

Harvey J Iglarsh and Ronald Gage Allan

Scholars suggest that failure to include implicit taxes in analyses of vertical equity understates the progressivity of the tax system. This paper develops an analytic…

Abstract

Scholars suggest that failure to include implicit taxes in analyses of vertical equity understates the progressivity of the tax system. This paper develops an analytic expression for imputing the implicit tax associated with tax-exempt bonds using the tax-exempt interest income reported on individual income tax returns. To measure progressivity, Kakwani indices are calculated using three definitions of income and three measures of tax liability. In addition, the indices are computed by adding implicit income to the income measure. Examination of the Kakwani indices leads to the conclusion that the tax system is progressive for all measures of tax liability. Total tax (explicit plus implicit), measured against explicit plus implicit income, is more progressive than explicit tax measured against explicit income. Including the implicit tax associated with tax-exempt interest in the measurement of tax progressivity increases the level of progressivity of the tax system slightly.

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-065-4

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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2008

James F. Sepe and J. David Spiceland

This chapter provides an approach for teaching the income statement within an earnings quality framework in an intermediate accounting course. Not only is the approach…

Abstract

This chapter provides an approach for teaching the income statement within an earnings quality framework in an intermediate accounting course. Not only is the approach rich in content, but it also is an engaging pedagogical device. The article provides a broad outline and then fills in the details with discussion, information, and examples.

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Advances in Accounting Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-519-2

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2003

Jeffrey A Mills and Sourushe Zandvakili

Using decomposable measures of inequality, the implications of household structure are investigated by examining inequality between and within household groups based on…

Abstract

Using decomposable measures of inequality, the implications of household structure are investigated by examining inequality between and within household groups based on the number of exemptions, which correlates with household size, and the filing status, which correlates with the common forms of household structure, i.e. married, single, head of household. Detailed household income data are used to measure income inequality for both pre-tax/transfer and post-tax/transfer definitions of income. These decompositions provide information about the degree of inequality, both before and after taxes and transfers, which is due to household size and filing status. The bootstrap is employed to construct standard errors for the inequality measures and their decompositions, and hypothesis tests are conducted to determine whether the observed changes in the distribution of income are statistically significant.

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Fiscal Policy, Inequality and Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-212-2

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2022

Malvika Chhatwani

The purpose of this study is to examine income satisfaction among Millennials during COVID-19. The authors explore the roles of cognitive factors: financial literacy and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine income satisfaction among Millennials during COVID-19. The authors explore the roles of cognitive factors: financial literacy and noncognitive factors: personality traits. Further, the authors also determine if financial status moderates the linkage between consumers' financial literacy and income satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample size of the study is 1754, and the data were collected from April to December 2020. The authors employ ordered logistic regression analysis in the study.

Findings

The authors find that financially literate Millennials report high-income satisfaction during the pandemic. However, the impact of the cognitive factor gets nullified after considering the role of noncognitive factors. Further, income moderates the linkage between financial literacy and income satisfaction such that financially literate consumers in the high-income category derived more income satisfaction.

Practical implications

Consumer financial education should become more pervasive, and the focus should be placed on high-income consumers as, without financial literacy, they may not report high-income satisfaction. Further, the marketers should also keep in mind that personality traits play an important role in consumers' overall satisfaction, so financial services and products should be designed considering consumer personality traits.

Originality/value

The primary contribution of the paper is to show the positive impact of cognitive and noncognitive factors on income satisfaction. Moreover, personality traits are stronger predictors of income satisfaction such that extroverted individuals have high satisfaction, whereas openness to experience and neuroticism is negatively related to income satisfaction among Millennials.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2022

Malin Tillmar, Birgitta Sköld, Helene Ahl, Karin Berglund and Katarina Pettersson

The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss to what extent and why women's entrepreneurship contributes to rural economic viability and gender equality in an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss to what extent and why women's entrepreneurship contributes to rural economic viability and gender equality in an advanced welfare state.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use detailed register data to explore men's and women's rural businesses in the most common industries for rural women entrepreneurs in the Swedish welfare state. Based on a literature review, the authors develop hypotheses and analyse how family, business and industry factors influence earnings.

Findings

Women's rural entrepreneurship is important for rural viability, as women's businesses provide a wide range of services necessary for life in rural areas. Although women's rural businesses are not significantly smaller than those of men, women's income is lower and more sensitive to business and industry variables. Marriage has positive effects for the earnings of men but negative effects for the earnings of women. The authors argue that the results are contingent on the gendering of entrepreneurship and industries, as well as on the local rural gender contracts. For these reasons, the importance of women entrepreneurs for rural viability is not reflected in their own incomes. Hence, women's rural entrepreneurship does not result in (economic) gender equality.

Originality/value

Entrepreneurship scholars rarely explore women's rural entrepreneurship, and particularly not in the Global North or Western welfare states. Therefore, this empirical study from Sweden provides novel information on how the gender order on the business, industry and family levels influences the income of men and women entrepreneurs differently.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2021

Lijun Zhou and Zongqing Zhang

China's increasing income inequality might cause a series of problems, such as the slowdown of economic growth, social and economic tension, the decline of the ecological…

Abstract

Purpose

China's increasing income inequality might cause a series of problems, such as the slowdown of economic growth, social and economic tension, the decline of the ecological environment quality and the threat to citizens' health. Consequently, income inequality will inevitably affect the ecological well-being performance (EWP) level of China's provinces through the above aspects. Analyzing the impact of income inequality on EWP and its spatial spillover effects are conducive to improving the level of EWP in China. Therefore, the research purpose of this paper is to use China's provincial data from 2001 to 2017 to analyze the impact of income inequality on EWP and the spatial spillover effect based on the evaluation of the EWP value of each province.

Design/methodology/approach

At first, this study utilizes the super efficiency slacks-based measure model (Super-SBM model) to calculate the EWP values of 30 provinces in China, which can evaluate and rank the effective decision units in the SBM model and make up for the defect that the effective decision units cannot be distinguished. Then this study applies the spatial Durbin model and Tobit regression model (SDM-Tobit model) to explore the impact of income inequality and other influencing factors on EWP and the spatial spillover effects in adjacent areas.

Findings

Firstly, the average EWP in China fluctuated slightly and showed a downward trend from 2001 to 2017. In addition, the EWP values of the provinces in the western region are usually weaker than those in the eastern and central regions. Moreover, income inequality is negatively correlated with EWP, and the EWP has a spatial spillover effect, which means the EWP level in a region is affected by EWP values in the adjacent regions. Furthermore, the industrial structure and urbanization level are both negatively related to EWP, while technology level, investment openness, trade openness and education level are positively related to EWP.

Originality/value

Compared with the existing research, the possible contribution of this research is that it takes income inequality as one of the important influencing factors of EWP and adopts the SDM-Tobit model to analyze the impact mechanism of income inequality on EWP from the perspective of time and space, providing new ideas for improving the EWP of various provinces in China.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 22 December 2021

Jeleta Gezahegne Kebede and Vincent Tawiah

The general purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of financial globalization on income inequality. The specific purposes are: 1) To examine the effect of overall…

Abstract

Purpose

The general purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of financial globalization on income inequality. The specific purposes are: 1) To examine the effect of overall financial globalization on income inequality. 2) To analyze whether de facto and de jure financial globalization have differential effects on income inequality. 3) To scrutinize whether the effect of financial globalization on income inequality varies across countries of different income groups and quantiles of income inequality.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employed panel quantile regression using 73 countries over 2000–2016 to examine the effect of financial globalization on income inequality. The authors employed fixed effect and panel quantile regressions and classified the countries into income groups to compare differential effects of financial globalization across different income groups. Further, the authors unbundled financial globalization into de facto and de jure financial globalizations to investigate whether their effects on income inequality vary.

Findings

Overall financial globalization raises income inequality more at lower quantiles of inequality. De jure financial globalization reduces income inequality in high-income countries. In high-income countries, de jure financial globalization has more favorable income distribution at lower quantiles of inequality. In contrast, de facto financial globalization raises inequality regardless of income classification of the countries.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the authors for the first time employed panel quantile regression to analyze whether financial globalization affects income inequality across different quantiles. In addition to de facto globalization, the authors used the newly developed de jure financial globalization index to examine its impact on income inequality. The de jure dimension is largely neglected in the literature. The authors provide empirical evidence on how the different dimensions of financial globalization, de facto and de jure, impact inequality in high-income, middle-income and low-income countries.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 29 December 2021

Patrícia de Oliveira Campos and Marconi Freitas da Costa

This study aims to further analyse the decision-making process of low-income consumer from an emerging market by verifying the influence of regulatory focus and construal…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to further analyse the decision-making process of low-income consumer from an emerging market by verifying the influence of regulatory focus and construal level theory on indebtedness.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental study was carried out with a design 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs prevention) × 2 (psychological distance: high vs low) between subjects, with 140 low-income consumers.

Findings

Our study points out that the propensity towards indebtedness of low-income consumer is higher in a distal psychological distance. We found that promotion and prevention groups have the same propensity to indebtedness. Moreover, we highlight that low-income consumers are prone to propensity to indebtedness due to taking decisions focused on the present with an abstract mindset.

Social implications

Financial awareness advertisements should focus on providing more concrete strategies in order to reduce decision-making complexity and provide ways to reduce competing situations that could deplete self-regulation resources. Also, public policy should organize educational programs to increase the low-income consumer's ability to deal with personal finances and reduce this task complexity. Finally, educational financial programs should also incorporate psychology professionals to teach mindfulness techniques applied to financial planning.

Originality/value

This study is the first to consider regulatory focus and construal level to explain low-income indebtedness. This paper provides a deeper analysis of the low-income consumers' decision process. Also, it supports and guides future academic and decision-making efforts.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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